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  1. Fred Ablondi (2012). James Beattie, Practical Ethics, and the Human Nature Question. Journal of Scottish Philosophy 10 (1):1-12.
    This article begins by examining James Beattie's conception of speculative ethics, which he regards as the study of the foundation and nature of virtue. This leads to a discussion of the moral sense, or conscience, which Beattie claims is part of the nature of every rational being and which is designed to lead us to a virtuous life. Given this, I ask why Beattie thought himself warranted, or even needed, to dispense practical ethical advice. Answering this involves looking at Beattie's (...)
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  2. Judith Andre (2013). Open Hope as a Civic Virtue. Social Philosophy Today 29:89-100.
    Hope as a virtue is an acquired disposition, shaped by reflection; as a civic virtue it must serve the good of the community. Ernst Bloch and Lord Buddha offer help in constructing such a virtue. Using a taxonomy developed by Darren Webb I distinguish open hope from goal-oriented hope, and use each thinker to develop the former. Bloch and Buddha are very different (and notoriously obscure; I do not attempt an exegesis). But they share a metaphysics of change, foundational for (...)
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  3. Julia Annas (2011). Intelligent Virtue. OUP Oxford.
    Intelligent Virtue presents a distinctive new account of virtue and happiness as central ethical ideas. Annas argues that exercising a virtue involves practical reasoning of a kind which can illuminatingly be compared to the kind of reasoning we find in someone exercising a practical skill. Rather than asking at the start how virtues relate to rules, principles, maximizing, or a final end, we should look at the way in which the acquisition and exercise of virtue can be seen to be (...)
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  4. Nafsika Athanassoulis, Virtue Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  5. Robert Audi (2012). Virtue Ethics as a Resource in Business. Business Ethics Quarterly 22 (2):273-291.
    This paper provides an account of virtues as praiseworthy traits of character with a far-reaching capacity to influence conduct. Virtues supply their possessors both with good reasons that indicate, for diverse contexts, what sort of thing be done and with motivation to them. This motivational power of virtue is crucial for the question of what kind of person, or businessperson, one wants to be. The paper shows how the contrast between virtue ethics and rule ethics is often drawn too sharply (...)
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  6. Robert Audi (2011). Faith, Faithfulness, and Virtue. Faith and Philosophy 28 (3):294-309.
    The concept of faith is central in the philosophy of religion, and the concept of virtue is central in ethics. Both can be clarified by exploring their relationshipswith each other and their connection with conduct, reasons for action, and the good. One important question is whether faith is a virtue. Answering this requires at least a partial account of what constitutes faith and of what makes a characteristic a virtue. The answer also depends on whether we are speaking of religious (...)
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  7. Guy Axtell & Philip Olson (2012). Recent Work in Applied Virtue Ethics. American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (3):183-204.
    The use of the term "applied ethics" to denote a particular field of moral inquiry (distinct from but related to both normative ethics and meta-ethics) is a relatively new phenomenon. The individuation of applied ethics as a special division of moral investigation gathered momentum in the 1970s and 1980s, largely as a response to early twentieth- century moral philosophy's overwhelming concentration on moral semantics and its apparent inattention to practical moral problems that arose in the wake of significant social and (...)
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  8. Jennifer Baker (2013). Who's Afraid of a Final End? The Role of Practical Rationality in Contemporary Accounts of Virtue. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (1):85-98.
    In this paper I argue that excising a final end from accounts of virtue does them more harm than good. I attempt to establish that the justification of contemporary virtue ethics suffers if moved this one step too far from the resources in traditional accounts. This is because virtue, as we tend to describe it, rests on an account of practical rationality wherein the role of the final end is integral. I highlight the puzzles that are generated by the ellipsis (...)
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  9. Jason Brennan (2007). Modesty Without Illusion. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (3):111-128.
    The common image of the fully virtuous person is of someone with perfect self- command and self-perception, who always makes correct evaluations. However, modesty appears to be a real virtue, and it seems contradictory for someone to believe that she is modest. Accordingly, traditional defenders of phronesis (the view that virtue involves practical wisdom) deny that modesty is a virtue, while defenders of modesty such as Julia Driver deny that phronesis is required for vir- tue. I offer a new theory (...)
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  10. Jason Brennan (2007). Modesty Without Illusion. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (1):111-128.
    The common image of the fully virtuous person is of someone with perfect self-command and self-perception, who always makes correct evaluations. However, modesty appears to be areal virtue, and it seems contradictory for someone to believe that she is modest. Accordingly, traditional defenders of phronesis (the view that virtue involves practical wisdom) deny that modesty is a virtue, while defenders of modesty such as Julia Driver deny that phronesis is required for virtue. I offer a new theory of modesty-the two (...)
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  11. Ben Bryan (2013). A Feminist Defense of the Unity of the Virtues. Philosophia 41 (3):693-702.
    In The Impossibility of Perfection, Michael Slote tries to show that the traditional Aristotelian doctrine of the unity of the virtues is mistaken. His argumentative strategy is to provide counterexamples to this doctrine, by showing that there are what he calls “partial virtues”—pairs of virtues that conflict with one another but both of which are ethically indispensible. Slote offers two lines of argument for the existence of partial virtues. The first is an argument for the partiality of a particular pair (...)
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  12. Todd Calder (2007). Against Consequentialist Theories of Virtue and Vice. Utilitas 19 (2):201-219.
    Consequentialist theories of virtue and vice, such as the theories of Jeremy Bentham and Julia Driver, characterize virtue and vice in terms of the consequential, or instrumental, properties of these character traits. There are two problems with theories of this sort. First they imply that, under the right circumstances, paradigmatic virtues, such as benevolence, are vices and paradigmatic vices, such as maliciousness, are virtues. This is conceptually problematic. Second, they say nothing about the intrinsic nature of the virtues and vices, (...)
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  13. Robert F. Card (2010). Situationist Social Psychology and J. S. Mill's Conception of Character. Utilitas 22 (4):481-493.
    The situationist challenge to global character traits claims that on the basis of findings in social psychology, we should only accept at most the existence of local or context-sensitive traits. In this article I explore a neglected area of J. S. Mill's work to outline an account of context-sensitive traits. This account of traits, coupled with a sophisticated consequentialist ethical framework, suggests an interesting view on which persons govern the circumstances of their actions (to the extent possible) in order to (...)
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  14. Shaoming Chen (2008). Endurance and Non-Endurance: From the Perspective of Virtue Ethics. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (3):335-351.
    By analysing the two relevant psychological phenomena of “endurance” and “non-endurance,” this essay aims to reveal the ethical implications of a Confucian approach, namely regarding non-endurance as an impulse of primary virtue. Based on this case study, the author then explores the significance of moral cultivation or psychological training in establishing moral personality and the complexities of such a process. Meanwhile, “love” in Confucian ethics means sympathy for the inferior rather than affection for the revered. Hopefully, this study may deepen (...)
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  15. Guangquan Cheng (2008). Can Virtue Be Taught? ——The Angle of Epistemology. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 10:33-36.
    The predicament of contemporary moral education lies in the fact that we simply accepted Socrates "virtue is knowledge", and considered that the virtue can be taught as the knowledge, but we neglect that the virtue can only be cultivated in social practices. Some have realized that, but they only concentrated on revivification of the life scene in the class, such as KohlBerg's moral paradox, or class debate, leading the moral education to a debate skill and returning tothe style of Sophist (...)
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  16. Dale L. Clark (2009). Aesop's Fox: Consequentialist Virtue Meets Egocentric Bias. Philosophical Psychology 22 (6):727 – 737.
    In her book Uneasy Virtue, Julia Driver presents an account of motive or trait utilitarianism, one that has been taken as “the most detailed and thoroughly defended recent formulation” of consequential virtue ethics. On Driver's account character traits are morally virtuous if and only if they generally lead to good consequences for society. Various commentators have taken Driver to task over this account of virtue, which she terms “pure evaluational externalism.” They object that, on Driver's account of virtue, it could (...)
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  17. David Copp & David Sobel (2004). Morality and Virtue: An Assessment of Some Recent Work in Virtue Ethics. Ethics 114 (3):514-554.
    This essay focuses on three recent books on morality and virtue, Michael Slote's 'Morals from Motives', Rosalind Hursthouse's 'On Virtue Ethics', and Philippa Foot's 'Natural Goodness'. Slote proposes an "agent-based" ethical theory according to which the ethical status of acts is derivative from assessments of virtue. Following Foot's lead, Hursthouse aims to vindicate an ethical naturalism that explains human goodness on the basis of views about human nature. Both Hursthouse and Slote take virtue to be morally basic in a way (...)
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  18. John Cottingham (2012). The Question of Ageing. Philosophical Papers 41 (3):371-396.
    Abstract For humans, as for other animal species, old age is a good, provided that the disease and decrepitude that often accompany it are not so severe as to swamp further flourishing. This accords with Aristotle's holistic account of flourishing, which embraces the entire biological lifespan. However, Aristotle's stress on rational activity as the key to human fulfilment suggests flourishing may be eroded in proportion as the intellectual faculties deteriorate. The Judeo-Christian tradition, by contrast, construes human flourishing primarily in terms (...)
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  19. John Cottingham (1998). The Presidential Address: The Ethical Credentials of Partiality. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 98 (1):1–21.
    Although an impartial perspective is often regarded as integral to the moral outlook, this paper argues that adopting such a perspective is neither (i) sufficient nor (ii) necessary for supporting the principle of respect for all human beings. (i) An impartial spectator aiming to maximize human welfare could well decide that 'low grade' individuals should be eliminated or enslaved; (ii) a theory of virtue based on frankly partialistic principles can find good reasons (based on the interconnectedness of the dispositions required (...)
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  20. Jesse Couenhoven (2010). Against Metaethical Imperialism: Several Arguments for Equal Partnerships Between the Deontic and Aretaic. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (3):521-544.
    Virtue and deontological ethics are now commonly contrasted as rival approaches to moral inquiry. However, I argue that neither metaethical party should seek complete, solitary domination of the ethical domain. Reductive treatments of the right or the virtuous, as well as projects that abandon the former or latter, are bound to leave us with a sadly diminished map of the moral territories crucial to our lives. Thus, it is better for the two parties to seek a more cordial and equal (...)
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  21. Roger Crisp (2012). A Third Method of Ethics? Philosophy and Phenomenological Research.
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  22. Roger Crisp & Michael A. Slote (eds.) (1997). Virtue Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    This volume brings together much of the most influential work undertaken in the field of virtue ethics over the last four decades. The ethics of virtue predominated in the ancient world, and recent moral philosophy has seen a revival of interest in virtue ethics as a rival to Kantian and utilitarian approaches to morality. Divided into four sections, the collection includes articles critical of other traditions; early attempts to offer a positive vision of virtue ethics; some later criticisms of the (...)
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  23. G. Cullity & Moral Character (1995). The Iteration Problem'. Utilitas 7 (2).
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  24. Howard J. Curzer (1993). Is Care a Virtue for Health Care Professionals? Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 18 (1):51-69.
    Care is widely thought to be a role virtue for health care professionals (HCPs). It is thought that in their professional capacity, HCPs should not only take care of their patients, but should also care for their patients. I argue against this thesis. First I show that the character trait of care causes serious problems both for caring HCPs and for cared-for patients. Then I show that benevolence plus caring action causes fewer and less serious problems. My surprising conclusion is (...)
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  25. Stephen L. Darwall (ed.) (2003). Virtue Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    "Virtue Ethics" is a major approach to normative ethical theory that takes the consideration of character as fundamental to ethical reflection.
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  26. Michael DePaul (2000). Character Traits, Virtues, and Vices. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 9:141-157.
    Recently, Gilbert Harman has used empirical results obtained by social psychologists to argue that there are no character traits of the type presupposed by virtue ethics—no honesty or dishonesty, no courage or cowardice, in short, no virtue or vice. In this paper, I critically assess his argument as well as that of the social psychologists he appeals to. I suggest that the experimental results recounted by Harman would not much concern such classical virtue theorists as Plato—particularly the Plato of the (...)
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  27. Julia Driver (2006). Thomas Hurka , Virtue, Vice, and Value (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001), Pp. Ix + 272. Utilitas 18 (02):190-.
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  28. Julia Driver (2004). Response to My Critics. Utilitas 16 (1):33-41.
    This essay is a rejoinder to comments on Uneasy Virtue made by Onora O'Neill, John Skorupski, and Michael Slote in this issue. In Uneasy Virtue I presented criticisms of traditional virtue theory. I also presented an alternative – a consequentialist account of virtue, one which is a form of ‘pure evaluational externalism’. This type of theory holds that the moral quality of character traits is determined by factors external to agency (e.g. consequences). All three commentators took exception to this account. (...)
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  29. Julia Driver (2001). Introduction. Utilitas 13 (02):137-.
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  30. Julia Driver (1997). Rosalind Hursthouse, Gavin Lawrence and Warren Quinn, Eds., Virtues and Reasons: Philippa Foot and Moral Theory, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1995, Pp. Vii + 350. Utilitas 9 (03):366-.
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  31. Alexis Elder (2014). Why Bad People Can't Be Good Friends. Ratio 27 (1):84-99.
    Must the best friends necessarily be good people? On the one hand, as Aristotle puts it, ‘people think that the same people are good and also friends’. But on the other hand, friendship sometimes seems to require that one behave badly. For example, a normally honest person might lie to corroborate a friend's story. What I will call closeness, which I take to include sensitivity to friends' subjective values and concerns as well as an inclination to take their subjective interests (...)
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  32. S. F. (2003). Christine Swanton Virtue Ethics: A Pluralistic View. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003). Pp. XI+312. £35.00 (Hbk). ISBN 0 119 9253888. [REVIEW] Religious Studies 39 (4):502-503.
  33. Paul Farwell (1994). Aristotle, Success, and Moral Luck. Journal of Philosophical Research 19:37-50.
    My point of departure is Bernard WiIliams’ “moral luck” thesis and its claim that luck and success are an integral part of ethics. Some scholars think AristotIe’s ethics lends support to a version of the moral luck thesis. My claim is the exact opposite: Aristotle gives a subtle and interesting argument for keeping luck and ethics distinct. Luck plays Iittle role since the moral worth of action Iies in the agent’s choice, proairesis, not merely in the quality of the act (...)
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  34. Marilyn Friedman (2008). Virtues and Oppression: A Complicated Relationship. Hypatia 23 (3):pp. 189-196.
    This paper raises some minor questions about Lisa Tessman’s book, Burdened Virtues. Friedman’s questions pertain, among other things, to the adequacy of a virtue ethical focus on character, the apparent implication of virtue ethics that oppressors suffer damaged characters and are not any better off than the oppressed, the importance of whether privileged persons may have earned their privileges, and the oppositional anger that movement feminists sometimes direct against each other.
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  35. Barbro Fröding (forthcoming). Hope as a Virtue in an Aristotelian Context. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (3):183-186.
    Michael Barilan’s article “From Hope in Palliative Care to Hope as a Virtue and a Life Skill” is an interesting and informative contribution to the debate on the nature of ‘a good death.’ Broadly speaking, the author seeks to explore “the roles and meanings of promotion focus goals in human life” and how hope can aid in alleviating suffering (Barilan 2012, 171). The subject is topical and courtesy of being clinically active, Barilan is able to add a welcome perspective. Very (...)
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  36. Eve Garrard & David McNaughton, Humility: From Sacred Virtue to Secular Vice?
    Some of the virtues have a very stable place in our understanding of goodness – beneficence and courage are unlikely ever to lose their high standing. But other virtues have something like a life cycle: they move from a marginal status to to a central one, and sometimes they move back again to the margins, or even beyond the domain of virtue altogether. Chastity is one example of this; humility is another. There was a period in which humility wasn’t a (...)
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  37. Bernard Gert (2004). Comments on Cahn's "the Happy Immoralist". Journal of Social Philosophy 35 (1):18–19.
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  38. Qun Gong (2010). Virtue Ethics and Modern Society—a Response to the Thesis of the Modern Predicament of Virtue Ethics. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 5 (2):255-265.
    The revival of modern Western virtue ethics presents the question of whether or not virtue ethics is appropriate for modern society. Ethicists believe that virtue ethics came from traditional society, to which it conforms so well. The appearance of the market economy and a utilitarian spirit, together with society’s diversification, is a sign that modern society has arrived. This also indicates a transformation in the moral spirit. But modern society has not made virtues less important, and even as modern life (...)
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  39. John Hacker-Wright (2010). Virtue Ethics Without Right Action: Anscombe, Foot, and Contemporary Virtue Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 44 (2):209-224.
  40. John Hacker-Wright (2007). Moral Status in Virtue Ethics. Philosophy 82 (3):449-473.
    My contention is that virtue ethics offers an important critique of traditional philosophical conceptions of moral status as well as an alternative view of important moral issues held to depend on moral status. I argue that the scope of entities that deserve consideration depends on our conception of the demands of virtues like justice; which entities deserve consideration emerges from a moral view of a world shaped by that conception. The deepest disputes about moral status depend on conflicting conceptions of (...)
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  41. Pamela M. Hall (2008). Virtue Ethics Old and New (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 46 (2):pp. 332-332.
  42. Howard Harris (2008). Traditional Virtues and Contemporary Management. Philosophy of Management 6 (2):61-76.
    In the management domain the revival of interest in virtue ethics has been not so much in seeking a deeper understanding of the virtues themselves as in finding exemplars and pursuing the concept that virtue is a proper end of business. The aim of this paper is to show that a philosophical treatment of the great virtues can enlighten management understanding of them and to examine in more detail courage, love and wisdom. The paper includes an overview of the approach (...)
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  43. Jennifer A. Herdt (2012). Hauerwas Among the Virtues. Journal of Religious Ethics 40 (2):202-227.
    Despite the fact that Stanley Hauerwas has not taken up many of the topics normally associated with virtue ethics, has explicitly distanced himself from the enterprise known as “virtue ethics,” and throughout his career has preferred other categories of analysis, ranging from character and agency to practices and liturgy, it is nevertheless clear that his work has had a deep and transformative impact on the recovery of virtue within Christian ethics, and that this impact has largely to do with the (...)
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  44. José Hernández & Ricardo Mateo (2012). Indications of Virtues in Conscientiousness and its Practice Through Continuous Improvement. Business Ethics 21 (2):140-153.
    There is convergence among researchers of the ‘Big Five’ personality traits taxonomy, that the dimension of conscientiousness best explains differences in work performance. This research is a literature review on the interrelationship between certain traits of the conscientiousness dimension and human virtues, or character traits. It also analyzes whether or not it is rational to argue that the continuous improvement culture enhances the exercise of these character traits. The personal effort to develop one's conscientiousness enriches one's character or way of (...)
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  45. Otfried Höffe (2010). Can Virtue Make Us Happy?: The Art of Living and Morality. Northwestern University Press.
    Ethics plus theory of action -- Thinking the good through -- Fallacious conclusions -- Animal morabile -- Action -- The principle of happiness: eudaimonia -- The happiness of aspiration -- The art of living -- Four life goals -- Virtue -- Prudence, composure, selflessness -- Wisdom rather than calculation -- Does virtue make one happy? -- Euthanasia of morals? -- From an ethic of teleological aspiration to an ethic of the will -- The principle of freedom: autonomy -- Locating moral (...)
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  46. Yong Huang (2011). Two Dilemmas in Virtue Ethics and How Zhu Xi's Neo-Confucianism Avoids Them. Journal of Philosophical Research 36:247-281.
    Virtue ethics has become an important rival to deontology and consequentialism, the two dominant moral theories in modern Western philosophy. What unites various forms of virtue ethics and distinguishes virtue ethics from its rivals is its emphasis on the primacy of virtue. In this article, I start with an explanation of the primacy of virtue in virtue ethics and two dilemmas, detected by Gary Watson, that virtue ethics faces: (1) virtue ethics may maintain the primacy of virtue and thus leave (...)
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  47. Rosalind Hursthouse (1999/2001). On Virtue Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Virtue ethics is perhaps the most important development within late twentieth-century moral philosophy. Rosalind Hursthouse, who has made notable contributions to this development, here presents a full exposition and defense of her neo-Aristotelian version of virtue ethics. She shows how virtue ethics can provide guidance for action, illuminate moral dilemmas, and bring out the moral significance of the emotions.
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  48. Dale Jamieson (2007). When Utilitarians Should Be Virtue Theorists. Utilitas 19 (02):160-.
    The contrast typically made between utilitarianism and virtue theory is overdrawn. Utilitarianism is a universal emulator: it implies that we should lie, cheat, steal, even appropriate Aristotle, when that is what brings about the best outcomes. In some cases and in some worlds it is best for us to focus as precisely as possible on individual acts. In other cases and worlds it is best for us to be concerned with character traits. Global environmental change leads to concerns about character (...)
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  49. Joyce L. Jenkins (1999). The Advantages of Civic Friendship. Journal of Philosophical Research 24:459-471.
    Aristotle distinguishes three types of friendship: virtue or character friendship, advantage friendship, and pleasure friendship. He also holds that the civic relation is a friendship, but it is unclear to which of the three types it belongs. There appear to be two candidates. It is either a character friendship, or an advantage friendship. I argue that it cannot be a character friendship, since that would entail that citizens have active goodwill toward one another, and Aristotle claims that such goodwill can (...)
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  50. Carwyn Jones (2011). Drunken Role Models: Rescuing Our Sporting Exemplars. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (4):414 - 432.
    It is often claimed that elite professional athletes are role models and as such have certain duties to behave in morally appropriate ways. The argument is that given their influential status and influence, they should be good examples rather than bad ones. In relation to alcohol consumption and the problematic behaviours associated with excessive consumption, many professional athletes are bad role models. They consume too much and behave badly. Drawing on neo-Aristotelian insights I argue the following. First, persons who exhibit (...)
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