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  1. Rumee Ahmed (2011). The Lash is Mightier Than the Sword1: Torture and Citizenry in Medieval Muslim Jurisprudence. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (4):606-612.
    Medieval Muslim scholars unequivocally prohibited the torture of prisoners of war out of a concern for maintaining theoretical constructs about the boundaries of the Muslim and non-Muslim communities. Muslim scholars worried that the torturing prisoners of war would compromise values and ideals predicated on such constructs, and that the demands of citizenship trumped any benefit to the Muslim community that might accrue from torture.
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  2. Fritz Allhoff (2006). A Defense of Torture: Separation of Cases, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Moral Justification. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):243-264.
    In this paper, I argue for the permissibility of torture in idealized cases by application of separation of cases: if torture is permissible given any of the dominant moral theories (and if one of those is correct), then torture is permissible simpliciter and I can discharge the tricky business of trying to adjudicate among conflicting moral views. To be sure, torture is not permissible on all the dominant moral theories as at least Kantianism will prove especially recalcitrant to granting moral (...)
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  3. Fritz Allhoff (2005). A Defense of Torture. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):243-264.
    In this paper, I argue for the permissibility of torture in idealized cases by application of separation of cases: if torture is permissible given any of the dominant moral theories (and if one of those is correct), then torture is permissible simpliciter and I can discharge the tricky business of trying to adjudicate among conflicting moral views. To be sure, torture is not permissible on all the dominant moral theories as at least Kantianism will prove especially recalcitrant to granting moral (...)
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  4. Fritz Allhoff (2005). Terrorism and Torture. In Timothy Shanahan (ed.), Philosophy 9/11: Thinking About the War on Terrorism. Open Court. 121-134.
    After the events of 9/11, the concept of torture has emerged as one that is both pertinent and provoking. National polls have shown that some Americans support torture in some situations, though the majority still stand opposed. Torture has not received a tremendous amount of discussion in the philosophical literature, though I suspect that the leftward slant of academia would, for the most part, ensure limited support for torture. In this paper, I would like to first discuss why torture is (...)
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  5. Fritz Allhoff (2003). Terrorism and Torture. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 17 (1):121-134.
    This paper investigates the moral permissibility of torture. After briefly considering some empirical evidence, it discusses the conflict between deontological and consequentialist approaches to torture. It is argued that, even if we are to take rights seriously, torture should at least be allowed if some conditions are satisfied. Finally, the paper discusses what those conditions should be and what sorts of torture are morally permissible.
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  6. Matthew C. Altman (2012). On the Uses and Disadvantages of the Ticking Bomb Case for Life. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 26 (1):19-28.
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  7. J. L. Arbor (1986). Animal Chauvinism, Plant-Regarding Ethics and the Torture of Trees. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (3):335 – 339.
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  8. Jean Maria Arrigo (2004). A Utilitarian Argument Against Torture Interrogation of Terrorists. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (3):543-572.
    Following the September 2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, much support for torture interrogation of terrorists has emerged in the public forum, largely based on the “ticking bomb” scenario. Although deontological and virtue ethics provide incisive arguments against torture, they do not speak directly to scientists and government officials responsible for national security in a utilitarian framework. Drawing from criminology, organizational theory, social psychology, the historical record, and my interviews with military professionals, I assess the potential of an official (...)
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  9. Peter Brian Barry (2013). Allhoff, Fritz. Terrorism, Ticking Time-Bombs, and Torture: A Philosophical Analysis. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):675-676.
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  10. E. S. Beshir (1991). How to Struggle Against Torture. Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (Suppl):62-63.
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  11. Joseph Betz (2006). The Definition of Torture. Social Philosophy Today 22:127-135.
    The conventional dictionary definition of a term is important to the citizen and soldier obeying laws and judging actions that might fall under the term. The “Convention Against Torture” is both binding U.S. law and gives a clear, conventional definition of torture. But the Bush Administration’s standards for interrogating foreign detainees, originating from the Attorney General’s office, failed to respect the prohibitions of torture in the Convention and two other important international human rights documents. I criticize these standards on seven (...)
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  12. Bob Brecher, The "Ticking Bomb": A Spurious Argument for Torture.
    The so-called ticking bomb is invoked by philosophers and lawyers trying to justify, on behalf of their political masters, the use of torture in extremis. I show that the scenario is spurious; and that the likely consequences of the use of interrogational torture in such cases are disastrous. Finally, I test the argument against a real case.
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  13. Bob Brecher, Torture: A Touchstone for Global Social Justice.
    This chapter considers the wider significance of torture, addressing the manner in which it represents a touchstone for any universalistic morality, and arguing that it offers a means of refuting any moral relativism, something that ties in closely with my long-term theoretical work in metaethics (eg Getting What You Want? A Critique of Liberal Morality (Routledge: London and New York, 1998; and ongoing work around the ultimate justification of morality). Since torture consists in the erasure of a person on the (...)
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  14. Bob Brecher, Interrogation, Intelligence and Ill-Treatment: Lessons From Northern Ireland, 1971-72.
    In 2008, Samantha Newbery, then a PhD student, discovered a hitherto confidential document: ‘Confidential: UK Eyes Only. Annex A: Intelligence gained from interrogations in Northern Ireland’ (DEFE 13/958, The National Archives (TNA)). It details the British Army’s notorious interrogations of IRA suspects that led to the eventual banning of the ‘five techniques’ that violated the UK’s international treaty obligation prohibiting the use of torture and ‘inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment’. Having decided that the document – Intelligence gained from should (...)
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  15. Bob Brecher, Tortue and the Ticking Bomb.
    We live in times when, as Conor Gearty has pointed out, ‘legal scholars in the US are being taken seriously when they float the idea of torture warrants as a reform to what they see as the unacceptably uncodified system of arbitrary torture that they believe currently prevails’. And he is right when he goes on to add that ‘This is like reacting to a series of police killings with proposals to reform the law on homicide so as to sanction (...)
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  16. Vittorio Bufacchi & Jean Maria Arrigo (2006). Torture, Terrorism and the State: A Refutation of the Ticking-Bomb Argument. Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (3):355–373.
  17. S. H. Burges (1980). Doctors and Torture: The Police Surgeon. Journal of Medical Ethics 6 (3):120-123.
    Much has been written by many distinguished persons about the philosophical, religious and ethical considerations of doctors and their involvement with torture. What follows will not have the erudition or authority of the likes of St Augustine, Mahatma Gandi, Schopenhauer or Thomas Paine. It represents the views of a very ordinary person; a presumption defended by the submission that many very ordinary persons have been, and will be, instruments for effecting, assisting or condoning the physical or mental anguish of others. (...)
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  18. Paul Butler (2011). Stop and Frisk : Sex, Torture, Control. In Austin Sarat, Lawrence Douglas & Martha Merrill Umphrey (eds.), Law as Punishment/Law as Regulation. Stanford Law Books.
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  19. Claudia Card (2010). Confronting Evils: Terrorism, Torture, Genocide. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Part I. The Concept of Evil: 1. Inexcusable wrongs; 2. Between good and evil; 3. Complicity in structural evils; 4. To whom (or to what?) can evils be done?; Part II. Terrorism, Torture, Genocide: 5. Counterterrorism; 6. Low-profile terrorism; 7. Conscientious torture?; 8. Ordinary torture; 9. Genocide is social death; 10. Genocide by forced impregnation; Bibliography; Filmography; Websites; Index.
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  20. Claudia Card (2008). Ticking Bombs and Interrogations. Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (1):1-15.
    Torture is like slavery (and unlike murder and genocide) in that it is not inconceivable that torture might be justifiable. But the circumstances that would make it tolerable are unrealistic in philosophically interesting ways. It is unrealistic to think we can predict when torture will be effective and containable; unwarranted to suppose that humane alternatives are impossible; disastrous to remove motivations to create alternatives; unacceptable to be satisfied with available evidence regarding suspects’ identity, knowledge of critical detail, ability to recall (...)
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  21. Claudia Card (2002). The Atrocity Paradigm: A Theory of Evil. Oxford University Press.
    What distinguishes evils from ordinary wrongs? Is hatred a necessarily evil? Are some evils unforgivable? Are there evils we should tolerate? What can make evils hard to recognize? Are evils inevitable? How can we best respond to and live with evils? Claudia Card offers a secular theory of evil that responds to these questions and more. Evils, according to her theory, have two fundamental components. One component is reasonably foreseeable intolerable harm -- harm that makes a life indecent and impossible (...)
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  22. William D. Casebeer (2005). Torture Interrogation of Terrorists : A Theory of Exceptions (with Notes, Cautions, and Warnings). In Timothy Shanahan (ed.), Philosophy 9/11: Thinking About the War on Terrorism. Open Court.
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  23. Diana Fritz Cates (2010). Experiential Narratives of Rape and Torture. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (1):43-66.
    Many Guatemalan women suffered extreme sexual violence during the latter half of the twentieth century. Learning of this violence can evoke hatred in persons who love and respect women—hatred for the men who perpetrated the violence and also for other men around the world who victimize women in this way. Hatred is a common response to a perceived evil, and it might in some cases be a fitting response, but it is important to subject one's emotions to critical moral reflection. (...)
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  24. Clare Chambers (2008). Torture as an Evil: Response to Claudia Card, “Ticking Bombs and Interrogation”. Criminal Law and Philosophy 2 (1):17-20.
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  25. Noam Chomsky, The Torture Memos.
    (earlier version published on Tom Dispatch, May 21, 2009) The torture memos released by the White House elicited shock, indignation, and surprise. The shock and indignation are understandable -- particularly the testimony in the Senate Armed Services Committee report on Cheney-Rumsfeld desperation to find links between Iraq and al-Qaeda, links that were later concocted as justification for the invasion, facts irrelevant. Former Army psychiatrist Maj. Charles Burney testified that "a large part of the time we were focused on trying to (...)
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  26. U. Cilasun (1991). Torture and the Participation of Doctors. Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (Suppl):21-22.
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  27. Thomas P. Crocker, Overcoming Necessity: Torture and the State of Constitutional Culture.
    A perceived national emergency creates the temptation to abandon principled constraints to official action in order to pursue whatever is thought necessary to confront the crisis. Principled constraints are thought good precisely when they are least needed - during normal times - and thought obstructionist when they are most needed to guide and constrain official action - during times of perceived exceptional circumstances. We are accustomed to thinking of constitutional rights not as absolutes, but as subject to balancing against compelling (...)
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  28. Anthony D'Amato (1991). Review Essay / Torture asRaison D'État. Criminal Justice Ethics 10 (1):40-44.
    Lawrence Weschler, A Miracle, A Universe: Settling Accounts with Torturers New York: Pantheon, 1990, ix + 293 pp.
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  29. Michael Davis (2012). Torture, Terror, and War: Justifying Exceptions to Ordinary Moral Decency. Journal of Military Ethics 11 (3):264-267.
  30. Michael Davis (2008). Justifying Torture as an Act of War. In Larry May & Emily Crookston (eds.), War: Essays in Political Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
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  31. Michael Davis (2008). Torturing Professions. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 22 (2):243-263.
    What are the conceptual connections between torture and profession? Exploring this question requires exploring at least two others. Before we can work out the conceptual connections between profession and torture, we must have a suitable conception of both profession and torture. We seem to have several conceptions of each. So, I first identify several alternative conceptions of profession, explaining why one should be preferred over the others. Next, I do the same for torture; and then, I argue that, given the (...)
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  32. Michael Davis (2007). Torture and the Inhumane. Criminal Justice Ethics 26 (2):29-43.
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  33. Michael Davis (2005). The Moral Justifiability of Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (2):161-178.
    Since Henry Shue’s classic 1978 paper on torture, the “ticking-bomb case” has seemed to demonstrate that torture is morally justified in some moral emergencies (even if not as an institution). After presenting an analysis of torture as such and an explanation of why it, and anything much like it, is morally wrong, I argue that the ticking-bomb case demonstrates nothing at all—for at least three reasons. First, it is an appeal to intuition. The intuition is not as widely shared as (...)
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  34. J. Dawson (1991). The BMA's Torture Report and Afterwards. Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (Suppl):17-18.
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  35. Philip E. Devine (2009). What's Wrong with Torture? International Philosophical Quarterly 49 (3):317-332.
    Many of us want to say that there is an absolute—or at least a virtually absolute—prohibition on torturing people. But we live in a world in which firm moral restraints of all sorts are hard to defend. Neither contemporary conventional morality, nor any of the available moral theories, provides adequate support for the deliverances of the “wisdom of repugnance” in this area. Nor do they support casuistry capable of distinguishing torture from (sometimes legitimate) forms of rough treatment. I here make (...)
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  36. T. A. Dorman (1994). Medical Involvement in Torture. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (4):268-268.
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  37. R. S. Downie (1993). The Ethics of Medical Involvement in Torture. Journal of Medical Ethics 19 (3):135-137.
    The difficulties of establishing a definition of torture are discussed, and a definition is suggested. It is then argued that, irrespective of general ethical questions, doctors in particular should never be involved because of their social role.
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  38. Page DuBois (1991). Torture and Truth. Routledge.
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  39. Craig Duncan, Torture: Foolish and Wrong.
    In all likelihood, the Bush Administration’s aim is to continue abusive interrogation methods that on any reasonable definition amount to torture (methods such as waterboarding,” for example, in which a detainee is laid on his back and choked with water until he believes he is drowning). This new law, however, is both foolish and immoral: foolish, because torture won’t make Americans safer; and immoral, because torture is the grossest of affronts to human dignity.
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  40. Jane Duran (2000). Rape as a Form of Torture. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 14 (2):191-196.
    Using material taken from contemporary feminist theory and also from work on human rights, it is argued that rape is a form of torture, and that it operates on powerful levels, both literally and metaphorically. Part of the argument is that rape has achieved the status it has as political force for exploitation because of strong beliefs about cultural reproduction and about the roles that women play in cultural reproduction.
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  41. L. Eitinger (1991). Torture--A Perspective on the Past. Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (Suppl):9-10.
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  42. C. E. Emmer (2007). The Flower and the Breaking Wheel: Burkean Beauty and Political Kitsch. International Journal of the Arts in Society 2 (1):153-164.
    What is kitsch? The varieties of phenomena which can fall under the name are bewildering. Here, I focus on what has been called “traditional kitsch,” and argue that it often turns on the emotional effect specifically captured by Edmund Burke’s concept of “beauty” from his 1757 'A Philosophical Enquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful.' Burkean beauty also serves to distinguish “traditional kitsch” from other phenomena also often called “kitsch”—namely, entertainment. Although I argue that Burkean beauty in domestic decoration allows for (...)
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  43. Christian Enemark (2008). Triage, Treatment, and Torture: Ethical Challenges for US Military Medicine in Iraq. Journal of Military Ethics 7 (3):186-201.
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  44. O. Espersen (1991). Statutes of the International Tribunal for Investigation of Torture. Journal of Medical Ethics 17 (Suppl):64-64.
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  45. Andrew Fiala (2006). A Critique of Exceptions. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (1):127-142.
    There are good reasons to beware of arguments that allow for exceptions to principles about the proper limit of violence. Justifications of such exceptions occur in recent discussions of torture and terrorism. One of the reasons to be skeptical of these arguments is that when political agents make exceptions to moral principles, these exceptions can become precedents that serve to normalize immoral behavior. This aspect of political reality is ignored in contemporary attempts to justify torture and terrorism. The present paper (...)
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  46. Paul Formosa (2008). The Problems with Evil. Contemporary Political Theory 7 (4):395-415.
    The concept of evil has been an unpopular one in many recent Western political and ethical discourses. One way to justify this neglect is by pointing to the many problemswiththe concept of evil. The standard grievances brought against the very concept of evil include: that it has no proper place in secular political and ethical discourses; that it is a demonizing term of hatred that leads to violence; that it is necessarily linked with outdated notions of body and sexuality; and (...)
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  47. D. Forrest (1996). Torture: Human Rights, Medical Ethics and the Case of Israel. Journal of Medical Ethics 22 (4):251-252.
  48. D. Forrest (1994). Monitoring the Health and Rehabilitation of Torture Survivors. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (4):266-266.
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  49. D. Forrest (1994). Torture and its Consequences: Current Treatment Approaches. Journal of Medical Ethics 20 (3):198-198.
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  50. James Franklin (2009). Evidence Gained From Torture: Wishful Thinking, Checkability, and Extreme Circumstances. Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law 17:281-290.
    "Does torture work?" is a factual rather than ethical or legal question. But legal and ethical discussions of torture should be informed by knowledge of the answer to the factual question of the reliability of torture as an interrogation technique. The question as to whether torture works should be asked before that of its legal admissibility—if it is not useful to interrogators, there is no point considering its legality in court.
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