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  1. Lilian Alweiss (2005). Is There an ‘End’ to Philosophical Scepticism? Philosophy 80 (3):395-411.
    P F Strawson advocates a descriptive metaphysics. Contrary to Kant, he believes that metaphysics should be ‘content to describe the actual structure of thought about the world’, there is no need of postulating a world that lies beyond our grasp. We neither need to refute nor accept scepticism since we can ignore it with good reasons. Yet this paper argues that Strawson fails to provide us with good reasons. He fails to realise that one cannot do metaphysics by construing its (...)
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  2. Michael Barber (1989). The Possibility of Transcendental Philosophy. By J. N. Mohanty. Modern Schoolman 67 (1):78-80.
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  3. Adrian Bardon (2006). The Aristotelian Prescription: Skepticism, Retortion, and Transcendental Arguments. International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (3):263-276.
    From a number of quarters have come attempts to answer some form of skepticism—about knowledge of the external world, freedom of the will, or moral reasons—by showing it to be performatively self-defeating. Examples of this strategy are subject to a number of criticisms, in particular the criticism that they fail to shift the burden of proof from the anti-skeptical position, and so fail to establish the epistemic entitlement they seek. To these approaches I contrast one way of understanding Kant’s core (...)
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  4. Jonathan Barfield (2014). Sceptical Hypotheses and Transcendental Arguments. Philosophy Now 104:30-32.
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  5. José Luis Bermúdez (1995). Scepticism and the Justification of Transcendental Idealism. Ratio 8 (1):1-20.
    In this paper I explore a justification for transcendental idealism that emerges from the dialogue with philosophical scepticism in which Kant is on and off engaged throughout the Critique of Pure Reason. Many commentators, most prominently Strawson, have claimed that transcend‐ ental idealism is an unfortunate addition to the Critique, one that can profitably be excised in the interests of clarity and coherence. Against this general picture I urge that transcendental idealism is in fact a very natural consequence of some (...)
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  6. Peter Bieri, Rolf-Peter Horstmann & Lorenz Kruger (1982). Transcendental Arguments and Science. Journal of Philosophy 79 (1):45-50.
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  7. Daniel Breazeale (2007). All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (4):665-667.
    Daniel Breazeale - All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism - Journal of the History of Philosophy 45:4 Journal of the History of Philosophy 45.4 665-667 Muse Search Journals This Journal Contents Reviewed by Daniel Breazeale University of Kentucky Paul W. Franks. All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005. Pp. viii + 440. Cloth, $49.95. Paul Franks' All or Nothing is in no sense an introduction to (...)
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  8. Manuel Bremer (2008). Transcendental Logic Redefined. Review of Contemporary Philosophy 7.
    Traditionally transcendental logic has been set apart from formal logic. Transcendental logic had to deal with the conditions of possibility of judgements, which were presupposed by formal logic. Defined as a purely philosophical enterprise transcendental logic was considered as being a priori delivering either analytic or even synthetic a priori results. In this paper it is argued that this separation from the (empirical) cognitive sciences should be given up. Transcendental logic should be understood as focusing on specific questions. These do (...)
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  9. Jason Bridges, Niko Kolodny & Wai-Hung Wong (eds.) (2012). The Possibility of Philosophical Understanding: Reflections on the Thought of Barry Stroud. OUP Usa.
    Barry Stroud's work has had a profound impact on a very wide array of philosophical topics, but there has heretofore been no book-length treatment of his work. The current collection aims to redress this gap, with 13 essays on Stroud's work, all but one new to this volume.
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  10. Anthony Brueckner (2010). Essays on Skepticism. Oxford University Press.
    The guiding questions of this volume are: Can we have knowledge of the external world of things outside our minds?
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  11. Anthony Brueckner (2008). Review of Michael N. Forster, Kant and Skepticism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (7).
  12. Anthony Brueckner (1996). Modest Transcendental Arguments. Philosophical Perspectives 10 (Metaphysics):265-280.
    Kantian transcendental arguments are aimed at uncovering the necessary conditions for the possibility of thought and experience. If such arguments are to have any force against Cartesian skepticism about knowledge of the external world, then it would seem that the conditions the transcendental argument uncovers must be non-psychological in nature, and their special status must be knowable a priori. In "Transcendental Arguments", Barry Stroud raised the question whether there are any such conditions., He answered that it was very doubtful that (...)
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  13. Anthony Brueckner (1993). One More Failed Transcendental Argument. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (3):633-636.
    In "The Self-Defeating Character of Skepticism," Douglas C. Long presents a transcendental argument against epistemological skepticism.' The argument has a distinctively Kantian flavor (though Long does not highlight this connection), in that it proceeds from the premise that I have self-knowledge and ends with the conclusion that I have perceptual knowledge of an objective, material subject of mental states. If the skeptic wishes to accept the transcendental argument's premise (as he seems to do), then he must reject his claim that (...)
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  14. Anthony L. Brueckner (1984). Transcendental Arguments II. Noûs 18 (2):197-225.
    In part I of the present work, I used the term 'Kantian transcendental argument' to refer to any argument which purports to establish that the existence of outer objects is a logically necessary condition for the possibility of self-conscious experience. In this second part, then, I examine Kantian transcendental arguments which proceed from the premise that one is the subject of widely construed self-conscious experience.
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  15. Anthony L. Brueckner (1983). Transcendental Arguments I. Noûs 17 (4):551-575.
    A Kantian transcendental argument is an argument which purports to show that the existence of physical objects of a certain general character is a condition for the possibility of self-conscious experience. Both the Transcendental Deduction and the Refutation of Idealism satisfy this characterization. But we have seen that even a successful Kantian transcendental argument would be somewhat disappointing. Even though such an argument would refute the extreme Cartesian skepticism about the very existence of physical objects, it would not certify any (...)
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  16. John J. Callanan (2006). Kant's Transcendental Strategy. Philosophical Quarterly 56 (224):360–381.
    The interpretation of transcendental arguments remains a contentious issue for contemporary epistemology. It is usually agreed that they originated in Kant's theoretical philosophy and were intended to have some kind of anti-sceptical efficacy. I argue that the sceptic with whom Kant was concerned has been consistently misidentified. The actual sceptic was Hume, questioning whether the faculty of reason can justify any of our judgements whatsoever. His challenge is a sceptical argument regarding rule-following which engenders a vicious regress. Once this sceptical (...)
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  17. Luigi Caranti (2006). Kant's Criticism of Descartes in the “Reflexionen Zum Idealismus” (1788–1793). Kant-Studien 97 (3):318-342.
    Kant devotes to the problem of Cartesian skepticism a constant attention throughout his philosophical career. His first attempt to refute the skeptic goes back to the 1755 Nova Delucidatio, while other arguments, both in the pre-critical and in the critical period, follow one another in a rather erratic effort to remove the “scandal” of philosophy, that is, our inability to prove the existence of the external world beyond doubt. This on-going struggle against the skeptic does not end with the 1787 (...)
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  18. Andrew N. Carpenter, Transcendental Arguments and Transcendental Idealism.
    This essay considers attempts to refute scepticism by transcendental argumentation; in particular I explore attempts to refute traditional "Cartesian" scepticism with idealistic transcendental arguments. My main conclusions are: Transcendental arguments are indispensable for a refutation of scepticism, not redundant; Idealistic transcendental arguments cannot refute Cartesian sceptical doubts; Traditional sceptical doubts can be reformulated so as to be effective against accounts of knowledge based on an idealistic theory of truth; It is possible in principle that idealistic ("Kantian") transcendental arguments can refute (...)
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  19. L. S. Carrier (1995). Skepticism About Epistemic Reasons. Iyyun, The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 44 (July):273-292.
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  20. Quassim Cassam (2003). Self-Directed Transcendental Arguments. In Robert Stern (ed.), Transcendental Arguments: Problems and Prospects. Clarendon Press
  21. Brian A. Chance (2012). Scepticism and the Development of the Transcendental Dialectic. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (2):311-331.
    Kant's response to scepticism in the Critique of Pure Reason is complex and remarkably nuanced, although it is rarely recognized as such. In this paper, I argue that recent attempts to flesh out the details of this response by Paul Guyer and Michael Forster do not go far enough. Although they are right to draw a distinction between Humean and Pyrrhonian scepticism and locate Kant's response to the latter in the Transcendental Dialectic, their accounts fail to capture two important aspects (...)
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  22. Andrew Chignell (2011). Causal Refutations of Idealism Revisited. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (242):184-186.
    Causal refutations of external-world scepticism start from our ability to make justified judgements about the order of our own experiences, and end with the claim that there must be perceptible external objects, some of whose states can be causally correlated with that order. In a recent paper, I made a series of objections to this broadly Kantian anti-sceptical strategy. Georges Dicker has provided substantive replies on behalf of a version of the causal refutation of idealism. Here I offer a few (...)
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  23. Andrew Chignell (2010). Causal Refutations of Idealism. Philosophical Quarterly 60 (240):487-507.
    In the ‘Refutation of Idealism’ chapter of the first Critique, Kant argues that the conditions required for having certain kinds of mental episodes are sufficient to guarantee that there are ‘objects in space’ outside us. A perennially influential way of reading this compressed argument is as a kind of causal inference: in order for us to make justified judgements about the order of our inner states, those states must be caused by the successive states of objects in space outside us. (...)
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  24. Jaimir Conte (2008). A Oposição de Berkeley Ao Ceticismo. Cadernos de História de Filosofia da Ciência 18 (2):3225-355.
    One of Berkeley’s main goals in the Principles and in the Three Dialogues, as expressly stated in the full titles these two works, as well as in the Philosophical Commen-taries, is the refutation of skepticism. This article aims to elucidate what Berkeley means by skepticism and to indicate which principles or doctrines, according to him, are at the root of the skeptics’ doubts. An attempt is made to show how Berkeley elaborated his opposition to skepticism. Finally, it is suggested that (...)
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  25. Frédéric Cossutta (2003). Toward a Skeptical Criticism of Transcendental Pragmatics. Philosophy and Rhetoric 36 (4):301-329.
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  26. Gregor Damschen (2010). Are There Ultimately Founded Propositions? Universitas Philosophica 54 (54):163-177.
    Can we find propositions that cannot rationally be denied in any possible world without assuming the existence of that same proposition, and so involving ourselves in a contradiction? In other words, can we find transworld propositions needing no further foundation or justification? Basically, three differing positions can be imagined: firstly, a relativist position, according to which ultimately founded propositions are impossible; secondly, a meta-relativist position, according to which ultimately founded propositions are possible but unnecessary; and thirdly, an absolute position, according (...)
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  27. Donald Davidson (2013). O problema da objetividade. Skepsis: A Journal for Philosophy and Interdisciplinary Research 6 (9):141-159.
    Desde Descartes a epistemologia tem se baseado no conhecimento de primeira pessoa. Devemos começar, de acordo com a história usual, com o que é mais certo: o conhecimento de nossas próprias sensações e pensamentos. De uma maneira ou outra, progredimos então, se pudermos, para o conhecimento de um mundo externo objetivo. Há por fim uma passagem tênue ao conhecimento das outras mentes. Defendo uma total revisão desse quadro. Todo pensamento proposicional, quer positivo ou cético, sobre o interior ou sobre o (...)
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  28. Carolyn Estes Davis (1978). Transcendental Arguments. Dissertation, Cornell University
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  29. Daniel A. Dombrowski (2001). Stern, Robert, Ed. Transcendental Arguments: Problems and Prospects. Review of Metaphysics 54 (3):685-686.
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  30. W. Dudley (2009). Review: Paul W. Franks: All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism. [REVIEW] Mind 118 (469):167-170.
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  31. Simon John Duffy (2001). An Intuitionist Response to Moral Scepticism: A Critique of Mackie's Scepticism, and an Alternative Proposal Combining Ross's Intuitionism with a Kantian Epistemology. Dissertation, University of Edinburgh
    This thesis sets out an argument in defence of moral objectivism. It takes Mackie as the critic of objectivism and it ends by proposing that the best defence of objectivism may be found in what I shall call Kantian intuitionism, which brings together elements of the intuitionism of Ross and a Kantian epistemology. The argument is fundamentally transcendental in form and it proceeds by first setting out what we intuitively believe, rejecting the sceptical attacks on those beliefs, and by then (...)
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  32. Steven M. Duncan, Why Skepticism Fails.
    Do skeptical arguments undermine reason, as Hume supposes? In this paper, I argue that they do not and that skepticism is thus no threat to dogmatism about the possibility of knowledge.
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  33. Jonathan Ellis (forthcoming). Stroud's Modest Transcendental Argument. In W. Wong, N. Kolodny & J. Bridges (eds.), The Possibility of Philosophical Understanding: Essays for Barry Stroud. Oxford University Press
    Barry Stroud is well known as a critic of philosophers who purport to answer, or otherwise deflate, the threat of skepticism of the external world. He is most famous in this regard for his seminal paper on transcendental arguments, in which he argues that the prospects of defeating the skeptic with such arguments typically depend upon an implausible form of verification principle. There he mostly focuses upon Strawson and Shoemaker. But since then, Stroud has addressed strategies taken against skepticism as (...)
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  34. Stephen Engstrom (1994). The Transcendental Deduction and Skepticism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 32 (3):359-380.
    The common assumption that the Transcendental Deduction aims to refute scepticism often leads interpreters to conclude that it fails and even that Kant is confused about what it is supposed to achieve. By examining what Kant himself says concerning the Deductions' relation to scepticism, this article seeks to determine what sort of scepticism he has in view and how he responds to it. It concludes that the Deduction aims neither to refute Cartesian, outer- world scepticism nor to refute Humean, empiricist (...)
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  35. Kenneth Stanley Ferguson (1980). Philosophical Scepticism. Dissertation, Cornell University
    This treatment of scepticism is then shown to have important consequences for a wide range of issues in epistemology. Some of these are the following: that transcendental arguments are unsound because they presuppose a mistaken account of the sense in which we know what we take ourselves to know; that the technical notion of a criterion Wittgenstein employs in the Investigations involves a confusion which results from a failure to appreciate the role of background presuppositions in our epistemic discourse in (...)
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  36. Michael Forster (2009). Kant and Skepticism. Princeton University Press.
    This book puts forward a much-needed reappraisal of Immanuel Kant's conception of and response to skepticism, as set forth principally in the Critique of Pure Reason.
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  37. Marco Antonio Franciotti (2009). Once More Unto The Breach: Strawson's Anti-Sceptical View. Principia 13 (2):137-152.
    In this article, I am intent on rehabilitating Strawson's overall anti-sceptical strategy. First, I focus on his earlier attempt, which ignited the debate about the adequacy of transcendental arguments against the sceptic. I present Stroud's main reservation that Strawson's viewpoint is unworkable because it does not take into consideration the view of the external world upon which the sceptic is based in order to challenge our knowledge claims. I then focus on Strawson's later attempt, which is based upon a Humean-like (...)
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  38. Marco Frangiotti (1995). Is the Skeptic Defeated by Putnam¿s "Transcendental Argument"? Dialogos 30:79-92.
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  39. Paul W. Franks (2005). All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism. Harvard University Press.
    In this work, the first overview of the German Idealism that is both conceptual and methodological, Paul W. Franks offers a philosophical reconstruction that is...
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  40. Craig French (2009). Review: Forster, Kant and Skepticism. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 50 (2):334-335.
  41. Michael Friedman (2006). Kant, Skepticism, and Idealism. Inquiry 49 (1):26 – 43.
    Skeptical problems arising for Kant's version of transcendental idealism have been raised from Kant's own time to the present day. By focussing on how such problems originally arose in the wake of Kant's work, and on the first formulations of absolute idealism by Schelling, I argue that the skeptical problems in question ultimately depend on fundamental features of Kant's philosophy of natural science. As a result, Naturphilosophie and the organic conception of nature cannot easily be separated from the deep and (...)
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  42. E. V. Garcia (2008). All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism. Philosophical Review 117 (2):300-303.
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  43. Mikkel Gerken (2012). Critical Notice: Essays on Skepticism. [REVIEW] International Journal for the Study of Skepticism 2 (1):65-77.
    This critical study of Anthony Brueckner’s essay collection on skepticism emphasizes interconnections between the various essays. In particular, it considers Brueckner’s discussion of transcendental anti-skeptical arguments from the theses of anti-individualism and privileged self-knowledge. Finally, some overarching methodological lessons are drawn.
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  44. Alan H. Goldman (1974). Can a Priori Arguments Refute the Sceptic? Dialogue 13 (01):105-109.
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  45. Moltke S. Gram (1983). The Skeptical Attack on Substance: Kantian Answers. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 8 (1):359-371.
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  46. P. Guyer (2009). Kant and Skepticism. Philosophical Review 118 (3):384-389.
  47. P. Guyer (2008). Review Essay: Luigi Caranti, Kant and the Scandal of Philosophy: The Kantian Critique of Cartesian Scepticism (Toronto, Buffalo and London: University of Toronto Press, 2007), 218 Pp., $60.00. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Social Criticism 34 (7):825-836.
  48. Robert Hanna (2011). Review: Forster, Kant and Skepticism. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 61 (244):635-637.
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  49. R. J. Henle (1987). The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism. By Barry Stroud. Modern Schoolman 64 (2):148-150.
  50. Robert Charles Howell (1967). Transcendental Arguments. Dissertation, University of Michigan
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