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  1. Lilian Alweiss (2005). Is There an ‘End’ to Philosophical Scepticism? Philosophy 80 (3):395-411.
    P F Strawson advocates a descriptive metaphysics. Contrary to Kant, he believes that metaphysics should be ‘content to describe the actual structure of thought about the world’, there is no need of postulating a world that lies beyond our grasp. We neither need to refute nor accept scepticism since we can ignore it with good reasons. Yet this paper argues that Strawson fails to provide us with good reasons. He fails to realise that one cannot do metaphysics by construing its (...)
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  2. Michael Barber (1989). The Possibility of Transcendental Philosophy. By J. N. Mohanty. The Modern Schoolman 67 (1):78-80.
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  3. Adrian Bardon (2006). The Aristotelian Prescription: Skepticism, Retortion, and Transcendental Arguments. International Philosophical Quarterly 46 (3):263-276.
    From a number of quarters have come attempts to answer some form of skepticism—about knowledge of the external world, freedom of the will, or moral reasons—by showing it to be performatively self-defeating. Examples of this strategy are subject to a number of criticisms, in particular the criticism that they fail to shift the burden of proof from the anti-skeptical position, and so fail to establish the epistemic entitlement they seek. To these approaches I contrast one way of understanding Kant’s core (...)
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  4. José Luis Bermúdez (1995). Scepticism and the Justification of Transcendental Idealism. Ratio 8 (1):1-20.
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  5. Daniel Breazeale (2007). All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 45 (4):665-667.
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  6. Manuel Bremer (2008). Transcendental Logic Redefined. Review of Contemporary Philosophy 7.
    Traditionally transcendental logic has been set apart from formal logic. Transcendental logic had to deal with the conditions of possibility of judgements, which were presupposed by formal logic. Defined as a purely philosophical enterprise transcendental logic was considered as being a priori delivering either analytic or even synthetic a priori results. In this paper it is argued that this separation from the (empirical) cognitive sciences should be given up. Transcendental logic should be understood as focusing on specific questions. These do (...)
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  7. Jason Bridges, Niko Kolodny & Wai-Hung Wong (eds.) (2012). The Possibility of Philosophical Understanding: Reflections on the Thought of Barry Stroud. OUP USA.
    Barry Stroud's work has had a profound impact on a very wide array of philosophical topics, including epistemological skepticism, the nature of logical necessity, the interpretation of Hume, the interpretation of Wittgenstein, the possibility of transcendental arguments, and the metaphysical status of color and value. And yet there has heretofore been no book-length treatment of his work. The current collection aims to redress this gap, with 13 essays on Stroud's work by a diverse group of contributors including some of his (...)
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  8. Anthony Brueckner (2010). Essays on Skepticism. Oxford University Press.
    The guiding questions of this volume are: Can we have knowledge of the external world of things outside our minds?
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  9. Anthony Brueckner (2008). Review of Michael N. Forster, Kant and Skepticism. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (7).
  10. Anthony Brueckner (1996). Modest Transcendental Arguments. Philosophical Perspectives 10 (Metaphysics):265-280.
    Kantian transcendental arguments are aimed at uncovering the necessary conditions for the possibility of thought and experience. If such arguments are to have any force against Cartesian skepticism about knowledge of the external world, then it would seem that the conditions the transcendental argument uncovers must be non-psychological in nature, and their special status must be knowable a priori. In "Transcendental Arguments", Barry Stroud raised the question whether there are any such conditions., He answered that it was very doubtful that (...)
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  11. Anthony Brueckner (1993). One More Failed Transcendental Argument. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (3):633-636.
    In "The Self-Defeating Character of Skepticism," Douglas C. Long presents a transcendental argument against epistemological skepticism.' The argument has a distinctively Kantian flavor (though Long does not highlight this connection), in that it proceeds from the premise that I have self-knowledge and ends with the conclusion that I have perceptual knowledge of an objective, material subject of mental states. If the skeptic wishes to accept the transcendental argument's premise (as he seems to do), then he must reject his claim that (...)
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  12. Anthony L. Brueckner (1984). Transcendental Arguments II. Noûs 18 (2):197-225.
    In part I of the present work, I used the term 'Kantian transcendental argument' to refer to any argument which purports to establish that the existence of outer objects is a logically necessary condition for the possibility of self-conscious experience. In this second part, then, I examine Kantian transcendental arguments which proceed from the premise that one is the subject of widely construed self-conscious experience.
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  13. Anthony L. Brueckner (1983). Transcendental Arguments I. Noûs 17 (4):551-575.
    A Kantian transcendental argument is an argument which purports to show that the existence of physical objects of a certain general character is a condition for the possibility of self-conscious experience. Both the Transcendental Deduction and the Refutation of Idealism satisfy this characterization. But we have seen that even a successful Kantian transcendental argument would be somewhat disappointing. Even though such an argument would refute the extreme Cartesian skepticism about the very existence of physical objects, it would not certify any (...)
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  14. John J. Callanan (2006). Kant's Transcendental Strategy. Philosophical Quarterly 56 (224):360–381.
    The interpretation of transcendental arguments remains a contentious issue for contemporary epistemology. It is usually agreed that they originated in Kant's theoretical philosophy and were intended to have some kind of anti-sceptical efficacy. I argue that the sceptic with whom Kant was concerned has been consistently misidentified. The actual sceptic was Hume, questioning whether the faculty of reason can justify any of our judgements whatsoever. His challenge is a sceptical argument regarding rule-following which engenders a vicious regress. Once this sceptical (...)
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  15. Luigi Caranti (2006). Kant's Criticism of Descartes in the “Reflexionen Zum Idealismus” (1788–1793). Kant-Studien 97 (3):318-342.
    Kant devotes to the problem of Cartesian skepticism a constant attention throughout his philosophical career. His first attempt to refute the skeptic goes back to the 1755 Nova Delucidatio, while other arguments, both in the pre-critical and in the critical period, follow one another in a rather erratic effort to remove the “scandal” of philosophy, that is, our inability to prove the existence of the external world beyond doubt. This on-going struggle against the skeptic does not end with the 1787 (...)
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  16. Andrew N. Carpenter, Transcendental Arguments and Transcendental Idealism.
    This essay considers attempts to refute scepticism by transcendental argumentation; in particular I explore attempts to refute traditional "Cartesian" scepticism with idealistic transcendental arguments. My main conclusions are: Transcendental arguments are indispensable for a refutation of scepticism, not redundant; Idealistic transcendental arguments cannot refute Cartesian sceptical doubts; Traditional sceptical doubts can be reformulated so as to be effective against accounts of knowledge based on an idealistic theory of truth; It is possible in principle that idealistic ("Kantian") transcendental arguments can refute (...)
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  17. L. S. Carrier (1995). Skepticism About Epistemic Reasons. Iyyun, The Jerusalem Philosophical Quarterly 44 (July):273-292.
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  18. Brian A. Chance (2012). Scepticism and the Development of the Transcendental Dialectic. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 20 (2):311-331.
    Kant's response to scepticism in the Critique of Pure Reason is complex and remarkably nuanced, although it is rarely recognized as such. In this paper, I argue that recent attempts to flesh out the details of this response by Paul Guyer and Michael Forster do not go far enough. Although they are right to draw a distinction between Humean and Pyrrhonian scepticism and locate Kant's response to the latter in the Transcendental Dialectic, their accounts fail to capture two important aspects (...)
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  19. Andrew Chignell (2011). Causal Refutations of Idealism Revisited. Philosophical Quarterly 61 (242):184-186.
    Causal refutations of external-world scepticism start from our ability to make justified judgements about the order of our own experiences, and end with the claim that there must be perceptible external objects, some of whose states can be causally correlated with that order. In a recent paper, I made a series of objections to this broadly Kantian anti-sceptical strategy. Georges Dicker has provided substantive replies on behalf of a version of the causal refutation of idealism. Here I offer a few (...)
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  20. Andrew Chignell (2010). Causal Refutations of Idealism. Philosophical Quarterly 60 (240):487-507.
    In the ‘Refutation of Idealism’ chapter of the first Critique, Kant argues that the conditions required for having certain kinds of mental episodes are sufficient to guarantee that there are ‘objects in space’ outside us. A perennially influential way of reading this compressed argument is as a kind of causal inference: in order for us to make justified judgements about the order of our inner states, those states must be caused by the successive states of objects in space outside us. (...)
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  21. Frédéric Cossutta (2003). Toward a Skeptical Criticism of Transcendental Pragmatics. Philosophy and Rhetoric 36 (4):301-329.
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  22. Gregor Damschen (2010). Are There Ultimately Founded Propositions? Universitas Philosophica 54 (54):163-177.
    Can we find propositions that cannot rationally be denied in any possible world without assuming the existence of that same proposition, and so involving ourselves in a contradiction? In other words, can we find transworld propositions needing no further foundation or justification? Basically, three differing positions can be imagined: firstly, a relativist position, according to which ultimately founded propositions are impossible; secondly, a meta-relativist position, according to which ultimately founded propositions are possible but unnecessary; and thirdly, an absolute position, according (...)
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  23. Donald Davidson (2013). O problema da objetividade. Sképsis 6 (9):141-159.
    Desde Descartes a epistemologia tem se baseado no conhecimento de primeira pessoa. Devemos começar, de acordo com a história usual, com o que é mais certo: o conhecimento de nossas próprias sensações e pensamentos. De uma maneira ou outra, progredimos então, se pudermos, para o conhecimento de um mundo externo objetivo. Há por fim uma passagem tênue ao conhecimento das outras mentes. Defendo uma total revisão desse quadro. Todo pensamento proposicional, quer positivo ou cético, sobre o interior ou sobre o (...)
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  24. W. Dudley (2009). Review: Paul W. Franks: All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism. [REVIEW] Mind 118 (469):167-170.
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  25. Steven M. Duncan, Why Skepticism Fails.
    Do skeptical arguments undermine reason, as Hume supposes? In this paper, I argue that they do not and that skepticism is thus no threat to dogmatism about the possibility of knowledge.
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  26. Jonathan Ellis (forthcoming). Stroud's Modest Transcendental Argument. In W. Wong, N. Kolodny & J. Bridges (eds.), The Possibility of Philosophical Understanding: Essays for Barry Stroud. Oxford University Press.
    Barry Stroud is well known as a critic of philosophers who purport to answer, or otherwise deflate, the threat of skepticism of the external world. He is most famous in this regard for his seminal paper on transcendental arguments, in which he argues that the prospects of defeating the skeptic with such arguments typically depend upon an implausible form of verification principle. There he mostly focuses upon Strawson and Shoemaker. But since then, Stroud has addressed strategies taken against skepticism as (...)
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  27. Stephen Engstrom (1994). The Transcendental Deduction and Skepticism. Journal of the History of Philosophy 32 (3):359-380.
    The common assumption that the Transcendental Deduction aims to refute scepticism often leads interpreters to conclude that it fails and even that Kant is confused about what it is supposed to achieve. By examining what Kant himself says concerning the Deductions' relation to scepticism, this article seeks to determine what sort of scepticism he has in view and how he responds to it. It concludes that the Deduction aims neither to refute Cartesian, outer- world scepticism nor to refute Humean, empiricist (...)
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  28. Michael Forster (2009). Kant and Skepticism. Princeton University Press.
    This book puts forward a much-needed reappraisal of Immanuel Kant's conception of and response to skepticism, as set forth principally in the Critique of Pure Reason.
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  29. Paul W. Franks (2005). All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism. Harvard University Press.
    In this work, the first overview of the German Idealism that is both conceptual and methodological, Paul W. Franks offers a philosophical reconstruction that is...
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  30. Craig French (2009). Review: Forster, Kant and Skepticism. [REVIEW] Heythrop Journal 50 (2):334-335.
  31. Michael Friedman (2006). Kant, Skepticism, and Idealism. Inquiry 49 (1):26 – 43.
    Skeptical problems arising for Kant's version of transcendental idealism have been raised from Kant's own time to the present day. By focussing on how such problems originally arose in the wake of Kant's work, and on the first formulations of absolute idealism by Schelling, I argue that the skeptical problems in question ultimately depend on fundamental features of Kant's philosophy of natural science. As a result, Naturphilosophie and the organic conception of nature cannot easily be separated from the deep and (...)
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  32. E. V. Garcia (2008). All or Nothing: Systematicity, Transcendental Arguments, and Skepticism in German Idealism. Philosophical Review 117 (2):300-303.
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  33. Alan H. Goldman (1974). Can a Priori Arguments Refute the Sceptic? Dialogue 13 (01):105-109.
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  34. Moltke S. Gram (1983). The Skeptical Attack on Substance: Kantian Answers. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 8 (1):359-371.
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  35. P. Guyer (2009). Kant and Skepticism. Philosophical Review 118 (3):384-389.
  36. P. Guyer (2008). Review Essay: Luigi Caranti, Kant and the Scandal of Philosophy: The Kantian Critique of Cartesian Scepticism (Toronto, Buffalo and London: University of Toronto Press, 2007), 218 Pp., $60.00. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Social Criticism 34 (7):825-836.
  37. Robert Hanna (2011). Review: Forster, Kant and Skepticism. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 61 (244):635-637.
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  38. R. J. Henle (1987). The Significance of Philosophical Scepticism. By Barry Stroud. The Modern Schoolman 64 (2):148-150.
  39. Stan Husi (2013). Why Reasons Skepticism is Not Self‐Defeating. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (3):424-449.
    : Radical meta-normative skepticism is the view that no standard, norm, or principle has objective authority or normative force. It does not deny that there are norms, standards of correctness, and principles of various kinds that render it possible that we succeed or fail in measuring up to their prerogatives. Rather, it denies that any norm has the status of commanding with objective authority, of giving rise to normative reasons to take seriously and follow its demands. Two powerful transcendental arguments (...)
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  40. Michael Hymers (1991). The Role of Kant's Refutation of Idealism. Southern Journal of Philosophy 29 (1):51-67.
  41. Frank Jackson, Graham Priest & Rae Langton (2004). Elusive Knowledge of Things in Themselves. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):129 – 136.
    Kant argued that we have no knowledge of things in themselves, no knowledge of the intrinsic properties of things, a thesis that is not idealism but epistemic humility. David Lewis agrees (in 'Ramseyan Humility'), but for Ramseyan reasons rather than Kantian. I compare the doctrines of Ramseyan and Kantian humility, and argue that Lewis's contextualist strategy for rescuing knowledge from the sceptic (proposed elsewhere) should also rescue knowledge of things in themselves. The rescue would not be complete: for knowledge of (...)
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  42. Anthony K. Jensen (2009). Kant and the Scandal of Philosophy. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 47 (2):pp. 317-318.
  43. Rasmus Thybo Jensen (2013). Merleau-Ponty and McDowell on the Transparency of the Mind. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 21 (3):470-492.
    McDowell and Merleau-Ponty share a critical attitude towards a certain Cartesian picture of the mind. According to the picture in question nothing which properly belongs to subjectivity can be hidden to the subject herself. Nevertheless there is a striking asymmetry in how the two philosophers portray the problematic consequences of such a picture. They can seem to offer exact opposite views of these consequences, which, given the almost identical characterization of the transparency claim, is puzzling. I argue that a closer (...)
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  44. Christoph Kelp (2012). How and How Not to Take on Brueckner's Sceptic. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 62 (247):386-391.
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  45. Patricia Kitcher (1995). Revisiting Kant's Epistemology: Skepticism, Apriority, and Psychologism. Noûs 29 (3):285-315.
  46. William G. Lycan (1971). Williams and Stroud on Shoemaker's Sceptic. Analysis 31 (5):159 - 162.
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  47. Diego E. Machuca (2010). Review of M. Forster, Kant and Skepticism. [REVIEW] Philosophy in Review 30 (3):186-8.
  48. Edwin McCann (1985). Skepticism and Kant's B Deduction. History of Philosophy Quarterly 2 (1):71-89.
  49. Gregory McCulloch (1999). Transcendental Arguments: Problems and Prospects. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
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  50. Jeffrey K. McDonough (2000). Defending the Refutation of Idealism. Southwestern Philosophy Review 17 (1):35-44.
    In his Kant and the Claims of Knowledge, Paul Guyer offers an influential reading of Kant’s famous “Refutation of Idealism.” Guyer’s reading has been widely praised as Kantian exegesis but less favorably received as an anti-skeptical line of argument worthy of contemporary interest. In this paper, I focus on defending the general thrust of Guyer’s reading as a response to Cartesian skepticism. The paper falls into two sections. The first section constructs Guyer’s central argument in three steps and gives it (...)
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