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Subcategories:History/traditions: Transgender Issues
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  1. Pruzhinina Avrora (2008). Sex Change as Medical and Sociocultural Problem. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 25:5-11.
    The topic of sex change in our bisexual society touches upon not only main basis of human existence but also questions of evolution as a whole, of humankind persistence. Is sex change a humane act or do we herewith sacrifice the culture and health of human population for the sake of individual principles? Today, theproblem of sex change has turned from purely medical to a sociocultural one. It brings up a number of important and complex issues for physicians, and for (...)
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  2. J. Michael Bailey & Kiira Triea (2007). What Many Transgender Activists Don't Want You to Know: And Why You Should Know It Anyway. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 50 (4):521-534.
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  3. Nicholas Bamforth (ed.) (2005). Sex Rights: The Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2002. OUP Oxford.
    Discrimination due to gender and sexual orientation tends nowadays to be prohibited under international human rights instruments, as well as under the national laws of many countries that express their commitment to defending human rights. Nonetheless, as the work of Amnesty International has shown, violence against women (whatever their sexual orientation), gay men, trans-gendered and transsexual persons remains an appallingly constant phenomenon, both in countries that have an official commitment to fighting these forms of discrimination and in those that do (...)
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  4. Talia Mae Bettcher (2007). Evil Deceivers and Make-Believers: On Transphobic Violence and the Politics of Illusion. Hypatia 22 (3):43-65.
    : This essay examines the stereotype that transgender people are "deceivers" and the stereotype's role in promoting and excusing transphobic violence. The stereotype derives from a contrast between gender presentation (appearance) and sexed body (concealed reality). Because gender presentation represents genital status, Bettcher argues, people who "misalign" the two are viewed as deceivers. The author shows how this system of gender presentation as genital representation is part of larger sexist and racist systems of violence and oppression.
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  5. Leo W. Beukeboom, Tom J. de Jong & Ido Pen (2001). Why Girls Want to Be Boys. Bioessays 23 (6):477-480.
  6. P. Cardon (2010). Post-Queer: In Defense of a 'Trans-Gender Approach' or Trans-Gender as an Analytical Category. Diogenes 57 (1):138-150.
    The notion of gender, introduced into France by queens and drags in the late 20th century (the glorious period of the "drag-queens") and revitalized by American "queer", follows a traditionally feminist path where homosexual and particularly male issues are once again being hidden away. Having played a big part in popularizing that first version, Patrick Cardon proposes, in order to avoid any misunderstanding and escape once for all from any attempts at reification, to use the term and the universal notion (...)
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  7. Melissa Conroy (2010). Treating Transgendered Children: Clinical Methods and Religious Mythology. Zygon 45 (2):301-316.
    Bruce Lincoln suggests that myth is "that small class of stories that possess both credibility and authority" (1992, 24). When studying the history of mythology we find that myths often are understood as something other people have—as if the group in question possesses the truth while others live by falsehoods. In examining contemporary North American society, we can see how Judeo-Christian narratives structure popular and medical discourses regarding sex and gender. The idea that humans are born into male and female, (...)
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  8. H. Draper (1988). Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment. Journal of Medical Ethics 14 (1):47-48.
  9. Sarah Hunger (2012). Commentary: Transgender People Are Not That Different After All. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 21 (02):287-289.
  10. Roshanak Kheshti (2009). Cross-Dressing and Gender (Tres)Passing: The Transgender Move as a Site of Agential Potential in the New Iranian Cinema. Hypatia 24 (3):158 - 177.
    This article traces the historical becoming of the contemporary supersaturation of images of queer and transgendered Iran through the narrative and tropic devices introduced by filmmakers in the past twenty years. I argue that the censorship code enforced by the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance is partly responsible for the formation of what has come to be a ubiquitous figure in the New Iranian cinema: the "cross-dressing" or "passing" figure. By performing close readings of "Baran" and "Dokhtaraneh Khorshid"—two films (...)
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  11. Riki Lane (2009). Trans as Bodily Becoming: Rethinking the Biological as Diversity, Not Dichotomy. Hypatia 24 (3):136 - 157.
    Feminist and trans theory challenges "the" binary sex/gender system, but can create a new binary opposition of subversive transgender versus conservative transsexual. This paper aims to shift debate concerning bodies as authentic/real versus constructed/mutable, arguing that such debate establishes a false dichotomy that may be overcome by reappraising scientific understandings of sex/gender. Much recent biology and neurology stresses nonlinearity, contingency, self-organization, and open-endedness. Engaging with this research offers ways around apparently interminable theoretical impasses.
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  12. Moya Lloyd (2013). Heteronormativity and/as Violence: The “Sexing” of Gwen Araujo. Hypatia 28 (4):818-834.
    This paper will examine the violence of heteronormativity: the violence that constitutes and regulates bodies according to normative notions of sex, gender, and sexuality. This violence, I will argue, requires more than a focus on gendered or sexualized physical harms of the kinds normally examined when studying violence against sexual minorities or women. Rather, it necessitates focusing on the multiple modalities through which heteronormativity performs its violence on, through, and against bodies and persons, including through the production of certain bodies (...)
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  13. Thomas A. Marino (2010). Embryology and Disorders of Sexual Development. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (4):481-490.
    In 2006, based on the advice of 50 international experts, the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology issued a consensus statement on the nomenclature and management of children who have a phenotype that is neither typical male nor female (Lee et al. 2006). Responding to a decade of criticism over the terminology that had been in place, including such terms as intersex, hermaphrodite, or pseudohermaphrodite, they proposed to call those conditions in which the patient (...)
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  14. Surya Monro (2002). Transgender Trouble: Legislation Beyond Binaries? Res Publica 8 (3):275-283.
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  15. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). The Ethics of Helping Transgender Men and Women Have Children. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (1):46-60.
    A transgender man legally married to a woman has given birth to two children, raising questions about the ethics of assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs) for people with cross-sex identities. Psychiatry treats cross-sex identities as a disorder, but key medical organizations and the law in some jurisdictions have taken steps to protect people with these identities from discrimination in health care, housing, and employment. In fact, many people with cross-sex identities bypass psychiatric treatment altogether in order to pursue lives that are (...)
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  16. Christine Overall (2004). Transsexualism and “Transracialism”. Social Philosophy Today 20:183-193.
    This paper explores, from a feminist perspective, the justification of major surgical reshaping of the body. I define “transracialism” as the use of surgery to assist individuals to “cross” from being a member of one race to being a member of another. If transsexualism, involving the use of surgery to assist individuals to “cross” from female to male or from male to female, is morally acceptable, and if providing the medical and social resources to enable sex crossing is not morally (...)
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  17. Helena Preester (2013). Merleau-Ponty's Sexual Schema and the Sexual Component of Body Integrity Identity Disorder. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):171-184.
    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID), formerly also known as apotemnophilia, is characterized by a desire for amputation of a healthy limb and is claimed to straddle or to even blur the boundary between psychiatry and neurology. The neurological line of approach, however, is a recent one, and is accompanied or preceded by psychodynamical, behavioural, philosophical, and psychiatric approaches and hypotheses. Next to its confusing history in which the disorder itself has no fixed identity and could not be classified under a (...)
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  18. Rupert Read (2013). Feminism and Trans-Women. The Philosophers' Magazine 61 (61):26-28.
  19. Elizabeth Reis (2009). Review of Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):105-106.
  20. Ruthann Robson (2007). A Mere Switch or a Fundamental Change? Theorizing Transgender Marriage. Hypatia 22 (1):58-70.
    : Focusing on the legal cases that have been litigated in the United States, and making references to popular culture, this article considers whether marriages in which one of the partners is transgendered necessarily challenge or necessarily reinforce heterosexual hegemony.
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  21. Gayle Salamon (2010). Sameness, Alterity, Flesh: Luce Irigaray and the Place of Sexual Undecidability. In Elena Tzelepis & Athena Athanasiou (eds.), Rewriting Difference: Luce Irigaray and "the Greeks". State University of New York Press.
  22. Laurie J. Shrage (ed.) (2009). You've Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. OUP USA.
    Is sex identity a feature of one's mind or body, and is it a relational or intrinsic property? Who is in the best position to know a person's sex, do we each have a true sex, and is a person's sex an alterable characteristic? When a person's sex assignment changes, has the old self disappeared and a new one emerged; or, has only the public presentation of one's self changed? "You've Changed" examines the philosophical questions raised by the phenomenon of (...)
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  23. J. Arthur Thompson (1911). Book Review:The Intermediate Sex. A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women. Edward Carpenter. [REVIEW] Ethics 21 (4):502-.
  24. Georgia Warnke (2001). Intersexuality and the Categories of Sex. Hypatia 16 (3):126-137.
    : Operations on intersexuals indicate that the sex of a person is based on more than biology. Expectations about proper gender activities furnish the frameworks through which certain features and combinations of features are understood to be fundamental to bodies and to comprise their sex. Yet, we can ask whether this interpretation is either coherent or consistent with our fuller conceptions of ourselves. Is there a point to interpreting a person as a sex?
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  25. Kristin Zeiler (2010). Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation, and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex. Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):133-156.
    The influence of pervasive cultural norms on people’s actions constitutes a longstanding problem for autonomy theory. On the one hand, such norms often seem to elude the kind of reflection that autonomous agency requires. On the other hand, they are hardly entirely beyond the pale of autonomy: people do sometimes reflect critically on them and resist them. This paper draws on phenomenological accounts of embodiment in order to reconcile these observations. We suggest that pervasive cultural norms exert a strong and (...)
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Intersexuality
  1. Maren Behrensen, Intersex Athletes: Do We Need A Gender Police In Professional Sports? IWM Junior Visiting Fellows' Conferences XXIX.
    Based on the case of Caster Semenya, I argue in this paper that the practice of Gender Verification Testing (GVT) in professional sports is unethical and pointless. The presumed benefit of GVT—ensuring fair competition for female athletes—is virtually nonexistent compared to its potential harms, in particular the exposure of individual athletes to a largely interphobic public. GVTs constitute a serious incursion on the athlete’s dignity, autonomy, and privacy; an incursion that cannot be justified by the appeal to fairness. My argument (...)
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  2. Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux, The Transgender Normal.
    [under review] Surprisingly, it follows from mainstream scholarly assumptions about the nature of sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism we call sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans has several important consequences. First, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles (depending on where you draw the line) become the historical norm. Another is that, since those on the political Right usually tolerate or even encourage exaggeration, anti-trans conservatives are not just wrong, but inconsistent in condemning (...)
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  3. Ellen K. Feder (2011). Tilting the Ethical Lens: Shame, Disgust, and the Body in Question. Hypatia 26 (3):632-650.
    Cheryl Chase has argued that “the problem” of intersex is one of “stigma and trauma, not gender,” as those focused on medical management would have it. Despite frequent references to shame in the critical literature, there has been surprisingly little analysis of shame, or of the disgust that provokes it. This paper investigates the function of disgust in the medical management of intersex and seeks to understand the consequences—material and moral—with respect to the shame it provokes.Conventional ethical approaches may not (...)
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  4. Erik Malmqvist & Kristin Zeiler (2010). Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation, and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex. Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):133-156.
    The influence of pervasive cultural norms on people’s actions constitutes a longstanding problem for autonomy theory. On the one hand, such norms often seem to elude the kind of reflection that autonomous agency requires. On the other hand, they are hardly entirely beyond the pale of autonomy: people do sometimes reflect critically on them and resist them. This paper draws on phenomenological accounts of embodiment in order to reconcile these observations. We suggest that pervasive cultural norms exert a strong and (...)
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Transgender Issues, Misc
  1. Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux, The Transgender Normal.
    [under review] Surprisingly, it follows from mainstream scholarly assumptions about the nature of sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism we call sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans has several important consequences. First, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles (depending on where you draw the line) become the historical norm. Another is that, since those on the political Right usually tolerate or even encourage exaggeration, anti-trans conservatives are not just wrong, but inconsistent in condemning (...)
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  2. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2009). Sexualized Brains. [REVIEW] Isis: 100 (4):887-888.
  3. Patricia Marino (2010). Review of Laurie Shrage, You've Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (1).
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  4. Rachel Mckinnon (2014). Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women. Hypatia 29 (1).
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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  5. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2009). Artifice and Authenticity: Gender Technology and Agency in Two Jenny Saville Portraits. In Laurie Shrage (ed.), You’ve Changed”: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. Oxford UP.
    This paper addresses two related topics: 1. The disanalogies between elective cosmetic practices and sex reassignment surgery. Why does it seem necessary for me – an aging professional woman – to ignore the blandishments of hairdressers wielding dyes and dermatologists wielding acids and scalpels? Why does it not seem equally necessary for a transgendered person to repudiate sex reassignment procedures? 2. The role of the body in identity and agency. How do phenomenological insights regarding the constitution of selfhood in relation (...)
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Transgenderism and Postgenderism
  1. Talia Mae Bettcher, Feminist Perspectives on Trans Issues. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  2. Talia Bettcher & Ann Garry (2009). Introduction. Hypatia 24 (3):1-10.
  3. Talia Bettcher & Ann Garry (2009). Introduction to Hypatia Special Issue: ‘‘Transgender Studies and Feminism: Theory, Politics, and Gendered Realities. Hypatia 23 (4):1-10.
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  4. Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux, The Transgender Normal.
    [under review] Surprisingly, it follows from mainstream scholarly assumptions about the nature of sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism we call sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans has several important consequences. First, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles (depending on where you draw the line) become the historical norm. Another is that, since those on the political Right usually tolerate or even encourage exaggeration, anti-trans conservatives are not just wrong, but inconsistent in condemning (...)
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  5. Lisa Guenther (2010). Other Fecundities: Proust and Irigaray on Sexual Difference. Differences 21 (2).
    Irigaray's early work seeks to multiply possibilities for women's self-expression by recovering a sexual difference in which male and female are neither the same nor opposites, but irreducibly different modes of embodiment. In her more recent work, however, Irigaray has emphasized the duality of the sexes at the expense of multiplicity, enshrining the heterosexual couple as the model of sexual ethics. Alison Stone's recent revision of Irigaray supplements her account of sexual duality with a theory of bodily multiplicity derived from (...)
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Transsexuality
  1. Talia Mae Bettcher, Feminist Perspectives on Trans Issues. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  2. Talia Mae Bettcher (2009). Trans Identities and First-Person Authority. In Laurie Shrage (ed.), You've Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. Oxford University Press.
  3. John Coggon, Natasha Hammond & S.⊘ren Holm (2008). Transsexuals in Sport–Fairness and Freedom, Regulation and Law. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 2 (1):4-17.
    The question of if, and under what conditions transsexuals should be allowed to participate in sports in their acquired sex is becoming increasingly relevant partly because the number of transsexuals is increasing partly because many countries now provide mechanisms for achieving legal recognition as belonging to the new acquired sex. This paper develops (1) an analysis of the justification for maintaining sex segregation in some sports and (2) an account of the rights of transsexuals to be recognised in their new (...)
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  4. Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux, The Transgender Normal.
    [under review] Surprisingly, it follows from mainstream scholarly assumptions about the nature of sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism we call sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans has several important consequences. First, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles (depending on where you draw the line) become the historical norm. Another is that, since those on the political Right usually tolerate or even encourage exaggeration, anti-trans conservatives are not just wrong, but inconsistent in condemning (...)
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  5. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2009). Sexualized Brains. [REVIEW] Isis: 100 (4):887-888.
  6. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2009). Transsexualität Zwischen Genetik Und Sozialer Praxis. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 57 (5):757-780.
    Transsexuality has been subject to careful reflections in many disciplines outside philosophy. I first contextualize my philosophical approach by relating to the existing scholarship on transsexuality. Focusing on matters of sexual identity, I then propose a characterization of what might be considered the philosophical dimension of transsexual identity. Paying particular attention to the propositional consciousness of transsexuals, I develop the main thesis that transsexuality helps philosophers of sex to forcefully establish the contingency of sexual identity in terms of the underlying (...)
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