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Subcategories:History/traditions: Transgender Issues
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  1. J. Michael Bailey & Kiira Triea (2007). What Many Transgender Activists Don't Want You to Know: And Why You Should Know It Anyway. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 50 (4):521-534.
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  2. Nicholas Bamforth (ed.) (2005). Sex Rights: The Oxford Amnesty Lectures 2002. OUP Oxford.
    The 2002 volume of the internationally renowned Oxford Amnesty Lectures series. This volume seeks to explore the role and limitations of ideas of human rights in the area of gender and sexuality; in particular, when considering the social position of women , gay men, trans-gendered and transsexual persons. The authors are internationally distinguished writers from the areas of literature, social theory, law, and journalism.
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  3. P. Cardon (2010). Post-Queer: In Defense of a 'Trans-Gender Approach' or Trans-Gender as an Analytical Category. Diogenes 57 (1):138-150.
    The notion of gender, introduced into France by queens and drags in the late 20th century (the glorious period of the "drag-queens") and revitalized by American "queer", follows a traditionally feminist path where homosexual and particularly male issues are once again being hidden away. Having played a big part in popularizing that first version, Patrick Cardon proposes, in order to avoid any misunderstanding and escape once for all from any attempts at reification, to use the term and the universal notion (...)
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  4. H. Draper (1988). Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment. Journal of Medical Ethics 14 (1):47-48.
  5. Timothy F. Murphy (2010). The Ethics of Helping Transgender Men and Women Have Children. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 53 (1):46-60.
    A transgender man legally married to a woman has given birth to two children, raising questions about the ethics of assisted reproductive treatments (ARTs) for people with cross-sex identities. Psychiatry treats cross-sex identities as a disorder, but key medical organizations and the law in some jurisdictions have taken steps to protect people with these identities from discrimination in health care, housing, and employment. In fact, many people with cross-sex identities bypass psychiatric treatment altogether in order to pursue lives that are (...)
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  6. Kathleen O'Riordan, Transgender and Global Media: Global Activism or Casualty of Globalisation.
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  7. Helena Preester (2013). Merleau-Ponty's Sexual Schema and the Sexual Component of Body Integrity Identity Disorder. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (2):171-184.
    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID), formerly also known as apotemnophilia, is characterized by a desire for amputation of a healthy limb and is claimed to straddle or to even blur the boundary between psychiatry and neurology. The neurological line of approach, however, is a recent one, and is accompanied or preceded by psychodynamical, behavioural, philosophical, and psychiatric approaches and hypotheses. Next to its confusing history in which the disorder itself has no fixed identity and could not be classified under a (...)
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  8. Rupert Read (2013). Feminism and Trans-Women. The Philosophers' Magazine 61 (61):26-28.
  9. Elizabeth Reis (2009). Review of Katrina Karkazis, Fixing Sex: Intersex, Medical Authority, and Lived Experience. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 9 (6):105-106.
  10. Ruthann Robson (2007). A Mere Switch or a Fundamental Change? Theorizing Transgender Marriage. Hypatia 22 (1):58-70.
    : Focusing on the legal cases that have been litigated in the United States, and making references to popular culture, this article considers whether marriages in which one of the partners is transgendered necessarily challenge or necessarily reinforce heterosexual hegemony.
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  11. Gayle Salamon (2010). Sameness, Alterity, Flesh: Luce Irigaray and the Place of Sexual Undecidability. In Elena Tzelepis & Athena Athanasiou (eds.), Rewriting Difference: Luce Irigaray and "the Greeks". State University of New York Press
  12. Krista Scott-Dixon (2009). Public Health, Private Parts: A Feminist Public-Health Approach to Trans Issues. Hypatia 24 (3):33 - 55.
    This paper identifies and examines the possible contributions that emerging fields of study, particularly feminist public health, can make to enhancing and expanding trans/feminist theory and practice. A feminist public-health approach that is rooted in a tradition of political economy, social justice and equity studies, and an anti-oppression orientation, provides one of the most comprehensive "toolboxes" of perspectives, theoretical frameworks, methods, practices, processes, and strategies for trans-oriented scholars and activists.
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  13. Alexis Shotwell & Trevor Sangrey (2009). Resisting Definition: Gendering Through Interaction and Relational Selfhood. Hypatia 24 (3):56 - 76.
    This paper argues that trans and genderqueer people affect the gender formation and identity of non-trans people. We explore three instances of this relationship between trans and non-trans genders: an allegiance to inadequate liberal-individualist models of selfhood; tropes through which trans people are made to stand as theoretical objects with which to think about gender broadly; and a narrow focus on gender and evasion of an intersectional understanding of gender formation.
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  14. Laurie J. Shrage (ed.) (2009). You've Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. OUP Usa.
    Is sex identity a feature of one's mind or body, and is it a relational or intrinsic property? Who is in the best position to know a person's sex, do we each have a true sex, and is a person's sex an alterable characteristic? When a person's sex assignment changes, has the old self disappeared and a new one emerged; or, has only the public presentation of one's self changed? "You've Changed" examines the philosophical questions raised by the phenomenon of (...)
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  15. J. Arthur Thompson (1911). Book Review:The Intermediate Sex. A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women. Edward Carpenter. [REVIEW] Ethics 21 (4):502-.
  16. Sarah Valentine, Queer Kids: A Comprehensive Annotated Legal Bibliography on Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth.
    This annotated bibliography is published at 19 Yale Journal of Law and Feminism 449 (2008). It is a comprehensive collection of law review articles, and selected other materials, relevant to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and questioning youth. These "queer kids"--minors between the ages of ten and twenty who are perceived as being gender or sexuality nonconforming--are the most endangered and underserved adolescent population in the United States. They face danger in their homes, schools, and the juvenile justice system. Their ability (...)
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  17. Georgia Warnke (2001). Intersexuality and the Categories of Sex. Hypatia 16 (3):126-137.
    : Operations on intersexuals indicate that the sex of a person is based on more than biology. Expectations about proper gender activities furnish the frameworks through which certain features and combinations of features are understood to be fundamental to bodies and to comprise their sex. Yet, we can ask whether this interpretation is either coherent or consistent with our fuller conceptions of ourselves. Is there a point to interpreting a person as a sex?
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  18. Kristin Zeiler (2010). Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation, and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex. Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):133-156.
    The influence of pervasive cultural norms on people’s actions constitutes a longstanding problem for autonomy theory. On the one hand, such norms often seem to elude the kind of reflection that autonomous agency requires. On the other hand, they are hardly entirely beyond the pale of autonomy: people do sometimes reflect critically on them and resist them. This paper draws on phenomenological accounts of embodiment in order to reconcile these observations. We suggest that pervasive cultural norms exert a strong and (...)
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Gender Identity Disorder
  1. Burkay Ozturk, Ethical First-Person Authority and The Moral Status of Rejecting.
    There are two popular ways of explaining why a person has authority over her own gender identity: epistemic FPA and ethical FPA. Both have problems. Epistemic FPA attributes to the self-identifier an unrealistic degree of doxastic reliability. Ethical FPA implies the existence of an unqualified obligation not to reject which is too strong to be plausible. This essay offers a third explanation called “weak FPA” and investigates how far first-person authority reaches in terms of grounding rights and obligating others. Weak (...)
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Intersexuality
  1. Maren Behrensen, Intersex Athletes: Do We Need A Gender Police In Professional Sports? IWM Junior Visiting Fellows' Conferences XXIX.
    Based on the case of Caster Semenya, I argue in this paper that the practice of Gender Verification Testing (GVT) in professional sports is unethical and pointless. The presumed benefit of GVT—ensuring fair competition for female athletes—is virtually nonexistent compared to its potential harms, in particular the exposure of individual athletes to a largely interphobic public. GVTs constitute a serious incursion on the athlete’s dignity, autonomy, and privacy; an incursion that cannot be justified by the appeal to fairness. My argument (...)
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  2. Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux, Gender Exaggeration as Trans.
    Surprisingly, it follows from commonplaces about sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism achievable through sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans---or at least its moral equivalent---has several important consequences. One is that, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles have often been mainstream. But more importantly, recognizing that gender exaggeration is trans (or its moral equivalent) reveals a number of sex- and gender-discriminatory practices and intolerant attitudes: from pathologizing hypergender to legally restricting androgenic hormones, many (...)
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  3. Ellen K. Feder (2011). Tilting the Ethical Lens: Shame, Disgust, and the Body in Question. Hypatia 26 (3):632-650.
    Cheryl Chase has argued that “the problem” of intersex is one of “stigma and trauma, not gender,” as those focused on medical management would have it. Despite frequent references to shame in the critical literature, there has been surprisingly little analysis of shame, or of the disgust that provokes it. This paper investigates the function of disgust in the medical management of intersex and seeks to understand the consequences—material and moral—with respect to the shame it provokes.Conventional ethical approaches may not (...)
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  4. Jennifer John (2003). Intersex und Geschlechterstudien. Die Philosophin 14 (28):120-122.
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  5. Erik Malmqvist & Kristin Zeiler (2010). Cultural Norms, the Phenomenology of Incorporation, and the Experience of Having a Child Born with Ambiguous Sex. Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):133-156.
    The influence of pervasive cultural norms on people’s actions constitutes a longstanding problem for autonomy theory. On the one hand, such norms often seem to elude the kind of reflection that autonomous agency requires. On the other hand, they are hardly entirely beyond the pale of autonomy: people do sometimes reflect critically on them and resist them. This paper draws on phenomenological accounts of embodiment in order to reconcile these observations. We suggest that pervasive cultural norms exert a strong and (...)
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Transgender Issues, Misc
  1. Talia Mae Bettcher (2013). "Trans Women and the Meaning of ‘Woman’". In A. Soble, N. Power & R. Halwani (eds.), Philosophy of Sex: Contemporary Readings, Sixth Edition. Rowan & Littlefield 233-250.
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  2. Talia Mae Bettcher (2013). Trans Women and Interpretive Intimacy: Some Initial Reflections”. In D. Castenada (ed.), The Essential Handbook of Women's Sexuality. Praeger 51-68.
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  3. Talia Mae Bettcher (2012). Full-Frontal Morality: The Naked Truth About Gender. Hypatia 27 (2):319-337.
    This paper examines Harold Garfinkel's notion of the natural attitude about sex and his claim that it is fundamentally moral in nature. The author looks beneath the natural attitude in order to explain its peculiar resilience and oppressive force. There she reveals a moral order grounded in the dichotomously sexed bodies so constituted through boundaries governing privacy and decency. In particular, naked bodies are sex-differentiated within a system of genital representation through gender presentation—a system that helps constitute the very boundaries (...)
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  4. Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux, Gender Exaggeration as Trans.
    Surprisingly, it follows from commonplaces about sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism achievable through sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans---or at least its moral equivalent---has several important consequences. One is that, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles have often been mainstream. But more importantly, recognizing that gender exaggeration is trans (or its moral equivalent) reveals a number of sex- and gender-discriminatory practices and intolerant attitudes: from pathologizing hypergender to legally restricting androgenic hormones, many (...)
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  5. Yiftach J. H. Fehige (2009). Sexualized Brains. [REVIEW] Isis: 100 (4):887-888.
  6. B. R. George, What Even is 'Gender'?
    This paper presents a new taxonomy of sex/gender concepts based on the idea of starting with a few basic components of the sex/gender system, and exhausting the possible types of simple associations and identities based on these. The resulting system is significantly more fine-grained than most competitors, and helps to clarify a number of points of confusion and conceptual tension in academic and activist conversations about feminism, transgender politics, and the social analysis of gender.
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  7. Lisa Heldke (2010). Dear Kate Bornstein. Radical Philosophy Today 3:101-109.
    In this brief paper, I want to begin to explore the possibility that bi-trans dialogue can challenge those forms of oppression that are grounded in sex, gender, and sexuality. I am particularly interested in pursuing the possibility that bi-trans dialogue might result in additional critiques of the sex-gender-sexuality triad. Despite multiple challenges, and myriad historical transmogri-fications (including, it must be noted, the very late addition of gender), that triad maintains its foundationality and posits deep causal links among its three parts. (...)
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  8. Patricia Marino (2010). Review of Laurie Shrage, You've Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (1).
  9. Rachel McKinnon (2015). Trans*Formative Experiences. Res Philosophica 92 (2):419-440.
    What happens when we consider transformative experiences from the perspective of gender transitions? In this paper I suggest that at least two insights emerge. First, trans* persons’ experiences of gender transitions show some limitations to L.A. Paul’s (forthcoming) decision theoretic account of transformative decisions. This will involve exploring some of the phenomenology of coming to know that one is trans, and in coming to decide to transition. Second, what epistemological effects are there to undergoing a transformative experience? By connecting some (...)
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  10. Rachel Mckinnon (2014). Stereotype Threat and Attributional Ambiguity for Trans Women. Hypatia 29 (1):857-872.
    In this paper I discuss the interrelated topics of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity as they relate to gender and gender identity. The former has become an emerging topic in feminist philosophy and has spawned a tremendous amount of research in social psychology and elsewhere. But the discussion, at least in how it connects to gender, is incomplete: the focus is only on cisgender women and their experiences. By considering trans women's experiences of stereotype threat and attributional ambiguity, we gain (...)
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  11. Diana Tietjens Meyers (2009). Artifice and Authenticity: Gender Technology and Agency in Two Jenny Saville Portraits. In Laurie Shrage (ed.), You’ve Changed”: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. Oxford UP
    This paper addresses two related topics: 1. The disanalogies between elective cosmetic practices and sex reassignment surgery. Why does it seem necessary for me – an aging professional woman – to ignore the blandishments of hairdressers wielding dyes and dermatologists wielding acids and scalpels? Why does it not seem equally necessary for a transgendered person to repudiate sex reassignment procedures? 2. The role of the body in identity and agency. How do phenomenological insights regarding the constitution of selfhood in relation (...)
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  12. Burkay Ozturk, Ethical First-Person Authority and The Moral Status of Rejecting.
    There are two popular ways of explaining why a person has authority over her own gender identity: epistemic FPA and ethical FPA. Both have problems. Epistemic FPA attributes to the self-identifier an unrealistic degree of doxastic reliability. Ethical FPA implies the existence of an unqualified obligation not to reject which is too strong to be plausible. This essay offers a third explanation called “weak FPA” and investigates how far first-person authority reaches in terms of grounding rights and obligating others. Weak (...)
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Transgender Rights
  1. Talia Mae Bettcher, Feminist Perspectives on Trans Issues. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  2. Talia Mae Bettcher (2009). Trans Identities and First-Person Authority. In Laurie Shrage (ed.), You've Changed: Sex Reassignment and Personal Identity. Oxford University Press
  3. Dan Demetriou & Michael Prideaux, Gender Exaggeration as Trans.
    Surprisingly, it follows from commonplaces about sex and gender that there is a widely-practiced variety of transgenderism achievable through sex/gender “exaggerating.” Recognizing exaggeration as trans---or at least its moral equivalent---has several important consequences. One is that, since most traditional cultures endorse exaggeration, trans lifestyles have often been mainstream. But more importantly, recognizing that gender exaggeration is trans (or its moral equivalent) reveals a number of sex- and gender-discriminatory practices and intolerant attitudes: from pathologizing hypergender to legally restricting androgenic hormones, many (...)
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  4. Timothy F. Murphy (2014). Assisted Gestation and Transgender Women. Bioethics 4 (6):DOI: 10.1111.bioe.12132.
    Developments in uterus transplant put assisted gestation within meaningful range of clinical success for women with uterine infertility who want to gestate children. Should this kind of transplantation prove routine and effective for those women, would there be any morally significant reason why men or transgender women should not be eligible for the same opportunity for gestation? Getting to the point of safe and effective uterus transplantation for those parties would require a focused line of research, over and above the (...)
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  5. Burkay Ozturk, Ethical First-Person Authority and The Moral Status of Rejecting.
    There are two popular ways of explaining why a person has authority over her own gender identity: epistemic FPA and ethical FPA. Both have problems. Epistemic FPA attributes to the self-identifier an unrealistic degree of doxastic reliability. Ethical FPA implies the existence of an unqualified obligation not to reject which is too strong to be plausible. This essay offers a third explanation called “weak FPA” and investigates how far first-person authority reaches in terms of grounding rights and obligating others. Weak (...)
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Transgenderism and Postgenderism
  1. Talia Mae Bettcher, Feminist Perspectives on Trans Issues. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  2. Talia Bettcher & Ann Garry (2009). Introduction. Hypatia 24 (3):1-10.
  3. Talia Bettcher & Ann Garry (2009). Introduction to Hypatia Special Issue: ‘‘Transgender Studies and Feminism: Theory, Politics, and Gendered Realities. Hypatia 23 (4):1-10.
  4. Lisa Guenther (2010). Other Fecundities: Proust and Irigaray on Sexual Difference. Differences 21 (2).
    Irigaray's early work seeks to multiply possibilities for women's self-expression by recovering a sexual difference in which male and female are neither the same nor opposites, but irreducibly different modes of embodiment. In her more recent work, however, Irigaray has emphasized the duality of the sexes at the expense of multiplicity, enshrining the heterosexual couple as the model of sexual ethics. Alison Stone's recent revision of Irigaray supplements her account of sexual duality with a theory of bodily multiplicity derived from (...)
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  5. Gunnar Lund (2012). Across and Beyond: The Semantics of Transgender Identity. Stance 5:7-18.
    This paper examines two senses of the term “transgender:” transgender as across the gender binary and transgender as beyond the gender binary. Explored are the difficulties this ambiguity poses to transpeople. In short, using the theories of Ferdinand de Saussure and Richard Rorty, this paper argues that the meaning of “transgender” must simultaneously embrace both senses of the term, rather than one or the other.
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  6. Burkay Ozturk, Ethical First-Person Authority and The Moral Status of Rejecting.
    There are two popular ways of explaining why a person has authority over her own gender identity: epistemic FPA and ethical FPA. Both have problems. Epistemic FPA attributes to the self-identifier an unrealistic degree of doxastic reliability. Ethical FPA implies the existence of an unqualified obligation not to reject which is too strong to be plausible. This essay offers a third explanation called “weak FPA” and investigates how far first-person authority reaches in terms of grounding rights and obligating others. Weak (...)
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