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  1. Nicholas Agar (2007). Whereto Transhumanism? The Literature Reaches a Critical Mass. Hastings Center Report 37 (3):12-17.
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  2. Igor Aleksander (2012). Design and the Singularity: The Philosophers Stone of AI? Journal of Consciousness Studies 19 (7-8):7-8.
    Much discussion on the singularity is based on the assumption that the design ability of a human can be transferred into an AI system, then rendered autonomous and self-improving. I argue here that this cannot be foreseen from the current state of the art of automatic or evolutionary design. Assuming that this will happen 'some day' is a doubtful step andmay be in the class of 'searching for the Philosopher's Stone'.
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  3. Keith Ansell-Pearson (1997). The Transhuman Condition: A Report on Machines, Technics, and Evolution. Routledge.
    Evolution is seen to be entering a bio-technological phase. Nietzsche's affirmation that "man is something that must be overcome" no longer has a rhetorical ring given the means at our disposal at the end of the twentieth century. Viroid Life boldly challenges existing explanations of these changes inherited from modernity, arguing that they have exhausted their usefulness and new models are needed to guide us in mapping through the future. Exploring and critically examining the new realities of artificial life that (...)
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  4. William Sims Bainbridge (2012). Whole-Personality Emulation. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 4 (01):159-175.
  5. Lynne Rudder Baker (2013). Technology and the Future of Persons. The Monist 96 (1):37-53.
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  6. Sim Bamford (2012). A Framework for Approaches to Transfer of a Mind's Substrate. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 4 (01):23-34.
  7. John Basl & Ronald Sandler (2010). Transhumanism, Human Dignity, and Moral Status. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):63-66.
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  8. Birgit Beck (2014). Conceptual and Practical Problems of Moral Enhancement. Bioethics 29 (2):n/a-n/a.
    Recently, the debate on human enhancement has shifted from familiar topics like cognitive enhancement and mood enhancement to a new and – to no one's surprise – controversial subject, namely moral enhancement. Some proponents from the transhumanist camp allude to the ‘urgent need’ of improving the moral conduct of humankind in the face of ever growing technological progress and the substantial dangers entailed in this enterprise. Other thinkers express more sceptical views about this proposal. As the debate has revealed so (...)
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  9. Jean-Pierre Béland & Johane Patenaude (2013). Risk and the Question of the Acceptability of Human Enhancement: The Humanist and Transhumanist Perspectives. Dialogue 52 (2):377-394.
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  10. Jean-Pierre Béland, Johane Patenaude, Georges Legault, Patrick Boissy & Monelle Parent (2011). The Social and Ethical Acceptability of NBICs for Purposes of Human Enhancement: Why Does the Debate Remain Mired in Impasse? [REVIEW] NanoEthics 5 (3):295-307.
    The emergence and development of convergent technologies for the purpose of improving human performance, including nanotechnology, biotechnology, information sciences, and cognitive science (NBICs), open up new horizons in the debates and moral arguments that must be engaged by philosophers who hope to take seriously the question of the ethical and social acceptability of these technologies. This article advances an analysis of the factors that contribute to confusion and discord on the topic, in order to help in understanding why arguments that (...)
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  11. M. Bess (2010). Enhanced Humans Versus "Normal People": Elusive Definitions. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):641-655.
    A key aspect of transhumanist thought involves the modification or augmentation of human physical and mental capabilities—a form of intervention often encapsulated under the term "enhancement." This article provides an overview of the concept of enhancement, focusing on six major areas in which usages of the term become slippery and controversial: normal or species-typical functioning, therapeutics or healing, natural functioning, human nature, authenticity, and the ambiguity between "more" and "better." I argue that we need to be aware of the tendency (...)
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  12. J. P. Bishop (2010). Transhumanism, Metaphysics, and the Posthuman God. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):700-720.
    After describing Heidegger's critique of metaphysics as ontotheology, I unpack the metaphysical assumptions of several transhumanist philosophers. I claim that they deploy an ontology of power and that they also deploy a kind of theology, as Heidegger meant it. I also describe the way in which this metaphysics begets its own politics and ethics. In order to transcend the human condition, they must transgress the human.
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  13. Russell Blackford (2010). Editorial–Nietzsche and European Posthumanisms. Journal of Evolution and Technology 21 (1).
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  14. W. A. Borody (2008). Vinyl Nothingness and The Philosophy of Transhumanism. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 24:3-10.
    In this paper, I discuss the pros and cons of the movement and philosophy of Transhumanism, with a focus on the concept of nothingness. I argue that all hitherto concepts of nothingness, both Western and Eastern, are inadequate for an understanding of the present technological position humans now find themselves in.
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  15. W. A. Borody (2008). Vinyl Nothingness and The Philosophy of Transhumanism. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 24:3-10.
    In this paper, I discuss the pros and cons of the movement and philosophy of Transhumanism, with a focus on the concept of nothingness. I argue that all hitherto concepts of nothingness, both Western and Eastern, are inadequate for an understanding of the present technological position humans now find themselves in.
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  16. Nick Bostrom, The Future of Human Evolution.
    Evolutionary development is sometimes thought of as exhibiting an inexorable trend towards higher, more complex, and normatively worthwhile forms of life. This paper explores some dystopian scenarios where freewheeling evolutionary developments, while continuing to produce complex and intelligent forms of organization, lead to the gradual elimination of all forms of being that we care about. We then consider how such catastrophic outcomes could be avoided and argue that under certain conditions the only possible remedy would be a globally coordinated policy (...)
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  17. Nick Bostrom, Transhumanism: The World's Most Dangerous Idea?
    More precisely, transhumanists advocate increased funding for research to radically extend healthy lifespan and favor the development of medical and technological means to improve memory, concentration, and other human capacities. Transhumanists propose that everybody should have the option to use such means to enhance various dimensions of their cognitive, emotional, and physical well-being. Not only is this a natural extension of the traditional aims of medicine and technology, but it is also a great humanitarian opportunity to genuinely improve the human (...)
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  18. Nick Bostrom, The World in 2050.
    This essay explores some of the social, political, economic and technological issues that the world may have to face in the mid-21 st century. A central theme is the need to regulate molecular nanotechnology because of its immense abuse potential. Advanced nanotechnology can be used to build small self-replicating machines that can feed on organic matter - a bit like bacteria but much more versatile, and potentially more destructive than the H-bomb. The necessity to prevent irresponsible groups and individuals from (...)
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  19. Nick Bostrom, What is Transhumanism?
    Over the past few years, a new paradigm for thinking about humankind's future has begun to take shape among some leading computer scientists, neuroscientists, nanotechnologists and researchers at the forefront of technological development. The new paradigm rejects a crucial assumption that is implicit in both traditional futurology and practically all of today's political thinking. This is the assumption that the "human condition" is at root a constant. Present-day processes can be fine-tuned; wealth can be increased and redistributed; tools can be (...)
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  20. Nick Bostrom, Why I Want to Be a Posthuman When I Grow Up.
    Extreme human enhancement could result in “posthuman” modes of being. After offering some definitions and conceptual clarification, I argue for two theses. First, some posthuman modes of being would be very worthwhile. Second, it could be very good for human beings to become posthuman.
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  21. Nick Bostrom, When Machines Outsmart Humans.
    Artificial intelligence is a possibility that should not be ignored in any serious thinking about the future, and it raises many profound issues for ethics and public policy that philosophers ought to start thinking about. This article outlines the case for thinking that human-level machine intelligence might well appear within the next half century. It then explains four immediate consequences of such a development, and argues that machine intelligence would have a revolutionary impact on a wide range of the social, (...)
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  22. Nick Bostrom (2009). The Future of Humanity. In Jan Kyrre Berg Olsen Friis, Evan Selinger & Søren Riis (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Technology. Palgrave Macmillan.
    The future of humanity is often viewed as a topic for idle speculation. Yet our beliefs and assumptions on this subject matter shape decisions in both our personal lives and public policy – decisions that have very real and sometimes unfortunate consequences. It is therefore practically important to try to develop a realistic mode of futuristic thought about big picture questions for humanity. This paper sketches an overview of some recent attempts in this direction, and it offers a brief discussion (...)
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  23. Nick Bostrom (2006). A Short History of Transhumanist Thought. Analysis and Metaphysics 5:63 - 95.
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  24. Nick Bostrom (2005). Transhumanist Values. Journal of Philosophical Research 30 (Supplement):3-14.
    Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades. [1] It promotes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and evaluating the opportunities for enhancing the human condition and the human organism opened up by the advancement of technology. Attention is given to both present technologies, like genetic engineering and information technology, and anticipated future ones, such as molecular nanotechnology and artificial intelligence.
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  25. Nick Bostrom (2005). In Defense of Posthuman Dignity. Bioethics 19 (3):202–214.
    Positions on the ethics of human enhancement technologies can be (crudely) characterized as ranging from transhumanism to bioconservatism. Transhumanists believe that human enhancement technologies should be made widely available, that individuals should have broad discretion over which of these technologies to apply to themselves, and that parents should normally have the right to choose enhancements for their children-to-be. Bioconservatives (whose ranks include such diverse writers as Leon Kass, Francis Fukuyama, George Annas, Wesley Smith, Jeremy Rifkin, and Bill McKibben) are generally (...)
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  26. Nick Bostrom (2005). — ŽŽ—œŽ ˜ ˜œ‘ž–Š— ’—’In Defence of Posthuman Dignity. Bioethics 19 (3):202-214.
    Positions on the ethics of human enhancement technologies can be (crudely) characterized as ranging from transhumanism to bioconservatism. Transhumanists believe that human enhancement technologies should be made widely available, that individuals should have broad discretion over which of these technologies to apply to themselves, and that parents should normally have the right to choose enhancements for their children-to-be. Bioconservatives (whose ranks include such diverse writers as Leon Kass, Francis Fukuyama, George Annas, Wesley Smith, Jeremy Rifkin, and Bill McKibben) are generally (...)
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  27. Nick Bostrom (2005). A History of Transhumanist Thought. Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (1):1-25.
    The human desire to acquire new capacities is as ancient as our species itself. We have always sought to expand the boundaries of our existence, be it socially, geographically, or mentally. There is a tendency in at least some individuals always to search for a way around every obstacle and limitation to human life and happiness.
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  28. Nick Bostrom (2003). Human Genetic Enhancements: A Transhumanist Perspective. [REVIEW] Journal of Value Inquiry 37 (4):493-506.
    Transhumanism is a loosely defined movement that has developed gradually over the past two decades. It promotes an interdisciplinary approach to understanding and evaluating the opportunities for enhancing the human condition and the human organism opened up by the advancement of technology. Attention is given to both present technologies, like genetic engineering and information technology, and anticipated future ones, such as molecular nanotechnology and artificial intelligence.
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  29. Nick Bostrom (2003). Taking Intelligent Machines Seriously: Reply to Critics. Futures 35 (8):901-906.
    In an earlier paper in this journal[1], I sought to defend the claims that (1) substantial probability should be assigned to the hypothesis that machines will outsmart humans within 50 years, (2) such an event would have immense ramifications for many important areas of human concern, and that consequently (3) serious attention should be given to this scenario. Here, I will address a number of points made by several commentators.
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  30. Nick Bostrom, The Transhumanist FAQ.
  31. Nick Bostrom (2002). Existential Risks. Journal of Evolution and Technology 9.
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  32. Nick Bostrom & Anders Sandberg (2009). The Wisdom of Nature: An Evolutionary Heuristic for Human Enhancement. In Julian Savulescu & Nick Bostrom (eds.), Human Enhancement. Oup Oxford. 375--416.
  33. H. G. Bradshaw & R. ter Meulen (2010). A Transhumanist Fault Line Around Disability: Morphological Freedom and the Obligation to Enhance. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 35 (6):670-684.
    The transhumanist literature encompasses diverse nonnovel positions on questions of disability and obligation reflecting long-running political philosophical debates on freedom and value choice, complicated by the difficulty of projecting values to enhanced beings. These older questions take on a more concrete form given transhumanist uses of biotechnologies. This paper will contrast the views of Hughes and Sandberg on the obligations persons with "disabilities" have to enhance and suggest a new model. The paper will finish by introducing a distinction between the (...)
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  34. Heidi Campbell & Mark Walker (2005). Religion and Transhumanism: Introducing a Conversation. Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (2).
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  35. David Cecchetto (2013). Humanesis: Sound and Technological Posthumanism. Univ of Minnesota Press.
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  36. David J. Chalmers (2012). The Singularity: A Reply to Commentators. Journal of Consciousness Studies.
    I would like to thank the authors of the 26 contributions to this symposium on my article “The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis”. I learned a great deal from the reading their commentaries. Some of the commentaries engaged my article in detail, while others developed ideas about the singularity in other directions. In this reply I will concentrate mainly on those in the first group, with occasional comments on those in the second. A singularity (or an intelligence explosion) is a rapid (...)
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  37. David J. Chalmers (2010). The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis. Journal of Consciousness Studies 17 (9-10):9 - 10.
    What happens when machines become more intelligent than humans? One view is that this event will be followed by an explosion to ever-greater levels of intelligence, as each generation of machines creates more intelligent machines in turn. This intelligence explosion is now often known as the “singularity”. The basic argument here was set out by the statistician I.J. Good in his 1965 article “Speculations Concerning the First Ultraintelligent Machine”: Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far (...)
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  38. Audrey R. Chapman (2010). Inconsistency of Human Rights Approaches to Human Dignity with Transhumanism. American Journal of Bioethics 10 (7):61-63.
  39. Milan M. Cirkovic (2003). On the Importance of SETI for Transhumanism. Journal of Evolution and Technology 13 (2).
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  40. Ronald Cole-Turner (2012). The Singularity and the Rapture: Transhumanist and Popular Christian Views of the Future. Zygon 47 (4):777-796.
  41. Eduardo R. Cruz (2013). Transhumanism and the Fate of Natality: An Introduction. Zygon 48 (4):916-935.
    Transhumanist thought on overpopulation usually invokes the welfare of present human beings and the control over future generation, thus minimizing the need and meaning of new births. Here we devise a framework for a more thorough screening of the relevant literature, to have a better appreciation of the issue of natality. We follow the lead of Hannah Arendt and Brent Waters in this respect. With three overlapping categories of words, headed by “natality,” “birth,” and “intergenerations,” a large sample of books (...)
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  42. Leon Culbertson (2011). Sartre on Human Nature: Humanness, Transhumanism and Performance-Enhancement. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy 5 (3):231 - 244.
    This article is concerned with an apparent similarity between the conceptions of human nature found in the early work of Jean-Paul Sartre and certain forms of transhumanism, and the role of a particular conception of human nature in the application of transhumanist ideas to debates on performance-enhancement. The article begins with a brief outline of major features of Sartre's phenomenological work (?I). The article then gives a more detailed account of the relationship between Sartre's phenomenological ontology and the view of (...)
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  43. Bernard M. Daly, Transhumanism: Toward a Brave New World?
    The conference did not target only the U.S. Christian right for opposing such things as stem cell research. It challenged every faith community that believes a human being is more than just one more biological product. The weekend of Aug. 7 was organized by the World Transhumanist Association. In 2005 its conference will be in Caracas, Venezuela, where this small band of transhumanists will continue to challenge all larger faith communities to review what they have to say about a "brave (...)
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  44. Todd Daly (2005). Life-Extension in Transhumanist and Christian Perspectives: Consonance and Conflict. Journal of Evolution and Technology 14 (2):57-75.
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  45. Sheryl de Lacey (2013). Maxwell J. Mehlman,Transhumanist Dreams and Dystopian Nightmares: The Promise and Peril of Genetic Engineering.(Johns Hopkins University Press, 2012). International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (2):198-200.
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  46. Sheryl de Lacey (2013). Transhumanist Dreams and Dystopian Nightmares: The Promise and Peril of Genetic Engineering by Maxwell J. Mehlman (Review). International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics 6 (2):198-200.
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  47. Bob Doede (2009). Transhumanism, Technology, and the Future: Posthumanity Emerging or Sub-Humanity Descending? Appraisal 7 (3).
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  48. R. P. Doede (2008). Polanyi in the Face of Transhumanism. Tradition and Discovery 35 (1):33-45.
    This essay gives a brief overview of Transhumanism and explores a few of its central ideas in the light of Polanyi’s views about embodiment, Marxism, and reality’s hierarchal order, concluding that although Polanyi would likely appreciate the possibilities of cyborgic augmentation that feature in the Transhumanist route to the posthuman, he would utterly repudiate its metaphysics of disembodied intelligence and its underlying technological determinism.
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  49. D. John Doyle (2010). What Does It Mean to Be Human? Humanness, Personhood and the Transhumanist Movement. Ethics in Biology, Engineering and Medicine 1 (2):107-131.
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  50. Bárbara Nascimento Duarte & Enno Park (2014). Body, Technology and Society: A Dance of Encounters. NanoEthics 8 (3):259-261.
    In the special section ‘Body Hacking: Self-Made Cyborgs and Visions of Transhuman Corporeality’, attention is drawn to cyborgism, a set of cultural and very personal practices of experimentation with the human body that often take place outside the confines of institutionalised technoscience. Known, for example, as ‘body hackers’, ‘grinders’ or ‘self-made cyborgs’ and engaging in unusual forms of body modification, the practitioners are enthusiasts who do not necessarily have any ‘disability’ in the conventional sense of the term. They consider the (...)
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