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  1. Joseph Agassi (2011). Verisimilitude. Discusiones Filosóficas 12 (19):61 - 86.
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  2. Eric Christian Barnes (1990). Beyond Truthlikeness: Toward a Linguistically Invariant Theory of Scientific Progress. Dissertation, Indiana University
    In the 1970's a problem arose for the viability of Popper's truthlikeness project. The problem, in short, was that all plausible measures of the truthlikeness of scientific theories were language dependent. This dissertation is primarily concerned to provide a substitute notion that can do the work 'verisimilitude' was intended to do without suffering from linguistic relativity. It is argued that the notion of 'knowledge', or 'knowledgelikeness', can suffice in this regard. ;Chapter One seeks to convince the reader that the notion (...)
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  3. Jesus P. Zamora Bonilla (2000). Truthlikeness, Rationality and Scientific Method. Synthese 122 (3):321 - 335.
    I. A. Kieseppä's criticism of the methodological use of the theory of verisimilitude, and D. B. Resnik's arguments against the explanation of scientific method by appeal to scientific aims are critically considered. Since the notion of verisimilitude was introduced as an attempt to show that science can be seen as a rational enterprise in the pursuit of truth, defenders of the verisimilitude programme need to show that scientific norms can be interpreted (at least in principle) as rules that try to (...)
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  4. Jesùs P. Zamora Bonilla (1996). Verisimilitude, Structuralism and Scientific Progress. Erkenntnis 44 (1):25 - 47.
    An epistemic notion of verisimilitude (as the 'degree in which a theory seems closer to the full truth to a scientific community') is defined in several ways. Application to the structuralist description of theories is carried out by introducing a notion of 'empirical regularity' in structuralist terms. It is argued that these definitions of verisimilitude can be used to give formal reconstructions of scientific methodologies such as falsificationism, conventionalism and normal science.
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  5. Jerzy Brzezinski & Leszek Nowak (1992). Idealization Iii: Approximation and Truth. Rodopi.
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  6. Gerard R. Renardel de Lavalette & Sjoerd D. Zwart (2011). Belief Revision and Verisimilitude Based on Preference and Truth Orderings. Erkenntnis 75 (2):237-254.
    In this rather technical paper we establish a useful combination of belief revision and verisimilitude according to which better theories provide better predictions, and revising with more verisimilar data results in theories that are closer to the truth. Moreover, this paper presents two alternative definitions of refined verisimilitude, which are more perspicuous than the algebraic version used in previous publications.
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  7. Roberto Festa (2007). Verisimilitude, Qualitative Theories, and Statistical Inferences. In Sami Pihlström, Panu Raatikainen & Matti Sintonen (eds.), Approaching Truth: Essays in Honour of Ilkka Niiniluoto. College Publications. 143--178.
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  8. Giangiacomo Gerla (1992). Distances, Diameters and Verisimilitude of Theories. Archive for Mathematical Logic 31 (6):407-414.
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  9. Susan Haack (1987). Realism. Synthese 73 (2):275 - 299.
    Realism is multiply ambiguous. The central concern of Part 1 of this paper is to distinguish several of its many senses — four (Theoretical Realism, Cumulative Realism, Progressive Realism and Optimistic Realism) in which it refers to theses about the status of scientific theories, and five (Minimal Realism, Ambitious Absolutism, Transcendentalism, Nidealism, Scholastic Realism) in which it refers to theses about the nature of truth or truth-bearers. Because Realism has these several, largely independent, senses, the conventional wisdom that Tarski's theory (...)
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  10. Shelby D. Hunt (2011). Theory Status, Inductive Realism, and Approximate Truth: No Miracles, No Charades. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 25 (2):159 - 178.
    The concept of approximate truth plays a prominent role in most versions of scientific realism. However, adequately conceptualizing ?approximate truth? has proved challenging. This article argues that the goal of articulating the concept of approximate truth can be advanced by first investigating the processes by which science accords theories the status of accepted or rejected. Accordingly, this article uses a path diagram model as a visual heuristic for the purpose of showing the processes in science that are involved in determining (...)
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  11. Kevin T. Kelly & Clark Glymour (1989). Convergence to the Truth and Nothing but the Truth. Philosophy of Science 56 (2):185-220.
    One construal of convergent realism is that for each clear question, scientific inquiry eventually answers it. In this paper we adapt the techniques of formal learning theory to determine in a precise manner the circumstances under which this ideal is achievable. In particular, we define two criteria of convergence to the truth on the basis of evidence. The first, which we call EA convergence, demands that the theorist converge to the complete truth "all at once". The second, which we call (...)
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  12. I. A. Kieseppä (1996). Truthlikeness for Multidimensional, Quantitative Cognitive Problems.
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  13. Władysław Krajewski (1978). Approximative Truth of Fact-Statements, Laws, and Theories. Synthese 38 (2):275 - 279.
    The paper is a sketch of a conception of approximative truth (or verisimilitude). The concepts of relative error, and degree of inadequacy are introduced. By means of them the concept of truth-content of quantitative facts-statements, laws and theories is defined. Laws and theories accepted in science have a high truth-content, i.e. they are approximately true.
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  14. Theo A. F. Kuipers (2005). Another Start for Abduction Aiming at Empirical Progress: Reply to Joke Meheus. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 83 (1):218-220.
    This paper primarily deals with the conceptual prospects for generalizing the aim of abduction from the standard one of explaining surprising or anomalous observations to that of empirical progress or even truth approximation. It turns out that the main abduction task then becomes the instrumentalist task of theory revision aiming at an empirically more successful theory, relative to the available data, but not necessarily compatible with them. The rest, that is, genuine empirical progress as well as observational, referential and theoretical (...)
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  15. Kuipers, Theo A. F., Cools, Kees & Hamminga, Bert, Truth Approximation by Concretization in Capital Structure Theory.
    This paper supplies a structuralist reconstruction of the Modigliani-Miller theory and shows that the economic literature following their results reports on research with an implicit strategy to come "closer-to-the-truth" in the modern technical sense in philosophy of science.
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  16. Gerard R. Renardel de Lavalette & Sjoerd D. Zwart (2011). Belief Revision and Verisimilitude Based on Preference and Truth Orderings. Erkenntnis 75 (2):237 - 254.
    In this rather technical paper we establish a useful combination of belief revision and verisimilitude according to which better theories provide better predictions, and revising with more verisimilar data results in theories that are closer to the truth. Moreover, this paper presents two alternative definitions of refined verisimilitude, which are more perspicuous than the algebraic version used in previous publications.
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  17. Duncan Macintosh (1994). Partial Convergence and Approximate Truth. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 45 (1):153-170.
    Scientific Realists argue that it would be a miracle if scientific theories were getting more predictive without getting closer to the truth; so they must be getting closer to the truth. Van Fraassen, Laudan et al. argue that owing to the underdetermination of theory by data (UDT) for all we know, it is a miracle, a fluke. So we should not believe in even the approximate truth of theories. I argue that there is a test for who is right: suppose (...)
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  18. Irene Mikenberg, Newton C. A. Costa & Rolando Chuaqui (1986). Pragmatic Truth and Approximation to Truth. Journal of Symbolic Logic 51 (1):201-221.
  19. Chris Mortensen (1978). A Theorem On Verisimilitude. Bulletin of the Section of Logic 7 (1):34-40.
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  20. I. Niiniluoto (1998). Truthlikeness: The Third Phase'. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49:1-31.
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  21. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2007). Idealization, Counterfactuals, and Truthlikeness. In Jerzy Brzeziński, Andrzej Klawiter, Theo A. F. Kuipers, Krzysztof Łastowski, Katarzyna Paprzycka & Piotr Przybysz (eds.), The Courage of Doing Philosophy: Essays Dedicated to Leszek Nowak. Rodopi. 103--122.
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  22. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2002). 10 Truthlikeness and Economic Theories. In Uskali Mäki (ed.), Fact and Fiction in Economics: Models, Realism and Social Construction. Cambridge University Press. 214.
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  23. Ilkka Niiniluoto (2000). Scepticism, Fallibilism, and Verisimilitude. Acta Philosophica Fennica 66:145-170.
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  24. Ilkka Niiniluoto (1997). Theoretical Reference and Truthlikeness. In Julian Nida-Rümelin & Georg Meggle (eds.), Analyomen 2, Volume I: Logic, Epistemology, Philosophy of Science. De Gruyter. 439-452.
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  25. Ilkka Niiniluoto (1982). Truthlikeness for Quantitative Statements. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:208 - 216.
    The most elaborate recent accounts of truthlikeness (verisimilitude) apply this notion primarily to generalizations in first-order languages with qualitative predicates. This paper outlines a new approach to the definition of truthlikeness for quantitative statements, including singular statements (point estimation), interval statements (interval estimation), and quantitative laws. In the case of laws, the basic issue is reduced to the topological problem of measuring the distance between two real-valued functions. The solution of this problem makes it possible to define also the notion (...)
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  26. Robert Northcott (2013). Verisimilitude: A Causal Approach. Synthese 190 (9):1471-1488.
    I present a new definition of verisimilitude, framed in terms of causes. Roughly speaking, according to it a scientific model is approximately true if it captures accurately the strengths of the causes present in any given situation. Against much of the literature, I argue that any satisfactory account of verisimilitude must inevitably restrict its judgments to context-specific models rather than general theories. We may still endorse—and only need—a relativized notion of scientific progress, understood now not as global advance but rather (...)
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  27. Graham Oddie (forthcoming). Truth and Truthlikeness. In Glanzberg M. (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Truth. Oxford University Press.
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  28. Graham Oddie (2013). The Content, Consequence and Likeness Approaches to Verisimilitude: Compatibility, Trivialization, and Underdetermination. Synthese 190 (9):1647-1687.
    Theories of verisimilitude have routinely been classified into two rival camps—the content approach and the likeness approach—and these appear to be motivated by very different sets of data and principles. The question thus naturally arises as to whether these approaches can be fruitfully combined. Recently Zwart and Franssen (Synthese 158(1):75–92, 2007) have offered precise analyses of the content and likeness approaches, and shown that given these analyses any attempt to meld content and likeness orderings violates some basic desiderata. Unfortunately their (...)
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  29. Graham Oddie (2008). Truthlikeness and Value. In Pihlstrom S. (ed.), Approaching Truth: Essays in Honour of Ilkka Niiniluoto. College Publications. 225-40.
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  30. Graham Oddie (2001). Truth, Verification, Confirmation, Verisimilitude. In Smelser Niel J. (ed.), International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Elsevier. 12857-64.
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  31. Graham Oddie (1987). Truthlikeness and the Convexity of Propositions. In Kuipers T. (ed.), What is Closer-to-the-Truth. Rodopi. 197-217.
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  32. Graham Oddie (1987). The Picture Theory of Truthlikeness. In Kuipers T. (ed.), What is Closer-to-the-Truth. Rodopi. 25-46.
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  33. Graham Oddie (1986). Likeness to Truth. Reidel.
    What does it take for one proposition to be closer to the truth than another. In this, the first published monograph on the topic, Oddie develops a comprehensive theory that takes the likeness in truthlikeness seriously.
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  34. Graham Oddie (1978). Verisimilitude and Distance in Logical Space. Acta Philosophica Fennica 30 (2-4):227-43.
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  35. G. L. Pandit (1988). Science and Truthlikeness. Journal of the Indian Council of Philosophical Research 5.
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  36. Jiří Raclavský (2008). Conceptual Dependence of Verisimilitude Vindicated. A Farewell to Miller's Argument. Organon F 15 (3):369-382.
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  37. Jiří Raclavský (2007). Conceptual Dependence of Verisimilitude. Organon F 14 (3):334-353.
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  38. Gerard Renardel de Lavalette & Sjoerd Zwart (2011). Belief Revision and Verisimilitude Based on Preference and Truth Orderings. Erkenntnis 75 (2):237-254.
    In this rather technical paper we establish a useful combination of belief revision and verisimilitude according to which better theories provide better predictions, and revising with more verisimilar data results in theories that are closer to the truth. Moreover, this paper presents two alternative definitions of refined verisimilitude, which are more perspicuous than the algebraic version used in previous publications.
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  39. Gerhard Schurz (2011). Verisimilitude and Belief Revision. With a Focus on the Relevant Element Account. Erkenntnis 75 (2):203-221.
    The expansion or revision of false theories by true evidence does not always increase their verisimilitude. After a comparison of different notions of verisimilitude the relation between verisimilitude and belief expansion or revision is investigated within the framework of the relevant element account. We are able to find certain interesting conditions under which both the expansion and the revision of theories by true evidence is guaranteed to increase their verisimilitude.
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  40. Lawrence Sklar (2000). Theory and Truth: Philosophical Critique Within Foundational Science. Oxford University Press.
    Skeptics have cast doubt on the idea that scientific theories give us a true picture of an objective world. Lawrence Sklar examines three kinds of skeptical arguments about scientific truth, and explores the important role they play within foundational science itself. Sklar demonstrates that these kinds of philosophical critique are employed within science, and reveals the clear difference between how they operate in a scientific context and more abstract philosophical contexts. The underlying theme of Theory and Truth is that science (...)
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  41. Joseph Wayne Smith (1984). What is Wrong with Verisimilitude. Philosophy Research Archives 10:511-541.
    Karl Popper introduced the idea of verisimilitude to explicate the intuitive idea that a theory T2, even though it is strictly speaking false, may be closer to the truth than a competitor T1. However, as is now well known, the results of Pavel Tichý, John Harris and David Miller establish that on Popper’s qualitative theory of verisimilitude, a theory T2 could be closer to the truth than another theory T1 only if T2 contains no false sentences. This result has been (...)
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  42. Peter Smith (1998). Approximate Truth and Dynamical Theories. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 49 (2):253-277.
    Arguably, there is no substantial, general answer to the question of what makes for the approximate truth of theories. But in one class of cases, the issue seems simply resolved. A wide class of applied dynamical theories can be treated as two-component theories—one component specifying a certain kind of abstract geometrical structure, the other giving empirical application to this structure by claiming that it replicates, subject to arbitrary scaling for units etc., the geometric structure to be found in some real-world (...)
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  43. D. C. Stove (1982). Popper and After: Four Modern Irrationalists. Pergamon Press.
  44. R. G. Swinburne (1971). Popper's Account of Acceptability. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 49 (2):167 – 176.
    ACCORDING TO POPPER, SCIENTIFIC THEORIES ARE TO BE ACCEPTED IN SO FAR AS THEY ARE FALSIFIABLE AND IN SO FAR AS THEY HAVE BEEN CORROBORATED. THE CONCEPTS OF FALSIFIABILITY AND CORROBORATION ARE SUBMITTED TO DETAILED ANALYSIS. THE POINT OF ACCEPTING THEORIES, ACCORDING TO POPPER, IS TO OBTAIN THEORIES OF HIGH VERISIMILITUDE. HOWEVER THE BEST WE CAN DO IS TO OBTAIN THEORIES OF HIGH PROBABLE VERISIMILITUDE. POPPER’S CRITERIA FOR ACCEPTING THEORIES WILL ONLY LEAD TO THEORIES OF HIGH PROBABLE VERISIMILITUDE ON NON-POPPERIAN (...)
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  45. Miloš Taliga (2008). Why Verisimilitude Should Not Be Dependent on Conceptual Systems. Organon F 15 (2):191-205.
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  46. Paul Thagard (2007). Coherence, Truth, and the Development of Scientific Knowledge. Philosophy of Science 74 (1):28-47.
    What is the relation between coherence and truth? This paper rejects numerous answers to this question, including the following: truth is coherence; coherence is irrelevant to truth; coherence always leads to truth; coherence leads to probability, which leads to truth. I will argue that coherence of the right kind leads to at least approximate truth. The right kind is explanatory coherence, where explanation consists in describing mechanisms. We can judge that a scientific theory is progressively approximating the truth if it (...)
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  47. JesÚ Zamora Bonilla & P. S. (1999). Verisimilitude and the Scientific Strategy of Economic Theory. Journal of Economic Methodology 6 (3):331-350.
    Methodological norms in economic theorizing are interpreted as rational strategies to optimize some epistemic utility functions. A definition of ?empirical verisimilitude? is defended as a plausible interpretation of the epistemic preferences of researchers. Some salient differences between the scientific strategies of physics and of economics are derived from the comparison of the relative costs associated with each strategy. The classical discussion about the ?realism of assumptions? in economics is also considered under the light of the concept of ?empirical verisimilitude?
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Scientific Truth
  1. Marcello Boldrini (1972). Scientific Truth and Statistical Method. London,Griffin.
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  2. Joseph A. Buckhalt & Erica J. Gannon (2000). Scientific Truth and Perceived Truth About Sexual Human Nature: Implications for Therapists. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):595-596.
    Therapists and their patients must deal with the negative sequelae of short term mating strategies. Implications for therapy of Gangestad & Simpson's strategic pluralism theory are compared with those of Buss's sexual strategies theory and Eagly's social role theory. Naive theories held by therapists and patients, as well as prevailing societal views, are posited as influential in determining the course and outcome of therapy.
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  3. Louis Caruana, Extrapolation and Scientific Truth.
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