This category needs an editor. We encourage you to help if you are qualified.
Volunteer, or read more about what this involves.
Related categories
Siblings:
32 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
  1. Casper J. Albers, Barteld P. Kooi & Willem Schaafsma (2005). Trying to Resolve the Two-Envelope Problem. Synthese 145 (1):89 - 109.
    After explaining the well-known two-envelope paradox by indicating the fallacy involved, we consider the two-envelope problem of evaluating the factual information provided to us in the form of the value contained by the envelope chosen first. We try to provide a synthesis of contributions from economy, psychology, logic, probability theory (in the form of Bayesian statistics), mathematical statistics (in the form of a decision-theoretic approach) and game theory. We conclude that the two-envelope problem does not allow a satisfactory solution. An (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Frank Arntzenius & David McCarthy (1997). The Two Envelope Paradox and Infinite Expectations. Analysis 57 (1):42–50.
    The two envelope paradox can be dissolved by looking closely at the connection between conditional and unconditional expectation and by being careful when summing an infinite series of positive and negative terms. The two envelope paradox is not another St. Petersburg paradox and that one does not need to ban talk of infinite expectation values in order to dissolve it. The article ends by posing a new puzzle to do with infinite expectations.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. John Broome (1995). The Two-Envelope Paradox. Analysis 55 (1):6 - 11.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Paul Castell & Diderik Batens (1994). The Two Envelope Paradox: The Infinite Case. Analysis 54 (1):46 - 49.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. David J. Chalmers, The Two-Envelope Paradox: A Complete Analysis?
    A wealthy eccentric places two envelopes in front of you. She tells you that both envelopes contain money, and that one contains twice as much as the other, but she does not tell you which is which. You are allowed to choose one envelope, and to keep all the money you find inside.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. David J. Chalmers (2002). The St. Petersburg Two-Envelope Paradox. Analysis 62 (274):155–157.
    I reason: (1) For any x, if I knew that A contained x, then the odds are even that B contains either 2x or x/2, so the expected amount in B would be 5x/4. So (2) for all x, if I knew that A contained x, I would have an expected gain in switching to B. So (3) I should switch to B. But this seems clearly wrong, as my information about A and B is symmetrical.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. James Chase (2002). The Non-Probabilistic Two Envelope Paradox. Analysis 62 (2):157–160.
    Given a choice between two sealed envelopes, one of which contains twice as much money as the other (and in any case some), you don't know which contains the larger sum and so choose one at random. You are then given the option of taking the other envelope instead. Is it rational to do so? Surely not. but a specious line of reasoning suggests otherwise.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Charles S. Chihara (1995). The Mystery of Julius: A Paradox in Decision Theory. Philosophical Studies 80 (1):1 - 16.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Michael Clark & Nicholas Shackel (2003). Decision Theory, Symmetry and Causal Structure: Reply to Meacham and Weisberg. Mind 112 (448):691-701.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Michael Clark & Nicholas Shackel (2000). The Two-Envelope Paradox. Mind 109 (435):415--442.
    Previous claims to have resolved the two-envelope paradox have been premature. The paradoxical argument has been exposed as manifestly fallacious if there is an upper limit to the amount of money that may be put in an envelope; but the paradoxical cases which can be described if this limitation is removed do not involve mathematical error, nor can they be explained away in terms of the strangeness of infinity. Only by taking account of the partial sums of the infinite series (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (13 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Monte Cook (2002). Getting Clear on the Two-Envelope Paradox. Southwest Philosophy Review 18 (1):45-51.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Franz Dietrich & Christian List (2005). The Two-Envelope Paradox: An Axiomatic Approach. Mind 114 (454):239-248.
    There has been much discussion on the two-envelope paradox. Clark and Shackel (2000) have proposed a solution to the paradox, which has been refuted by Meacham and Weisberg (2003). Surprisingly, however, the literature still contains no axiomatic justification for the claim that one should be indifferent between the two envelopes before opening one of them. According to Meacham and Weisberg, "decision theory does not rank swapping against sticking [before opening any envelope]" (p. 686). To fill this gap in the literature, (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (12 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. James Dreier (forthcoming). Boundless Good. Ms.
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Paul Franceschi, Le Paradoxe Des Deux Enveloppes Et le Choix de L'Indifférence.
    I present in this paper a solution to the Two-Envelope Paradox. I begin with stating the paradox and describing some related experiments. I justify then the fact that choosing either envelope is indifferent. I also point out the flaw in the reasoning inherent to the two-envelope paradox.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Terry Horgan, The Two Envelope Paradox and the Foundations of Rational Decision Theory.
    You are given a choice between two envelopes. You are told, reliably, that each envelope has some money in it—some whole number of dollars, say—and that one envelope contains twice as much money as the other. You don’t know which has the higher amount and which has the lower. You choose one, but are given the opportunity to switch to the other. Here is an argument that it is rationally preferable to switch: Let x be the quantity of money in (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Terry Horgan (2000). The Two-Envelope Paradox, Nonstandard Expected Utility, and the Intensionality of Probability. Noûs 34 (4):578–603.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Frank Jackson, Peter Menzies & Graham Oppy (1994). The Two Envelope 'Paradox'. Analysis 54 (1):43 - 45.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. B. D. Katz & D. Olin (2010). Conditionals, Probabilities, and Utilities: More on Two Envelopes. Mind 119 (473):171-183.
    Sutton ( 2010 ) claims that on our analysis (2007), the problem in the two-envelope paradox is an error in counterfactual reasoning. In fact, we distinguish two formulations of the paradox, only one of which, on our account, involves an error in conditional reasoning. According to Sutton, it is conditional probabilities rather than subjunctive conditionals that are essential to the problem. We argue, however, that his strategy for assigning utilities on the basis of conditional probabilities leads to absurdity. In addition, (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Bernard D. Katz & Doris Olin (2007). A Tale of Two Envelopes. Mind 116 (464):903-926.
    This paper deals with the two-envelope paradox. Two main formulations of the paradoxical reasoning are distinguished, which differ according to the partition of possibilities employed. We argue that in the first formulation the conditionals required for the utility assignment are problematic; the error is identified as a fallacy of conditional reasoning. We go on to consider the second formulation, where the epistemic status of certain singular propositions becomes relevant; our diagnosis is that the states considered do not exhaust the possibilities. (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Timothy J. McGrew, David Shier & Harry S. Silverstein (1997). The Two-Envelope Paradox Resolved. Analysis 57 (1):28–33.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Christopher J. G. Meacham & Jonathan Weisberg (2003). Clark and Shackel on the Two-Envelope Paradox. Mind 112 (448):685-689.
    Clark and Shackel have recently argued that previous attempts to resolve the two-envelope paradox fail, and that we must look to symmetries of the relevant expected-value calculations for a solution. Clark and Shackel also argue for a novel solution to the peeking case, a variant of the two-envelope scenario in which you are allowed to look in your envelope before deciding whether or not to swap. Whatever the merits of these solutions, they go beyond accepted decision theory, even contradicting it (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Raymond S. Nickerson & Susan F. Butler (2011). Keep or Trade? An Experimental Study of the Exchange Paradox. Thinking and Reasoning 14 (4):365-394.
    The “exchange paradox”—also referred to in the literature by a variety of other names, notably the “two-envelopes problem”—is notoriously difficult, and experts are not all agreed as to its resolution. Some of the various expressions of the problem are open to more than one interpretation; some are stated in such a way that assumptions are required in order to fill in missing information that is essential to any resolution. In three experiments several versions of the problem were used, in each (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Raymond S. Nickerson & Ruma Falk (2006). The Exchange Paradox: Probabilistic and Cognitive Analysis of a Psychological Conundrum. Thinking and Reasoning 12 (2):181 – 213.
    The term “exchange paradox” refers to a situation in which it appears to be advantageous for each of two holders of an envelope containing some amount of money to always exchange his or her envelope for that of the other individual, which they know contains either half or twice their own amount. We review several versions of the problem and show that resolving the paradox depends on the specifics of the situation, which must be disambiguated, and on the player's beliefs. (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Graham Priest & Greg Restall, Envelopes and Indifference.
    Consider this situation: Here are two envelopes. You have one of them. Each envelope contains some quantity of money, which can be of any positive real magnitude. One contains twice the amount of money that the other contains, but you do not know which one. You can keep the money in your envelope, whose numerical value you do not know at this stage, or you can exchange envelopes and have the money in the other. You wish to maximise your money. (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Piers Rawling (1997). Perspectives on a Pair of Envelopes. Theory and Decision 43 (3):253-277.
    The two envelopes problem has generated a significant number of publications (I have benefitted from reading many of them, only some of which I cite; see the epilogue for a historical note). Part of my purpose here is to provide a review of previous results (with somewhat simpler demonstrations). In addition, I hope to clear up what I see as some misconceptions concerning the problem. Within a countably additive probability framework, the problem illustrates a breakdown of dominance with respect to (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Eric Schwitzgebel & Josh Dever (2008). The Two Envelope Paradox and Using Variables Within the Expectation Formula. Sorites.
    You are presented with a choice between two envelopes. You know one envelope contains twice as much money as the other, but you don't know which contains more. You arbitrarily choose one envelope -- call it Envelope A -- but don't open it. Call the amount of money in that envelope X. Since your choice was arbitrary, the other envelope (Envelope B) is 50% likely to be the envelope with more and 50% likely to be the envelope with less. But, (...)
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Alexander D. Scott & Michael Scott (1997). What’s in the Two Envelope Paradox? Analysis 57 (1):34–41.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. P. A. Sutton (2010). The Epoch of Incredulity: A Response to Katz and Olin's 'A Tale of Two Envelopes'. Mind 119 (473):159-169.
    When David Lewis ( 1986 ) told us that possible worlds were a ‘paradise for philosophers’, he neglected to add that they are a minefield for decision theorists. Possibilities — be they nomological, metaphysical, or epistemic possibilities — have little to do with subjective probabilities, and it is these latter that matter most to decision theory. Bernard Katz and Doris Olin ( 2007 ) have tried to solve the two-envelope problem by appealing to possible worlds and counterfactual conditionals. In this (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. P. A. Sutton (2010). The Epoch of Incredulity. Mind 119 (473):159-169.
    When David Lewis (1986) told us that possible worlds were a ‘paradise for philosophers,’ he neglected to add that they are a minefield for decision theorists. Possibilities—be they nomological, metaphysical, or epistemic possibilities—have little to do with subjective probabilities, and it is these latter that matter most to decision theory. Bernard Katz and Doris Olin (2007) have tried to solve the two-envelope problem by appealing to possible worlds and counterfactual conditionals. In this paper I explain why any such attempt is (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Paul Syverson (2010). Opening Two Envelopes. Acta Analytica 25 (4):479-498.
    In the two-envelope problem, one is offered a choice between two envelopes, one containing twice as much money as the other. After seeing the contents of the chosen envelope, the chooser is offered the opportunity to make an exchange for the other envelope. However, it appears to be advantageous to switch, regardless of what is observed in the chosen envelope. This problem has an extensive literature with connections to probability and decision theory. The literature is roughly divided between those that (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. William L. Vanderburgh (2002). A Commentary on Cook's “Getting Clear on the Two-Envelope Paradox”. Southwest Philosophy Review 18 (2):95-99.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Carl G. Wagner (1999). Misadventures in Conditional Expectation: The Two-Envelope Problem. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 51 (2-3):233-241.
    Several fallacies of conditionalization are illustrated, using the two-envelope problem as a case in point.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation