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  1. Francisco Aboitiz, Javier López-Calderón & Vladimir López (2007). The Mesencephalon as a Source of Preattentive Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):81-82.
    By themselves, mesencephalic subcortical mechanisms provide a preattentive kind of consciousness, related to stimulus-related, short-latency dopamine release triggered by collicular input. Elaborate forms of consciousness, containing identifiable objects (visual, auditory, tactile, or chemical), imply longer-lasting phenomena that depend on the activation of prosencephalic networks. Nevertheless, the maintenance of these higher-level networks strongly depends on long-lasting mesencephalic dopamine release. (Published Online May 1 2007).
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  2. Murray Aborn (1953). The Influence of Experimentally Induced Failure on the Retention of Material Acquired Through Set and Incidental Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 45 (4):225.
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  3. Laird Addis (1988). Dispositional Mental States: Chomsky and Freud. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 19 (1):1-17.
    Chomsky behauptet, daß das Bewußtsein die Struktur eines grammatischen Übersetzungsapparates hat, Freud dagegen betrachtet es als einen unbewußten Geisteszustand. Es wird gezeigt, wie sich diese Theorien innerhalb einer Metaphysik des Bewußtseins vereinbaren lassen, die nur bewußte Geisteszustände als grundlegend, Sinneswahrnehmungen, Bilder, Emotionen und dergleichen als sekundär, und veranlagungsbedingte Geisteszustände als tertiär bezeichnet. Hervorzuheben wäre, daß grammatische Übersetzungsapparate und unbewußte Geisteszustände, wie alle menschlichen Veranlagungen, als Eigenheiten des Körpers, welcher gewissen Gesetzen und Prinzipien unterliegt, zu analysieren sind.
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  4. M. Adriaensen & Gertrudis Van de Vijver (1992). Communication, Cognition,... And the Unconscious. Communication and Cognition: Monographies 25.
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  5. John P. Aggleton & Malcolm W. Brown (1999). Thanks for the Memories: Extending the Hippocampal-Diencephalic Mnemonic System. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (3):471-479.
    The goal of our target article was to review a number of emerging facts about the effects of limbic damage on memory in humans and animals, and about divisions within recognition memory in humans. We then argued that this information can be synthesized to produce a new view of the substrates of episodic memory. The key pathway in this system is from the hippocampus to the anterior thalamic nuclei. There seems to be a general agreement that the importance of this (...)
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  6. Amy L. Ai*, Terrence N. Tice**, Catherine M. Lemieux & Bu Huang* (2011). Modeling the Post-9/11 Meaning-Laden Paradox: From Deep Connection and Deep Struggle to Posttraumatic Stress and Growth. Archive for the Psychology of Religion 33 (2):173-204.
    The prospective study follows college students after the 9/11 attacks. Based on evidence and trauma-related theories, and guided by reports on positive and negative reactions and meaning-related actions among Americans after 9/11, we explored the seemingly contradictory, yet meaning-related pathways to posttraumatic growth and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms , indicating the sense of deep interconnectedness and deep conflict. The final model showed that 9/11 emotional turmoil triggered processes of assimilation, as indicated in pathways between prayer coping and perceived spiritual and (...)
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  7. Thorsten Albrecht, Susan Klapötke & Uwe Mattler (2010). Individual Differences in Metacontrast Masking Are Enhanced by Perceptual Learning. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):656-666.
    In vision research metacontrast masking is a widely used technique to reduce the visibility of a stimulus. Typically, studies attempt to reveal general principles that apply to a large majority of participants and tend to omit possible individual differences. The neural plasticity of the visual system, however, entails the potential capability for individual differences in the way observers perform perceptual tasks. We report a case of perceptual learning in a metacontrast masking task that leads to the enhancement of two types (...)
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  8. M. T. Alkire, R. J. Haier, J. H. Fallon & S. J. Barker (1996). PET Imaging of Conscious and Unconscious Verbal Memory. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (5-6):448-62.
    One method for investigating the neurobiology of consciousness is to experimentally manipulate consciousness as a variable and then visualize the resultant functional brain changes with advanced imaging techniques. To begin investigation into this area, healthy volunteers underwent positron emission tomography scanning while listening to randomized word lists in both conscious and unconscious conditions. Following anaesthesia, subjects had no explicit memories. Nonetheless, subjects demonstrated implicit memory on a forced-choice test . These subsequent memory scores were correlated with regional brain metabolism measured (...)
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  9. Susan M. Andersen, Inga Reznik & Noah S. Glassman (2005). The Unconscious Relational Self. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford Series in Social Cognition and Social Neuroscience. Oxford University Press 421-481.
  10. Jackie Andrade, Jon May & David Kavanagh (2009). Conscious and Unconscious Processes in Human Desire. Psyche 15 (2).
    Elaborated Intrusion theory distinguishes between unconscious, associative processes as the precursors of desire, and controlled processes of cognitive elaboration that lead to conscious sensory images of the target of desire and associated affect. We argue that the latter play a key role in motivating human behaviour. Consciousness is functional in that it allows competing goals to be compared and evaluated. The role of effortful cognitive processes in desire helps to explain the different time courses of craving and physiological withdrawal.
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  11. Jackie Andrade, Rajesh Munglani, J. Gareth Jones & Alan D. Baddeley (1994). Cognitive Performance During Anesthesia. Consciousness and Cognition 3 (2):148-165.
    This paper explores the changes in cognitive function which occur as someone "loses consciousness" under anesthesia. Seven volunteers attempted a categorization task and a within-list recognition test while inhaling air, 0.2% isoflurane, and 0.4% isoflurane. In general, performance on these tests declined as the dose of anesthetic was increased and returned to baseline after 10 min of breathing air. A measure of auditory evoked responding termed "coherent frequency" showed parallel changes. At 0.2% isoflurane, subjects could still identify and respond to (...)
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  12. Larry L. Jacoby Andrew P. Yonelinas (2012). The Process-Dissociation Approach Two Decades Later: Convergence, Boundary Conditions, and New Directions. Memory and Cognition 40 (5):663-680.
    The process-dissociation procedure was developed to separate the controlled and automatic contributions of memory. It has spawned the development of a host of new measurement approaches and has been applied across a broad range of fields in the behavioral sciences, ranging from studies of memory and perception to neuroscience and social psychology. Although it has not been without its shortcomings or critics, its growing influence attests to its utility. In the present article, we briefly review the factors motivating its development, (...)
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  13. John Antrobus, Toshiaki Kondo, Ruth Reinsel & George Fein (1995). Dreaming in the Late Morning: Summation of REM and Diurnal Cortical Activation. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (3):275-299.
    Since the discovery that the characteristics of dreaming sleep are far stronger in Stage 1 rapid eye movement sleep than in any other biological state, investigators have attempted to determine the relative responsibility of the tonic versus the phasic properties of REM sleep for the different characteristics of dreaming–features such as the amount of information in the dream report, the brightness and clarity of the visual images, shifts in thematic continuity, and incongruities of image and meaning. The present experiment is (...)
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  14. Eoghan Mac Aogáin (1998). Imitation Without Attitudes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):696-697.
    Byrne & Russon's account of program imitation in primates involves propositional attitudes (expectations and goals), which limits its falsifiability. Yet their account of priming shows exactly how imitation without attitudes would look. The challenge is to upgrade the notion of priming to give an account of low-level program imitation without invoking propositional attitudes.
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  15. Daniel L. Araoz (2001). The Unconscious in Ericksonian Hypnotherapy. Australian Journal of Clinical Hypnotherapy and Hypnosis 22 (2):78-92.
  16. Michael A. Arbib & Peter Érdi (2000). Organizing the Brain's Diversities. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (4):551-565.
    We clarify the arguments in Neural organization: Structure, function, and dynamics, acknowledge important contributions cited by our critics, and respond to their criticisms by charting directions for further development of our integrated approach to theoretical and empirical studies of neural organization. We first discuss functional organization in general (behavior versus cognitive functioning, the need to study body and brain together, function in ontogeny and phylogeny) and then focus on schema theory (noting that schema theory is not just a top-down theory (...)
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  17. E. James Archer & Benton J. Underwood (1951). Retroactive Inhibition of Verbal Associations as a Multiple Function of Temporal Point of Interpolation and Degree of Interpolated Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 42 (5):283.
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  18. Adam Arico, Brian Fiala, Robert F. Goldberg & Shaun Nichols (2011). The Folk Psychology of Consciousness. Mind and Language 26 (3):327-352.
    This paper proposes the ‘AGENCY model’ of conscious state attribution, according to which an entity's displaying certain relatively simple features (e.g. eyes, distinctive motions, interactive behavior) automatically triggers a disposition to attribute conscious states to that entity. To test the model's predictions, participants completed a speeded object/attribution task, in which they responded positively or negatively to attributions of mental properties (including conscious and non-conscious states) to different sorts of entities (insects, plants, artifacts, etc.). As predicted, participants responded positively to conscious (...)
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  19. Robert Arp (2005). Scenario Visualization: One Explanation of Creative Problem Solving. Journal of Consciousness Studies 12 (3):31-60.
    In this paper, I first present the ideas and arguments put forward by evolutionary psychologists that humans evolved certain capacities to creatively problem solve. Specifically, Steven Mithen thinks that creative problem solving is possible because the mind has evolved a conscious capacity he calls cognitive fluidity, the flexible exchange of information between and among mental modules. While I agree with Mithen that cognitive fluidity acts as a necessary condition for creative problem solving, I disagree that cognitive fluidity alone will suffice (...)
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  20. Harald Atmanspacher, Correlates of Perceptive Instabilities in Event-Related Potentials.
    The study of instabilities in perception has attracted much interest in recent decades. The presented investigations focus on electrophysiological correlates of orientation reversals of both ambiguous visual stimuli and alternating non-ambiguous stimuli, representing the two options of the ambiguous version. Based on a refined experimental setup, significant features in the event-related potentials associated with the perception of orientation reversal were found in both cases. Their occipital location, their early occurence (200–250 ms), and their latency difference (50 ms) offer interesting perspectives (...)
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  21. J. A. B. (1960). The Larger Learning. Review of Metaphysics 14 (1):177-177.
  22. Bernard J. Baars (1996). When Are Images Conscious? The Curious Disconnection Between Imagery and Consciousness in the Scientific Literature. Consciousness and Cognition 5 (3):261-264.
  23. Elisabeth Bacon, Nathalie Huet & Jean-Marie Danion (2011). Metamemory Knowledge and Beliefs in Patients with Schizophrenia and How These Relate to Objective Cognitive Abilities. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1315-1326.
    Subjective reports and theories about memory may have an influence on other beliefs and behaviours. Patients with schizophrenia suffer a wide range of deficits affecting their awareness of daily life, including memory. With the Metamemory Inventory in Adulthood we ascertained patients’ memory knowledge and thoughts about their own cognitive capacities and about several aspects of cognitive functioning: personal capacities, knowledge of processes, use of strategies, perceived change with ageing, anxiety, motivation and mastery. The participants’ ratings were correlated with their intellectual, (...)
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  24. Alan Baddeley (2007). Working Memory, Thought, and Action. OUP Oxford.
    'Working Memory, Thought, and Action' is the magnum opus of one of the most influential cognitive psychologists of the past 50 years. This new volume on the model he created discusses the developments that have occurred within the model in the past twenty years, and places it within a broader context.
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  25. Paul E. Baer & Marcus J. Fuhrer (1968). Cognitive Processes During Differential Trace and Delayed Conditioning of the Gsr. Journal of Experimental Psychology 78 (1):81.
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  26. Frank Baeyens, Debora Vansteenwegen & Dirk Hermans (2009). Associative Learning Requires Associations, Not Propositions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):198-199.
    We discuss findings on evaluative conditioning (EC) that are problematic for the account of learning, namely, dissociations between conscious beliefs and acquired (dis)liking. We next argue that, both for EC and for Pavlovian learning in general, conditioned responding cannot rationally be inferred from propositional knowledge type and that, therefore, performance cannot be explained.
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  27. Harry P. Bahrick (1969). Discriminative and Associative Aspects of Pictorial Paired-Associate Learning: Acquisition and Retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):113.
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  28. Harry P. Bahrick, Sandra Clark & Phyllis Bahrick (1967). Generalization Gradients as Indicants of Learning and Retention of a Recognition Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (4):464.
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  29. Jv Bainbridge (1992). The Role of Meaning and Word Form in Repetition Priming. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 30 (6):478-479.
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  30. Jv Bainbridge (1991). Meaning Selective Access in Repetition Priming. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):509-509.
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  31. A. G. Baker, Irina Baetu & Robin A. Murphy (2009). Propositional Learning is a Useful Research Heuristic but It is Not a Theoretical Algorithm. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):199-200.
    Mitchell et al.'s claim, that their propositional theory is a single-process theory, is illusory because they relegate some learning to a secondary memory process. This renders the single-process theory untestable. The propositional account is not a process theory of learning, but rather, a heuristic that has led to interesting research.
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  32. Katherine E. Baker, Ruth C. Wylie & Robert M. Gagné (1951). The Effects of an Interfering Task on the Learning of a Complex Motor Skill. Journal of Experimental Psychology 41 (1):1.
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  33. Andrew Balfour (2006). Thinking About the Experience of Dementia: The Importance of the Unconscious. Journal of Social Work Practice 20 (3):329-346.
  34. Dana H. Ballard, Mary M. Hayhoe, Polly K. Pook & Rajesh P. N. Rao (1997). Pointing the Way. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (4):758-763.
    The majority of commentators agree that the time to focus on embodiment has arrived and that the disembodied approach that was taken from the birth of artificial intelligence is unlikely to provide a satisfactory account of the special features of human intelligence. In our Response, we begin by addressing the general comments and criticisms directed at the emerging enterprise of deictic and embodied cognition. In subsequent sections we examine the topics that constitute the core of the commentaries: embodiment mechanisms, dorsal (...)
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  35. B. Balleine (1991). Incentive Processes Determine Instrumental Performance After a Shift in Primary Motivation. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 29 (6):523-523.
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  36. J. A. Bargh (1992). Being Unaware of the Stimulus Versus Unaware of its Effect: Does Subliminality Per Se Matter to Social Psychology. In R. F. Bornstein & T. S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. New York: Guilford Press 236--258.
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  37. J. A. Bargh (1992). Being Unaware of the Stimulus Versus Unaware of its Interpretation: Why Subliminality Per Se Does Not Matter to Social Psychology. In R. F. Bornstein & T. S. Pittman (eds.), Perception Without Awareness. New York: Guilford Press 236--255.
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  38. John A. Bargh (ed.) (2007). Social Psychology and the Unconscious: The Automaticity of Higher Mental Processes. Psychology Press.
  39. Henry Barker, G. F. Stout & R. F. Alfred Hoernlé (1912). Symposium: Can There Be Anything Obscure or Implicit in a Mental State? Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 13:257 - 312.
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  40. Horace Barlow (2001). The Exploitation of Regularities in the Environment by the Brain. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (4):602-607.
    Statistical regularities of the environment are important for learning, memory, intelligence, inductive inference, and in fact, for any area of cognitive science where an information-processing brain promotes survival by exploiting them. This has been recognised by many of those interested in cognitive function, starting with Helmholtz, Mach, and Pearson, and continuing through Craik, Tolman, Attneave, and Brunswik. In the current era, many of us have begun to show how neural mechanisms exploit the regular statistical properties of natural images. Shepard proposed (...)
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  41. David Barner (2008). In Defense of Intuitive Mathematical Theories as the Basis for Natural Number. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):643-644.
    Though there are holes in the theory of how children move through stages of numerical competence, the current approach offers the most promising avenue for characterizing changes in competence as children confront new mathematical concepts. Like the science of mathematics, children's discovery of number is rooted in intuitions about sets, and not purely in analytic truths.
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  42. Nathaniel F. Barrett (2011). Process Approaches to Consciousness in Psychology, Neuroscience, and Philosophy of Mind. American Journal of Theology and Philosophy 32 (2):197-200.
    I imagine that many readers of AJTP will find it hard to get excited about a new collection of essays about consciousness from the process perspective, no matter how good it is purported to be, because they are bored with the so-called "problem of consciousness" and uninterested in playing the role of the choir for what looks like a lot of old-fashioned Whiteheadian preaching. But in fact this book was conceived with the intention to do much more than preach to (...)
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  43. Lawrence W. Barsalou (2010). Grounded Cognition: Past, Present, and Future. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):716-724.
    Thirty years ago, grounded cognition had roots in philosophy, perception, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive psychology, and cognitive neuropsychology. During the next 20 years, grounded cognition continued developing in these areas, and it also took new forms in robotics, cognitive ecology, cognitive neuroscience, and developmental psychology. In the past 10 years, research on grounded cognition has grown rapidly, especially in cognitive neuroscience, social neuroscience, cognitive psychology, social psychology, and developmental psychology. Currently, grounded cognition appears to be achieving increased acceptance throughout cognitive (...)
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  44. Hilary Barth (2008). Do Mental Magnitudes Form Part of the Foundation for Natural Number Concepts? Don't Count Them Out Yet. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (6):644-645.
    The current consensus among most researchers is that natural number is not built solely upon a foundation of mental magnitudes. On their way to the conclusion that magnitudes do not form any part of that foundation, Rips et al. pass rather quickly by theories suggesting that mental magnitudes might play some role. These theories deserve a closer look.
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  45. Hilary Barth, Kristen La Mont, Jennifer Lipton, Stanislas Dehaene, Nancy Kanwisher & Elizabeth Spelke (2006). Non-Symbolic Arithmetic in Adults and Young Children. Cognition 98 (3):199-222.
  46. Paolo Bartolomeo & Gianfranco Dalla Barba (2002). Varieties of Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):331-332.
    In agreement with some of the ideas expressed by Perruchet & Vinter (P&V), we believe that some phenomena hitherto attributed to “unconscious” processing may in fact reflect a fundamental distinction between direct and reflexive forms of consciousness. This dichotomy, developed by the phenomenological tradition, is substantiated by examples coming from experimental psychology and lesion neuropsychology.
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  47. F. V. Bassin, A. S. Prangishvili & A. E. Sherozia (1978). On the Role of the Unconscious in Artistic Creation. Russian Studies in Philosophy 17 (2):57-79.
    The problem of the psychological unconscious has a history of many centuries. Some investigators seek to demonstrate the existence of the unconscious, and others deny it. Fundamental differences exist with respect to the nature of the psychological unconscious even among proponents of that hypothesis. In recent decades interest in the problem of the unconscious has grown substantially in our country. An extensive literature devoted to this subject has appeared in which discussion centers principally on the significance of the psychological unconscious (...)
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  48. W. Robert Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the 1980s. The (...)
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  49. Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the 1980s. The (...)
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  50. W. Robert Batsell & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in (...)
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