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Universals

Edited by Gabriele Contessa (Carleton University)
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  1. Richard I. Aaron (1965). Wittgenstein's Theory of Universals. Mind 74 (294):249-251.
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  2. Richard Ithamar Aaron (1952). The Theory of Universals. Oxford [Eng.]Clarendon Press.
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  3. Richard Ithamar Aaron (1947/1975). Our Knowledge of Universals. Haskell House Publishers.
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  4. H. B. Acton (1937). The Theory of Concrete Universals (II.). Mind 46 (181):1-13.
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  5. H. B. Acton (1936). The Theory of Concrete Universals. Mind 45 (180):417-431.
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  6. H. B. Acton (1936). The Theory of Concrete Universals (I.). Mind 45 (180):1-13.
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  7. Joseph Agassi & Paul T. Sagal (1975). The Problem of Universals. Philosophical Studies 28 (4):289 - 294.
    The pair democreteanism-Platonism (nothing/something is outside space-Time) differs from the pair nominalism-Realism (universals are/are not nameable entities). Nominalism need not be democretean, And democreateanism is nominalist only if conceptualism is rejected. Putnam's critique of nominalism is thus invalid. Quine's theory is democretean-When-Possible: quine is also a minimalist platonist. Conceptualists and realists agree that universals exist but not as physical objects. Nominalists accept universals only as "facons de parler".
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  8. R. Ainscough (1929). Relations and Universals. Mind 38 (150):137-160.
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  9. Erik Åkerlund (2009). Suárez on Forms, Universals and Understanding. Studia Neoaristotelica 6 (2):159-182.
    Suarezii de formis, universalibus, notitia intellectiva sententiaSententia Suarezii circa quaestionem famosam de statu universalium variissimis modis ab diversis interpretibus exponi solet. In disertatio quidem proposita res paulo aliter pertractatur, a Suarezii metaphysica doctrina de formis substantialibus et de cognitione intellectiva ac sctientia exeundo. Quae Suarezii doctrinae diligenti analysi subiciuntur earumque conexio consideratur. Respectu quaestione supradicta, scil. quaenam fuit vera Suarezii de statu universalium sententia, arguitur, Suarezium nominalismum moderatum professum esse, quae conclusio suadetur ex doctrinis suis de formis substantialibus et de (...)
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  10. Edwin B. Allaire (1960). Existence, Independence and Universals. Philosophical Review 69 (4):485-496.
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  11. James W. Allard (2007). Sprigge's Vindication of Concrete Universals. In Pierfrancesco Basile & Leemon B. McHenry (eds.), Consciousness, Reality and Value: Essays in Honour of T.L.S. Sprigge. Ontos.
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  12. Jose Tomas Alvarado Marambio (2010). The Function of Universals in Modal Metaphysics. Teorema 29 (3):77-101.
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  13. Christoph Antweiler (2007). Was Ist den Menschen Gemeinsam?: Über Kultur Und Kulturen. Wbg, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft.
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  14. Peter C. Appleby (1992). The Problem of Universals. Review of Metaphysics 46 (2):421-422.
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  15. Chrudzimski Arkadiusz (2002). Two Concepts of Trope. Grazer Philosophische Studien 64 (1):137-155.
    The concept of a trope (understood as an individual property and not as a figure of speech) plays an important role in contemporary analytical metaphysics. It is, however, often far from clear what the logic of this concept really is. Indeed, there are two equally important intuitions underlying the concept of trope, two intuitions that generate two quite different conceptual frameworks. According to the first intuition, a trope is a particularised property – a property taken as an individual aspect of (...)
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  16. D. M. Armstrong (2010). Sketch for a Systematic Metaphysics. Oxford University Press.
    David Armstrong sets out his metaphysical system in a set of concise and lively chapters each dealing with one aspect of the world.
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  17. D. M. Armstrong (1993). A World of States of Affairs. Philosophical Perspectives 7:429-440.
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  18. D. M. Armstrong (1989). Universals: An Opinionated Introduction. Westview Press.
    In this short text, a distinguished philosopher turns his attention to one of the oldest and most fundamental philosophical problems of all: How it is that we are able to sort and classify different things as being of the same natural class? Professor Armstrong carefully sets out six major theories—ancient, modern, and contemporary—and assesses the strengths and weaknesses of each. Recognizing that there are no final victories or defeats in metaphysics, Armstrong nonetheless defends a traditional account of universals as the (...)
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  19. D. M. Armstrong (1986). In Defence of Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1):85 – 88.
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  20. D. M. Armstrong (1982). Laws of Nature as Relations Between Universals and as Universals. Philosophical Topics 13 (1):7-24.
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  21. D. M. Armstrong (1978). Universals and Scientific Realism. Cambridge University Press.
    v. 1. Nominalism and realism.--v. 2. A theory of universals.
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  22. D. M. Armstrong (1978). Naturalism, Materialism and First Philosophy. Philosophia 8 (2-3):261-276.
    First, The doctrine of naturalism, That reality is spatio-Temporal, Is defended. Second, The doctrine of materialism or physicalism, That this spatio-Temporal reality involves nothing but the entities of physics working according to the principles of physics, Is defended. Third, It is argued that these doctrines do not constitute a "first philosophy." a satisfactory first philosophy should recognize universals, In the form of instantiated properties and relations. Laws of nature are constituted by relations between universals. What universals there are, And what (...)
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  23. D. M. Armstrong (1975). Towards a Theory of Properties: Work in Progress on the Problem of Universals. Philosophy 50 (192):145 - 155.
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  24. D. M. Armstrong (1974). Infinite Regress Arguments and the Problem of Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 52 (3):191 – 201.
    What is it for a particular to have a property? many proposed analyses of this situation may be called relational accounts. The particular has some relation, R, To some entity p. R may be the relation of falling under, Being a member of, Resembling or "participating." p may be a predicate, A concept, A class, A paradigm instance or a form. A number of arguments seek to prove that all these accounts are involved in various vicious infinite regresses. These arguments (...)
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  25. David M. Armstrong (2005). Four Disputes About Properties. Synthese 144 (3):1-12.
    In considering the nature of properties four controversial decisions must be made. (1) Are properties universals or tropes? (2) Are properties attributes of particulars, or are particulars just bundles of properties? (3) Are properties categorical (qualitative) in nature, or are they powers? (4) If a property attaches to a particular, is this predication contingent, or is it necessary? These choices seem to be in a great degree independent of each other. The author indicates his own choices.
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  26. David M. Armstrong (1978). Universals and Scientific Realism: A Theory of Universals Vol. Ii. Cambridge University Press.
  27. David M. Armstrong (1978). Universals and Scientific Realism: Nominalism and Realism Vol. I. Cambridge University Press.
  28. David Malet Armstrong (1978). Nominalism and Realism. Universals and Scientific Realism Volume I. Cambridge University Press.
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  29. David Malet Armstrong (1978). A Theory of Universals. Universals and Scientific Realism Volume Ii. Cambridge University Press.
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  30. M. B. B. (1975). Alessandro Achillini (1463-1512) and His Doctrine of 'Universals' and 'Transcendentals.' a Study in Renaissance Ockhamism. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 29 (2):347-349.
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  31. R. J. B. (1962). Modes of Referring and the Problem of Universals. Review of Metaphysics 15 (3):529-529.
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  32. Emmon Bach & R. Harms (eds.) (1968). Universals in Linguistic Theory. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
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  33. Allan Bäck (1995). Five Texts on the Mediaeval Problem of Universals. Review of Metaphysics 49 (2):437-438.
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  34. John Bacon (1995). Universals and Property Instances: The Alphabet of Being. Blackwell.
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  35. John Bacon (1986). Armstrong's Theory of Properties. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1):47 – 53.
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  36. Roger Bacon (1989). Three Treatments of Universals. Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton.
  37. Mads Anders Baggesgaard (2011). Competing Universals. In Mads Anders Baggesgaard & Jakob Ladegaard (eds.), Confronting Universalities: Aesthetics and Politics Under the Sign of Globalisation. Aarhus University Press.
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  38. Mads Anders Baggesgaard & Jakob Ladegaard (eds.) (2011). Confronting Universalities: Aesthetics and Politics Under the Sign of Globalisation. Aarhus University Press.
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  39. Raja Bahlul (2009). Avicenna and the Problem of Universals. Philosophy and Theology 21 (1/2):3-25.
    The main object of this paper is to clarify and evaluate Avicenna’s view of universals, in light of some modern and contemporarydiscussions. According to Avicenna, universality is a contingent attribute of entities that are in themselves neither universal norparticular. An account of universality as a contingent attribute is offered which clarifies and gives additional support to Avicenna’sview. Nevertheless, it will be argued that Avicenna, through his use of such terms as “nature” and “quiddity,” faces the same problemswhich he attributes to (...)
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  40. Mieke Bal (2011). A Thousand And One Voices. In Mads Anders Baggesgaard & Jakob Ladegaard (eds.), Confronting Universalities: Aesthetics and Politics Under the Sign of Globalisation. Aarhus University Press.
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  41. Todd Bates (2010/2012). Duns Scotus and the Problem of Universals. Continuum.
    Scotus recidivus? -- On the structure of material substance in Scotus' metaphysics -- Substantial natures : neither singular nor universal, but common -- On individuation by the haecceity -- Numerical singular created natures and supposita.
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  42. Charles A. Baylis (1951). Universals, Communicable Knowledge, and Metaphysics. Journal of Philosophy 48 (21):636-644.
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  43. George Bealer (1998). Universals and Properties. In Contemporary Readings in the Foundations of Metaphysics. Blackwell.
    This paper summarizes and extends the transmodal argument for the existence of universals (developed in full detail in "Universals"). This argument establishes not only the existence of universals, but also that they exist necessarily, thereby confirming the ante rem view against the post rem and in re views (and also anti-existentialism against existentialism). Once summarized, the argument is extended to refute the trope theory of properties and is also shown to succeed even if possibilism is assumed. A nonreductionist theory of (...)
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  44. George Bealer (1993). Universals. Journal of Philosophy 60 (1):5-32.
    Presented here is an argument for the existence of universals. Like Church's translation-test argument, the argument turns on considerations from intensional logic. But whereas Church's argument turns on the fine-grained informational content of intensional sentences, this argument turns on the distinctive logical features of 'that'-clauses embedded within modal contexts. And unlike Church's argument, this argument applies against truth-conditions nominalism and also against conceptualism and in re realism (the doctrine that universals are ontologically dependent upon the existence of instances). So (...)
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  45. George Bealer (1982). Quality and Concept. Oxford University Press.
    This study provides a unified theory of properties, relations, and propositions (PRPs). Two conceptions of PRPs have emerged in the history of philosophy. The author explores both of these traditional conceptions and shows how they can be captured by a single theory.
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  46. Jiri Benovsky (2013). New Reasons to Motivate Trope Theory: Endurantism and Perdurantism. Acta Analytica 28 (2):223-227.
    In this paper, I argue that (non-presentist) endurantism is incompatible with the view that properties are universals. I do so by putting forward a very simple objection that forces the endurantist to embrace tropes, rather than universals. I do not claim that this is bad news for the endurantist—trope theory seems to me by all means more appealing than universals—rather, I would like to see this result as a further motivation to embrace tropes. I then also put forward a (more (...)
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  47. Scott Berman (2008). Universals: Ways or Things? [REVIEW] Metaphysica 9 (2):219-234.
    What all contemporary so-called aristotelian realists have in common has been identified by David Armstrong as the principle of instantiation. This principle has been put forward in different versions, but all of them have the following simple consequence in common: uninstantiated universals do not exist. Such entities are for the lotus-eating Platonist to countenance, but not for any sort of moderate realist. I shall argue that this principle, in any guise, is not the best way to differentiate aristotelianism from Platonism. (...)
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  48. Arthur Berndtson (1954). The Theory of Universals. Modern Schoolman 31 (2):147-151.
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  49. Roger Bibace (ed.) (2005). Science and Medicine in Dialogue: Thinking Through Particulars and Universals. Praeger.
    Written by three experts in the field, this book explores the understanding of human wellness and disease as fostered through the collaborative contributions of ...
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  50. John Bigelow (1986). Towards Structural Universals. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 64 (1):94 – 96.
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