About this topic
Summary In ethics, a pluralist view is one that assumes that more than one principle or value provides the foundation for a certain ethical domain: in morality; in value theory (including but not restricted to moral theory); in politics; in aesthetics, and so on. Pluralism as such contrasts with monism, the view that there is only one basic principle or value in such domains. Monist views in moral theory include utilitarianism, divine command theory, and Kant's moral theory at least on some readings. Hedonism is a monist view in value theory: only pleasure is valuable for its own sake. Pluralist views include, for example, Ross's deontology and 18th c. ethical rationalism (Clarke, Price) whereby there are several basic, irreducible, duties; so-called 'ideal utilitarianism', whereby there are many goods besides pleasure that require to be promoted; so-called 'objective list' theories of well-being, whereby different elements (pleasure, knowledge, achievement, personal relationships etc.) compose a person's well-being; and some versions of virtue ethics - on which there is no single master virtue but different and possibly diverging ones (say, benevolence and justice). In the political area, Rawls's two principles of justice provide another example of pluralism, in this minimal sense outlined. Key questions under consideration include the arguments for and against pluralism (within one or more of these areas), how a pluralist view ought to deal with conflicts between heterogeneous principles or values, and whether some sort of unification of different values can be achieved without slipping into monism.
Key works Ross 2002 is a milestone for the elaboration of pluralist views both in morality and value theory. Bernard Williams provides arguments against monism based on the notion of rational regret, in his 'Ethical Consistency' (in Williams 1973). An important book-length defense of pluralism and its practical viability is Stocker 1989. Another defense is given by Nagel in 'The Fragmentation of Value' (in Nagel 1979). Hurka 1996 replies to some of the arguments for pluralism. Swanton 2003 provides a model for a pluralist virtue ethics based on the idea of different appropriate responses to value irreducible to one single kind of attitude. Similar points are raised, mainly against monism of a consequentialist sort, in Anderson 1993. In the political area, but still relevant to the overall debate on ethical pluralism, the classic is Berlin 2002. Hurka 2010 is an accessible statement of a working value theory that is at least pluralistic in spirit.
Introductions Mason 2008, Heathwood forthcoming, Schroeder 2008,
  Show all references
Related categories
Siblings:See also:
51 found
Search inside:
(import / add options)   Sort by:
1 — 50 / 51
  1. Elizabeth Anderson (1993). Value in Ethics and Economics. Harvard University Press.
    Women as commercial baby factories, nature as an economic resource, life as one big shopping mall: This is what we get when we use the market as a common ...
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Richard J. Arneson, Value Pluralism Does Not Support Liberalism.
    Following hints in the writings of Isaiah Berlin, some political theorists hold that the thesis of value pluralism is true and that this truth provides support for political liberalism of a sort that prescribes wide guarantees of individual liberty.1 There are many different goods, and they are incommensurable. Hence, people should be left free to live their own lives as they choose so long as they don’t harm others in certain ways. In a free society there is a strong presumption (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Samantha Ashenden (1998). Pluralism Within the Limits of Reason Alone? Habermas and the Discursive Negotiation of Consensus. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 1 (3):117-136.
  4. Robin Attfield (2005). Biocentric Consequentialism and Value-Pluralism: A Response to Alan Carter. Utilitas 17 (1):85-92.
    My theory of biocentric consequentialism is first shown not to be significantly inegalitarian, despite not advocating treating all creatures equally. I then respond to Carter's objections concerning population, species extinctions, the supposed minimax implication, endangered interests, autonomy and thought-experiments. Biocentric consequentialism is capable of supporting a sustainable human population at a level compatible with preserving most non-human species, as opposed to catastrophic population increases or catastrophic decimation. Nor is it undermined by the mere conceivable possibility of counter-intuitive implications. While Carter (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Elvio Baccarini (2011). Giustizia E Conflitti di Valori (Justice and Conflicts of Values). Croatian Journal of Philosophy 11 (2):249-255.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Tani E. Barlow (2006). Isaiah Berlin: Liberty and Pluralism. Contemporary Political Theory 5 (3):358-360.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. H. G. Callaway (2008). The Meaning of Pluralism. In , William James, A Pluralistic Universe, A New Reading.
    American philosopher William James (1842-1910) traveled to Oxford, England and Manchester College in 1908. Between 4 May and 28 May, he deliver the Hibbert Lectures, which were originally published in 1909 as A Pluralistic Universe. This was to be the last major book James published during his lifetime. Manchester College had been founded in the English city of Manchester in 1786 for the education of nonconformists, and moved to Oxford in 1888. Some considerable emphasis on religion in the Hibbert Lectures (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. H. G. Callaway (ed.) (2008). William James, A Pluralistic Universe: A New Philosophical Reading. Cambridge Scholars.
    This book is my new scholarly edition of William James, A Pluralistic Universe. The original text has been recovered, annotations to the text added to identify James' authors and events of interest, there is a new bibliography chiefly based on James' sources, a brief chronology of James' career, and I have added an expository and critical Introduction and a comprehensive analytical index.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Craig L. Carr (2010). Liberalism and Pluralism: The Politics of E Pluribus Unum. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Table of Contents: Politics, morality, and pluralism -- Liberal morality and political legitimacy -- Political legitimacy and social justice -- Williams's concept of the political -- Legitimacy, stability, and morality -- The politics of morality -- A moral point of view -- Manners and morality -- Morality and conflict -- Moral conflict and political theory -- The morality of politics -- Feminism and multiculturalism -- A defense of culture -- Politics and normative conflict -- The political as moral viewpoint -- (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Max Charlesworth (2005). Don't Blame the 'Bio' — Blame the 'Ethics': Varieties of (Bio) Ethics and the Challenge of Pluralism. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 2 (1):10-17.
    We tend to think that the difficulties in bioethics spring from the novel and alarming issues that arise due to discoveries in the new biosciences and biotechnologies. But many of the crucial difficulties in bioethics arise from the assumptions we make about ethics. This paper offers a brief overview of bioethics, and relates ethical ‘principlism’ to ‘ethical fundamentalism’. It then reviews some alternative approaches that have emerged during the second phase of bioethics, and argues for a neo-Aristotelian approach. Misconceptions about (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Michael Cholbi (2013). Dimensions of Consequentialism: Ethics, Equality, and Risk. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2013:1-2.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Rutger J. G. Claassen (2009). Institutional Pluralism and the Limits of the Market. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 8 (4):420-447.
    This paper proposes a theory of institutional pluralism to deal with the question whether and to what extent limits should be placed on the market. It reconceives the pluralist position as it was presented by Michael Walzer and others in several respects. First, it argues that the options on the institutional menu should not be principles of distribution but rather economic mechanisms or ‘modes of provision’. This marks a shift from a distributive to a provisional logic. Second, it argues that (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Rutger J. G. Claassen (2009). Institutional Pluralism and the Limits of the Market. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 8 (4):420-447.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Dan Demetriou (forthcoming). Fighting Fair: The Ecology of Honor in Humans and Animals. In Jonathan Crane (ed.), Beastly Morality. Columbia University Press.
    This essay distinguishes between honor-typical and authoritarian behavior in humans and animals. Whereas authoritarianism concerns hierarchies coordinated by control and obedience, honor concerns rankings of prestige determined by fair contests. Honor-typical behavior is identifiable in non-human species, and is to be expected in polygynous species with non-resource-based mating systems. This picture lends further support to an increasingly popular psychological theory that sees morality as constituted by a variety of moral systems. If moral cognition is pluralistic in this way, then the (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Pavlos Eleftheriadis (2010). Pluralism and Integrity. Ratio Juris 23 (3):365-389.
    One of the theoretical developments associated with the law of the European Union has been the flourishing of legal and constitutional theories that extol the virtues of pluralism. Pluralism in constitutional theory is offered in particular as a novel argument for the denial of unity within a framework of constitutional government. This paper argues that pluralism fails to respect the value of integrity. It also shows that at least one pluralist theory seeks to overcome the incoherence of pluralism by implicitly (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Richard Evanoff (2007). Bioregionalism and Cross-Cultural Dialogue on a Land Ethic. Ethics, Place and Environment 10 (2):141 – 156.
    This paper argues against the view that a single environmental ethic can be formulated that could be universally applied in all geographic settings and across cultures. The paper specifically criticizes Callicott's proposal that Leopold's land ethic be adopted as a global environment ethic, and develops an alternative bioregional perspective which suggests that while there can be a great deal of variety in how different cultures think about and interact with their local environments, there is nonetheless the need for cross-cultural dialogue (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. A. Ferrara (2010). Reflexive Pluralism. Philosophy and Social Criticism 36 (3-4):353-364.
    Reflexive pluralism is here put forward as the conception that is most reasonable for supporters of political liberalism to hold at a period when the reasons justifying acceptance of political and religious pluralism seem inadequate.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Ellen-Marie Forsberg (2007). Value Pluralism and Coherentist Justification of Ethical Advice. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 20 (1):81-97.
    Liberal societies are characterized by respect for a fundamental value pluralism; i.e., respect for individuals’ rights to live by their own conception of the good. Still, the state must make decisions that privilege some values at the cost of others. When public ethics committees give substantial ethical advice on policy related issues, it is therefore important that this advice is well justified. The use of explicit tools for ethical assessment can contribute to justifying advice. In this article, I will discuss (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. William Galston (2004). Liberal Pluralism: A Reply to Talisse. Contemporary Political Theory 3 (2):140.
  20. Gerald F. Gaus (1999). Reasonable Pluralism and the Domain of the Political: How the Weaknesses of John Rawls's Political Liberalism Can Be Overcome by a Justificatory Liberalism. Inquiry 42 (2):259 – 284.
    Under free institutions the exercise of human reason leads to a plurality of reasonable, yet irreconcilable doctrines. Rawls's political liberalism is intended as a response to this fundamental feature of modern democratic life. Justifying coercive political power by appeal to any one (or sample) of these doctrines is, Rawls believes, oppressive and illiberal. If we are to achieve unity without oppression, he tells us, we must all affirm a public political conception that is supported by these diverse reasonable doctrines. The (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Susan Haack (2008). The Pluralistic Universe of Law: Towards a Neo-Classical Legal Pragmatism. Ratio Juris 21 (4):453-480.
    After a brief sketch of the history of philosophical pragmatism generally, and of legal pragmatism specifically (section 1), this paper develops a new, neo-classical legal pragmatism: a theory of law drawing in part on Holmes, but also on ideas from the classical pragmatist tradition in philosophy. Main themes are the "pluralistic universe" of law (section 2); the evolution of legal systems (section 3); the place of logic in the law (section 4); and the relation of law and morality (section 5).
    Remove from this list | Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Chris Heathwood (forthcoming). Monism and Pluralism About Value. In Iwao Hirose & Jonas Olson (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Value Theory. Oxford University Press.
    This essay discusses monism and pluralism about two related evaluative notions: welfare, or what makes people better off, and value simpliciter, or what makes the world better. These are stipulatively referred to as 'axiological value'. Axiological value property monists hold that one of these notions is reducible to the other (or else eliminable), while axiological value property pluralists deny this. Substantive monists about axiological value hold that there is just one basic kind of thing that makes our lives or the (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Lewis P. Hinchman (1991). On Reconciling Happiness and Autonomy. The Owl of Minerva 23 (1):29-48.
  24. Lawrence M. Hinman, Alcalá Park & San Diego, Virtue Ethics From a Global Perspective: A Pluralistic Framework for Understanding Moral Virtues.
    The title of our session today is “Virtue Ethics from a Global Perspective.” In my remarks, I would like to sketch out an account of what a global perspective on virtue ethics would look like. Here’s how I’ll proceed. First, I would like to explore some of the reasons why we need a global perspective on virtue ethics. This leads naturally to the second issue, which is a clarification of what we mean by a global perspective on virtue ethics. I (...)
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Marinus Iwuchukwu (2003). Democracy in a Multireligious and Cultural Setting: The Nigerian Context. World Futures 59 (5):381 – 390.
    Nigeria is indeed a typical pluralistic society with innumerable differences in culture, ethnicity, tribe, religion, and class. Yet there exists in Nigeria certain dominant cultures, ethnic nationalities, religions, and classes. In some parts of the country the influence of a dominant culture or ethnic group is more pronounced than in others. This paper is therefore an attempt to look into our pluralism and see how it can enhance the development and promotion of democracy in the country. This paper will address (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Michael Lacewing (2002). A Relative Defence. Think 3 (3):69-75.
    I defend a form of moral relativism that draws upon value pluralism and incommensurability.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Lawrence Lengbeyer (2010). An Alternative to Moral Relativism. In Christina Hoff Sommers & Fred Sommers (eds.), Vice and Virtue in Everyday Life. Wadsworth.
  28. Lawrence Lengbeyer (2004). Ethical Pluralism: An Alternative to Objectivism and Relativism. Teaching Ethics 5 (1):23-29.
  29. Jacob T. Levy, What It Means to Be a Pluralist.
    Michael Walzer has made great contributions to the appreciation of both moral and cultural pluralism in political theory. Nonetheless, there are ways in which Walzer's arguments appear anti-pluralistic. The question of this essay is: why is there so little pluralism in Walzer's political theory, or why does its pluralism run out so soon? Focusing on Spheres of Justice and Nation and Universe, it examines the effect of Walzer's nationalism/statism on his theory, and the constraints his theory faces in considering multiculturalism (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Diego E. Machuca (2009). Review of David Wong, Natural Moralities: A Defense of Pluralistic Relativism. Philosophy in Review 29 (2):148-150.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Elinor Mason, Value Pluralism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Remove from this list | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Kris McDaniel (2014). A Moorean View of the Value of Lives. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 95 (4):23-46.
    Can we understand being valuable for in terms of being valuable? Three different kinds of puzzle cases suggest that the answer is negative. In what follows, I articulate a positive answer to this question, carefully present the three puzzle cases, and then explain how a friend of the positive answer can successfully respond to them. This response requires us to distinguish different kinds of value bearers, rather than different kinds of value, and to hold that among the value bearers are (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Kris McDaniel, Jason R. Raibley, Richard Feldman & Michael J. Zimmerman (eds.) (2005). The Good, the Right, Life And Death: Essays in Honor of Fred Feldman. Ashgate.
  34. Pratap B. Mehta (1997). Pluralism After Liberalism? Critical Review 11 (4):503-518.
  35. Michael Moehler (2014). The Scope of Instrumental Morality. Philosophical Studies 167 (2):431-451.
    In The Order of Public Reason (2011a), Gerald Gaus rejects the instrumental approach to morality as a viable account of social morality. Gaus' rejection of the instrumental approach to morality, and his own moral theory, raise important foundational questions concerning the adequate scope of instrumental morality. In this article, I address some of these questions and I argue that Gaus' rejection of the instrumental approach to morality stems primarily from a common but inadequate application of this approach. The scope of (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Chantal Mouffe (2005). The Limits of John Rawls’s Pluralism. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 4 (2):221-231.
    This article brings to the fore the shortcomings of the type of pluralism advocated by John Rawls both in Political Liberalism and in The Law of Peoples . It is argued that by postulating that the discrimination between what is and what is not legitimate is dictated by rationality and morality, Rawls’s approach forecloses recognition of the properly political moment. Exclusions are presented as being justified by reason and the antagonistic dimension of politics is not acknowledged. This article also takes (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Thomas Nagel (1979). The Fragmentation of Value. In , Mortal Questions. Cambridge University Press.
    Remove from this list |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Luke O'Sullivan (2006). Value Pluralism and Communitarianism. Contemporary Political Theory 5 (4):405-427.
  39. Sami Pihlström (2009). The Conduct of Life: A Philosophical Reading, Ralph Waldo Emerson By H.G. Callaway (Ed.) Society and Solitude: Twelve Chapters. A New Study Edition, with Notes, Philosophical Commentary and Historical Contextualization, Ralph Waldo Emerson By H.G. Callaway (Ed.) A Pluralistic Universe: Hibbert Lectures at Manchester College on the Present Situation in Philosophy. A New Philosophical Reading, William James By H.G. Callaway (Ed.). [REVIEW] Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 45 (3):444-449.
    This new edition of William James’s 1909 classic, A Pluralistic Universe reproduces the original text, only modernizing the spelling. The books has been annotated throughout to clarify James’s points of reference and discussion. There is a new, fuller index, a brief chronology of James’s life, and a new bibliography—chiefly based on James’s own references. The editor, H.G. Callaway, has included a new Introduction which elucidates the legacy of Jamesian pluralism to survey some related questions of contemporary American society. -/- A (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Jonathan Riley (2012). Isaiah Berlin's "Minimum of Common Moral Ground". Political Theory 41 (1):0090591712463199.
    Isaiah Berlin’s political thought consistently combines tragic value pluralism with moral priority for a minimum sphere of individual liberty which is defined and protected by a core set of basic human rights. His fundamental concept of a common moral minimum includes multiple components, including the idea that there is a common moral world of plural and conflicting incommensurable objective values and the idea that humans share a common nucleus of needs and interests centered on the overriding goal of human survival. (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Ingrid Robeyns (2010). The Capability Approach. The Philosophers' Magazine 50 (50):92-93.
  42. David E. Rose (2008). Postmodern Political Values: Pluralism and Legitimacy in the Thought of John Rawls and Gianni Vattimo. Contemporary Political Theory 7 (4):416.
  43. Alan Ryan (1999). Isaiah Berlin, Political Theory and Liberal Culture. Annual Review of Political Science 2 (June):345-362.
    The essay provides a short outline of Berlin's career and an assessment of his contribution to pluralist and liberal thought. He was a British academic with a Russian cast of mind, and an inhabitant of the ivory tower who was very much at home in the diplomatic and political world. Similarly, he was neither a historian of ideas nor a political philosopher in the narrow sense usually understood in the modern academy. Rather, he engaged in a trans-historical conversation about the (...)
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Jonathan Seglow (2004). Liberalism and Value Pluralism. Contemporary Political Theory 3 (1):122.
  45. Vojko Strahovnik (2005). The Good in the Right. [REVIEW] Croatian Journal of Philosophy 5 (15):583-589.
    In his recent book The Good in the Right Robert Audi presents one of the most complete contemporary arguments for moral intuitionism. By clearing-out of unnecessary and out-of-date posits and commitments of traditional intuitionist accounts he manages to establish a moderate (and in a sense also minimal) version of intuitionism that can be further developed metaethically (e.g. Kantian intuitionism, value-based intuitionism) as well as normatively (e.g. by varying the list of prima facie duties). Central posits of his study of moral (...)
    Remove from this list | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Robert B. Talisse (2004). Can Value Pluralists Be Comprehensive Liberals? Galston's Liberal Pluralism. Contemporary Political Theory 3 (2):127.
    Remove from this list | Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Kok-Chor Tan (2004). Justice and Personal Pursuits. Journal of Philosophy 101 (7):331 - 362.
  48. Julia Tanner (2002). Value, Respect and Attachment (Book Review). [REVIEW] Philosophical Writings (21).
    Remove from this list |
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Stephen K. White (2003). Pluralism, Platitudes, and Paradoxes : Western Political Thought at the Beginning of a New Century. In Stephen K. White & J. Donald Moon (eds.), What is Political Theory? Sage Publications.
  50. Stephen K. White (2002). Introduction: Pluralism, Platitudes, and Paradoxes: Fifty Years of Western Political Thought. Political Theory 30 (4):472-481.
1 — 50 / 51