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Value Theory, Miscellaneous

Edited by Gwen Bradford (Rice University)
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  1. added 2016-12-05
    Michael Moehler (2016). In Defense of a Democratic Productivist Welfare State. European Journal of Philosophy.
    In this article, I defend a democratic form of the productivist welfare state. I argue that this form of the state can best cope, theoretically and practically, with the diversity of deeply morally pluralistic democratic societies for two reasons. First, the justification of this form of the state rests solely on general facts about human nature, basic human needs, and efficiency considerations in a world of moderately scarce resources. Second, this state does not aim to promote a specific view of (...)
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  2. added 2016-12-04
    L. A. Paul (forthcoming). First Personal Modes of Presentation and the Structure of Empathy. Inquiry.
    There are a host of fascinating philosophical issues that concern our understanding of the self, its relation to the first personal perspective, and its connection to the structure and content of conscious experience. These issues connect to work in the philosophy of language involving the nature of de se content and the role of perspective. They concern the role of indexicals in broader philosophical theories and the nature of the semantic content that indexicals contribute to our linguistic and conceptual representations. (...)
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  3. added 2016-12-04
    Jacob Levernier (2016). The Axiology of Necrologies: Using Natural Language Processing to Examine Values in Obituaries (Dissertation Code and Limited Data). Dissertation, University of Oregon
    This dissertation is centrally concerned with exploring obituaries as repositories of values. Obituaries are a publicly-available natural language source that are variably written for members of communities that are wide (nation- level) and narrow (city-level, or at the level of specific groups therein). Because they are explicitly summative, limited in size, and written for consumption by a public audience, obituaries may be expected to express concisely the aspects of their subjects’ lives that the authors (often family members living in the (...)
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  4. added 2016-12-02
    Gilbert Plumer (2016). Can Cogency Vanish? Cogency: Journal of Reasoning and Argumentation 8 (1):89-109.
    This paper considers whether universally—for all (known) rational beings—an argument scheme or pattern can go from being cogent (well-reasoned) to fallacious. This question has previously received little attention, despite the centrality of the concepts of cogency, scheme, and fallaciousness. I argue that cogency has vanished in this way for the following scheme, a common type of impersonal means-end reasoning: X is needed as a basic necessity or protection of human lives, therefore, X ought to be secured if possible. As it (...)
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  5. added 2016-11-30
    Nahal Jafroudi (2016). Rethinking the Human Person: Moral Landscape and Ethical Literacy. Peter Lang.
    Recent developments in the natural and social sciences have brought great benefits to humanity, both in terms of our material wellbeing and our intellectual and conceptual capacities. Yet, despite a broad ethical consensus and highly developed innate faculties of reason and conscience, there seems to be a significant discrepancy between how we ought to behave and how we actually behave, leading to a disregard for the dignity of human persons across the globe. This book suggests that the problem arises from (...)
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  6. added 2016-11-30
    Nahal Jafroudi (2016). Rethinking the Human Person: Moral Landscape and Ethical Literacy. Peter Lang.
    Recent developments in the natural and social sciences have brought great benefits to humanity, both in terms of our material wellbeing and our intellectual and conceptual capacities. Yet, despite a broad ethical consensus and highly developed innate faculties of reason and conscience, there seems to be a significant discrepancy between how we ought to behave and how we actually behave, leading to a disregard for the dignity of human persons across the globe. This book suggests that the problem arises from (...)
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  7. added 2016-11-26
    Guy Bennett-Hunter (forthcoming). Ineffability: Reply to Professors Metz and Cooper. Philosophia.
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  8. added 2016-11-20
    Ben Dixon (forthcoming). Value Pluralism and Consistency Maximization in the Writings of Aldo Leopold: Moving Beyond Callicott’s Interpretations of the Land Ethic. Environmental Values.
    The 70th anniversary of Aldo Leopold’s A Sand County Almanac (1949) approaches. For philosophers—environmental ethicists in particular—this text has been highly influential, especially the ‘Land Ethic’ essay contained therein. Given philosophers’ acumen for identifying and critiquing arguments, one might reasonably think a firm grasp of Leopold’s ideas to have emerged from such attention. I argue that this is not the case. Specifically, Leopold’s main interpreter and systematiser, philosopher J. Baird Callicott, has shoehorned Aldo Leopold’s ideas into differing monistic moral theories (...)
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  9. added 2016-11-19
    Nathan Stout (forthcoming). Salience, Imagination, and Moral Luck. Philosophical Papers.
    In this paper, I begin by addressing the way in which T.M. Scanlon's account of blame aims to solve the problem of moral luck by appealing to the significance of an agent’s actions. I then attempt to show that this solution to the problem fails in an important way insofar as there may be cases of outcome luck in which one’s being a member of a particular relationship with normative standards is itself a matter of luck. After presenting this challenge, (...)
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  10. added 2016-11-18
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). God’s Role in a Meaningful Life: New Reflections From Tim Mawson. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion 10.
    A critical notice of Tim Mawson's _God and the Meaning of Life_ (Bloomsbury 2016), with a reply from the author.
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  11. added 2016-11-18
    Stephen M. Campbell & Joseph A. Stramondo (2016). Review of Elizabeth Barnes, The Minority Body. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
  12. added 2016-11-18
    Stephen M. Campbell & Joseph A. Stramondo (2016). Disability and Well-Being: Appreciating the Complications. American Philosophical Association Newsletter on Philosophy and Medicine 16 (1):35-37.
  13. added 2016-11-12
    Daniel J. McKaughan (2015). Character Traits and the Neuroscience of Social Behavior. In Christian R. Miller, Michael Furr, Angela Knobel & William Fleeson (eds.), Character: New Directions from Philosophy, Psychology, and Theology. Oxford University Press
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  14. added 2016-11-11
    Andrew T. Forcehimes & Luke Semrau (2016). Well-Being: Reality's Role. Journal of the American Philosophical Association 2 (3):456-68.
    A familiar objection to mental state theories of well-being proceeds as follows: Describe a good life. Contrast it with one identical in mental respects, but lacking a connection to reality. Then observe that mental state theories of well-being implausibly hold both lives in equal esteem. Conclude that such views are false. Here we argue this objection fails. There are two ways reality may be thought to matter for well-being. We want to contribute to reality, and we want our experience of (...)
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  15. added 2016-11-06
    Christophe Menant (forthcoming). Constraint Satisfaction, Agency and Meaning Generation as an Evolutionary Framework for a Constructive Biosemiotics. Biosemiotics.
    A constructivist perspective on biosemiotics brings to the forefront meaning generation by biological agents for constraint satisfaction in an evolutionary background. Biosemiotics deal with the study of signs and meaning in biological entities. One of its main challenges is to attempt to naturalize biological meaning (Sharov & all 2015). Constructivism is an epistemological perspective that considers knowledge as constructed by agents which are sense makers. So a constructive approach on biosemiotics addresses meanings as constructed by biological agents as sense makers. (...)
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  16. added 2016-11-01
    Rose Lemmons (ed.) (2016). Woman as Prophet in the Home and the World: Interdisciplinary Investigations. Lexington Books.
    Edited collection of papers analyzing the nature, virtues, and spirituality of woman as prophet as well as the personal, ethical, and cultural challenges confronting her. Topics include analyses of John Paul II's feminine genius, new feminism, prophetism of femininity, Marian ecclesiology, and spousal love as well as a fresh analyses of lust, polarization, maternal flourishing while working, and how Midwestern nuns defeated racism. Argues that all women are called to prophesy benevolent love.
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  17. added 2016-10-31
    Stephen M. Campbell & Joseph A. Stramondo (forthcoming). The Complicated Relationship of Disability and Well-Being. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal.
  18. added 2016-10-28
    Stefano Bacin (ed.) (2010). Etiche antiche, etiche moderne: Temi di discussione. Il Mulino.
  19. added 2016-10-25
    Anthony Skelton (2016). Review of Roger Crisp, The Cosmos of Duty: Henry Sidgwick's Methods of Ethics. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
    This is a critical review of Roger Crisp's The Cosmos of Duty. The review praises the book but, among other things, takes issue with some of Crisp's criticisms of Sidgwick's view that resolution of the free will problem is of limited significance to ethics and with Crisp's claim that in Methods III.xiii Sidgwick defends an axiom of prudence that undergirds rational egoism.
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  20. added 2016-10-25
    Cynthia Willett (2014). Interspecies Ethics. Columbia University Press.
    examines the basis for ethical agency for humans and nonhuman animals that is multilayered and includes affects, emotions, and cognitive capacities.
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  21. added 2016-10-16
    Charles Blackorby, Walter Bossert & David J. Donaldson (2005). Population Issues in Social Choice Theory, Welfare Economics, and Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents an exploration of the idea of the common or social good, extended so that alternatives with different populations can be ranked. The approach is, in the main, welfarist, basing rankings on the well-being, broadly conceived, of those who are alive. The axiomatic method is employed, and topics investigated include: the measurement of individual well-being, social attitudes toward inequality of well-being, the main classes of population principles, principles that provide incomplete rankings, principles that rank uncertain alternatives, best choices (...)
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  22. added 2016-10-08
    Nicholas Southwood (forthcoming). Laws as Conventional Norms. In D. Plunkett, S. Shapiro & K. Toh (eds.), Legal Norms, Ethical Norms: New Essays on Meta-Ethics and Jurisprudence. Oxfprd University Press
    A persistent worry concerning conventionalist accounts of law is that such accounts are ill equipped to account for law’s special normativity. Call this the Normativity Objection. I offer a particular kind of conventionalist account that is based on the practice-dependent account of conventional norms I have offered elsewhere and consider whether it is vulnerable to the Normativity Objection. I argue that it isn’t. It can account for all the ways in which law can justly claim to be normative. While there (...)
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  23. added 2016-10-07
    Anne Meylan (forthcoming). L'intéressant. In Julien Deonna & Emma Tieffenbach (eds.), Petit dictionnaire des valeurs. Ithaque
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  24. added 2016-10-03
    Richard Yetter Chappell (forthcoming). Rethinking the Asymmetry. Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-11.
    According to the Asymmetry, we've strong moral reason to prevent miserable lives from coming into existence, but no moral reason to bring happy lives into existence. This procreative asymmetry is often thought to be part of commonsense morality, however theoretically puzzling it might prove to be. I argue that this is a mistake. The asymmetry is merely prima facie intuitive, and loses its appeal on further reflection. Mature commonsense morality recognizes no fundamental procreative asymmetry. It may recognize some superfi cially (...)
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  25. added 2016-09-27
    Bernd Lahno (2002). Der Begriff des Vertrauens. Mentis.
    Auf der Basis einer Klärung des Begriffs des Vertrauens zu klären werden mit dem Vertrauen verbundenen sozialen Probleme analysiert. Es wird argumentiert, dass Vertrauen emotionalen Charakter trägt, dass es eine gemeinsame normative Basis und eine teilnehmende Haltung der sozialen Akteure zueinander voraussetzt. Die Argumentation entwickelt sich ausgehend von einer entscheidungstheoretischen Analyse typischer Situationen, die Vertrauen erfordern, aber in kritischer Auseinandersetzung mit einer Position, die glaubt, Vertrauen sei in einer solchen entscheidungstheoretischen Analyse bereits vollständig zu erfassen. Vertrauen wird als eine emotionale (...)
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  26. added 2016-09-26
    Bill Wringe (forthcoming). Punishment Forgiveness and Reconciliation. Philosophia:1-26.
    It is sometimes thought that the normative justification for responding to large-scale violations of human rights via the judicial appararatus of trial and punishment is undermined by the desirability of reconciliation between conflicting parties as part of the process of conflict resolution. I take there to be philosophical, as well as practical and psychological issues involved here: on some conceptions of punishment and reconciliation, the attitudes that they involve conflict with one another on rational grounds. But I shall argue that (...)
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  27. added 2016-09-26
    Bill Wringe (forthcoming). Punishment Forgiveness and Reconciliation. Philosophia:1-26.
    It is sometimes thought that the normative justification for responding to large-scale violations of human rights via the judicial appararatus of trial and punishment is undermined by the desirability of reconciliation between conflicting parties as part of the process of conflict resolution. I take there to be philosophical, as well as practical and psychological issues involved here: on some conceptions of punishment and reconciliation, the attitudes that they involve conflict with one another on rational grounds. But I shall argue that (...)
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  28. added 2016-09-26
    David McCarthy (forthcoming). The Priority View. Economics and Philosophy.
    According to the priority view, or prioritarianism, it matters more to benefit people the worse off they are. But how exactly should the priority view be defined? This article argues for a highly general characterization which essentially involves risk, but makes no use of evaluative measurements or the expected utility axioms. A representation theorem is provided, and when further assumptions are added, common accounts of the priority view are recovered. A defense of the key idea behind the priority view, the (...)
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  29. added 2016-09-23
    Donald W. Bruckner (2016). Quirky Desires and Well-Being. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 10 (2):1-34.
    According to a desire-satisfaction theory of well-being, the satisfaction of one’s desires is what promotes one’s well-being. Against this, it is frequently objected that some desires are beyond the pale of well-being relevance, for example: the desire to count blades of grass, the desire to collect dryer lint and the desire to make handwritten copies of War and Peace, to name a few. I argue that the satisfaction of such desires – I call them “quirky” desires – does indeed contribute (...)
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  30. added 2016-09-22
    Pekka Väyrynen (2016). Thick Ethical Concepts. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Evaluative terms and concepts are often divided into “thin” and “thick”. We don’t evaluate actions and persons merely as good or bad, or right or wrong, but also as kind, courageous, tactful, selfish, boorish, and cruel. The latter evaluative concepts are "descriptively thick": their application somehow involves both evaluation and a substantial amount of non-evaluative description. This article surveys various attempts to answer four fundamental questions about thick terms and concepts. (1) A “combination question”: how exactly do thick terms and (...)
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  31. added 2016-09-13
    William Lauinger (forthcoming). The Morality-Welfare Circularity Problem. Philosophical Studies:1-23.
    Various moral theories are essentially welfare-involving in that they appeal to the promotion or the respect of well-being in accounting for the moral rightness of at least some acts. Further, various theories of well-being are essentially morality-involving in that they construe well-being in a way that essentially involves morality in some form or other. It seems that, for any moral theory that is essentially welfare-involving and that relies on a theory of well-being that is essentially morality-involving, a circularity problem may (...)
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  32. added 2016-09-12
    Charles Blackorby, Walter Bossert & David J. Donaldson (2005). Population Issues in Social Choice Theory, Welfare Economics, and Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents an exploration of the idea of the common or social good, extended so that alternatives with different populations can be ranked. The approach is, in the main, welfarist, basing rankings on the well-being, broadly conceived, of those who are alive. The axiomatic method is employed, and topics investigated include: the measurement of individual well-being, social attitudes toward inequality of well-being, the main classes of population principles, principles that provide incomplete rankings, principles that rank uncertain alternatives, best choices (...)
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