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Value Theory, Miscellaneous

Edited by Gwen Bradford (Rice University)
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  1. added 2016-07-27
    Markku Roinila (2016). The Battle of the Endeavors: Dynamics of the Mind and Deliberation in New Essays on Human Understanding, Book II, Xx-Xxi. In Wenchao Li (ed.), “Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer”. Vorträge des X. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses, Hannover, 18. – 23. Juli 2016. Olms Band V, 73-87.
    In New Essays on Human Understanding, book II, chapter xxi Leibniz presents an interesting picture of the human mind as not only populated by perceptions, volitions and appetitions, but also by endeavours. The endeavours in question can be divided to entelechy and effort; Leibniz calls entelechy as primitive active forces and efforts as derivative forces. The entelechy, understood as primitive active force is to be equated with a substantial form, as Leibniz says: “When an entelechy – i.e. a primary or (...)
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  2. added 2016-07-27
    Markku Roinila (2016). Leibniz's Passionate Knowledge. Blityri (1/2 2015):75-85.
    In §18 of Principles of Nature and Grace, Based on Reason, Leibniz says: ”Thus our happiness will never consist, and must never consist, in complete joy, in which nothing is left to desire, and which would dull our mind, but must consist in a perpetual progress to new pleasures and new perfections.” -/- This passage is typical in Leibniz’s Nachlass. Universal perfection creates in us joy or pleasure of the mind and its source is our creator, God. When this joy (...)
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  3. added 2016-07-27
    Markku Roinila (2016). The Battle of the Endeavors: Dynamics of the Mind and Deliberation in New Essays on Human Understanding, Book II, Xx-Xxi. In Wenchao Li (ed.), “Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer”. Vorträge des X. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses, Hannover, 18. – 23. Juli 2016, Band V. Olms 73-87.
    In New Essays on Human Understanding, book II, chapter xxi Leibniz presents an interesting picture of the human mind as not only populated by perceptions, volitions and appetitions, but also by endeavours. The endeavours in question can be divided to entelechy and effort; Leibniz calls entelechy as primitive active forces and efforts as derivative forces. The entelechy, understood as primitive active force is to be equated with a substantial form, as Leibniz says: “When an entelechy – i.e. a primary or (...)
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  4. added 2016-07-25
    Mary C. Rawlinson & Caleb Ward (eds.) (2015). Global Food, Global Justice: Essays on Eating Under Globalization. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    As Brillant-Savarin remarked in 1825 in his classic text Physiologie du Goût, “Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you who you are.” Philosophers and political theorists have only recently begun to pay attention to food as a critical domain of human activity and social justice. Too often these discussions treat food as a commodity and eating as a matter of individual choice. Policies that address the global obesity crisis by focusing on individual responsibility and medical interventions ignore (...)
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  5. added 2016-07-16
    Preston Greene (forthcoming). Value in Very Long Lives. Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    As things currently stand, our deaths are unavoidable and our lifespans short. It might be thought that these qualities leave room for improvement. According to a prominent line of argument in philosophy, however, this thought is mistaken. Against the idea that a longer life would be better, it is claimed that negative psychological states, such as boredom, would be unavoidable if our lives were significantly longer. Against the idea that a deathless life would be better, it is claimed that such (...)
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  6. added 2016-07-14
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). Morality and Self-Interest. Amazon Digital Services LLC.
    There are many reasons to behave immorally, but, so it seems, very few reasons to behave morally. In this short work, it is shown that all genuinely self-interested behavior embodies a certain morality. It is also shown that no viable ethical system requires its adherents to deny their self-interest.
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  7. added 2016-07-12
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). The Professor as Sociopath. PHILOSOPHYPEDIA.
    This work identifies some of the masks worn by the sociopath, when he happens to be employed as a professor.
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  8. added 2016-07-11
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). What Is Justice? JOHN-MICHAEL KUCZYNSKI.
    A case is made that justice is a kind of social proxy for the cause-effect relation. When in a state of nature, man has no one but himself to rely on in his dealings with nature, which, though cruel, is consistent, driven as she is by inviolable physical laws and which, consequently, always rewards an action with an equal and opposite reaction.
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  9. added 2016-07-11
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). The Professor as Sociopath. Amazon Digital Services LLC.
    This work identifies some of the masks worn by the sociopath, when he happens to be employed as a professor.
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  10. added 2016-07-11
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). Hedonism. JOHN-MICHAEL KUCZYNSKI.
    This book concisely explicates and evaluates four doctrines concerning the nature of moral obligation: hedonism (one's sole moral obligation is to enjoy oneself); egoism (one's sole moral obligation is to serve one's own interests); consequentialism (the ends justify the means), and deontology (the ends do not justify the means).
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  11. added 2016-07-11
    Christian Piller (2015). What Is Goodness Good For? In Mark Timmons (ed.), Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics Vol 4. 179-209.
  12. added 2016-07-11
    Steve Matthews (2012). Sailing, Flow and Fulfilment. In Patrick Goold (ed.), Sailing and Philosophy. 96-109.
    In this essay I want to focus on a quality inherent in that range of feelings we associate with an experience described as ‘flow’. Csíkszentmihályi describes it as a state that arises in people involved in some skilled activity who become fully immersed in it; they reach a state of ‘intrinsic motivation’ and loss of self-awareness; their actions seem to occur spontaneously so that they seem to become simultaneously a passive witness to their own highly skilled agency. There are skilled (...)
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  13. added 2016-07-10
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). Conventionalism, Relativism, Nihilism. JOHN-MICHAEL KUCZYNSKI.
    It is shown that moral relativism ('morality is culture-specific') and moral conventionalism ('moral laws are agreements among people as to how to behave') both presuppose the truth of moral realism and are therefore false. It is also shown that every attempt to trivialize moral truth or to prove its non-existence is inconsistent with the fact that moral statements have the same truth-conditions as biological statements.
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  14. added 2016-07-10
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2015). Ethics. Amazon Digital Services LLC.
    A brisk introduction to the basic problems of ethics, this work consists of sharp, deep answers to foundational questions: *Do legal obligations have moral weight? *Can one act immorally towards oneself? *What is the objective basis of legitimate moral claims? *How do we know right from wrong? *How can there be moral responsibility in a deterministic world? -/- Rigorous yet approachable, this work is an ideal introduction to analytic ethics and value theory.
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  15. added 2016-07-06
    Shriniwas Hemade (2015). परिघ : लेखकाचा आणि समकालीनतेचा. Pratishthan, Publication of Marathawada Sahitya Prishad, Maharashtra, India 64 (01):23-30.
    What is exactly is the meaning of Being Contemporaryness ? is analysed in philosophical perspective with reference Indian Social Structure. Emhasis is given on one being democratic and secular for the purpose of secure humanity. The Paper is Marathi.
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  16. added 2016-07-05
    Kiyoung Kim, Hyun-Myeong Ju & Marium Khatun (2015). A Reflection on the Research Method and Exemplary. Education Journal 4 (5):250-262.
    It was a precious opportunity as a teacher and researcher that I had completed two research method classes with the peers of Laureate Education Inc. Since the generation of creative knowledge and meaningful contribution to the field is charged on the professional researcher, the classes are foundational, but unfortunately with less an attention by the scholars, and, if more problematically, even lack of courses for some graduate or training programs. Within this paper, I can be gladly reminiscent of the course (...)
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  17. added 2016-07-02
    Tomasz Żuradzki (2016). Meta-Reasoning in Making Moral Decisions Under Normative Uncertainty. In Dima Mohammed & Marcin Lewiński (eds.), Argumentation and Reasoned Action. College Publications 1093-1104.
    I analyze recent discussions about making moral decisions under normative uncertainty. I discuss whether this kind of uncertainty should have practical consequences for decisions and whether there are reliable methods of reasoning that deal with the possibility that we are wrong about some moral issues. I defend a limited use of the decision theory model of reasoning in cases of normative uncertainty.
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  18. added 2016-07-01
    Ian James Kidd (forthcoming). Exemplarism, Ethics, and Illness Narratives. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics.
    Many people report that reading first-person narratives of the experience of illness can be morally instructive or educative. But although they are ubiquitous and typically sincere, the precise nature of such educative experiences is puzzling—for those narratives typically lack the features that modern philosophers regard as constitutive of moral reason. I argue that such puzzlement should disappear, and the morally educative power of illness narratives explained, if one distinguishes two different styles of moral reason: an inferentialist style that generates the (...)
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  19. added 2016-06-29
    Anne Schwenkenbecher (forthcoming). What is Wrong with NIMBYs? Renewable Energy, Landscape Impacts and Incommensurable Values. Environmental Values.
    Local opposition to infrastructure projects implementing renewable energy (RE) such as wind farms is often strong even if state-wide support for RE is strikingly high. The slogan “Not In My BackYard” (NIMBY) has become synonymous for this kind of protest. This paper revisits the question of what is wrong with NIMBYs about RE projects and how to best address them. I will argue that local opponents to wind farm (and other RE) developments do not necessarily fail to contribute their fair (...)
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  20. added 2016-06-25
    Juliano Santos do Carmo, Flávia Carvalho, Clademir Araldi, Carlos Miraglia, Alberto Semeler, Adriano Naves de Brito, Sofia Stein, Marco Azevedo & Nythamar de Oliveira (2013). Naturalism: Contemporary Perspectives. NEPFIL Online | Dissertatio's Series of Philosophy.
    The basic assumption present in these articles is that naturalism is highly compatible with a wide range of relevant philosophical questions and that, regardless of the classical problems faced by the naturalist, the price paid in endorsing naturalism is lower than that paid by essentialist or supernaturalist theories. Yet, the reader will find a variety of approaches, from naturalism in Moral Philosophy and Epistemology to naturalism in the Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Mind and of the Aesthetics.
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  21. added 2016-06-13
    Richard Oxenberg, The Teleological Suspension of the Ethical: Abraham, Isaac, and the Challenge of Faith.
    God demands that Abraham sacrifice his son Isaac. Why? Kierkegaard tells us that God requires of Abraham a "teleological suspension of the ethical." In this essay I explore the meanings of the ethical, God, and faith in an effort to shed light on Kierkegaard's claim and, more broadly, on the meaning of the biblical story itself.
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  22. added 2016-06-13
    Andrew D. Spear, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2016). Functions in Basic Formal Ontology. Applied Ontology 11 (2):103-128.
    The notion of function is indispensable to our understanding of distinctions such as that between being broken and being in working order (for artifacts) and between being diseased and being healthy (for organisms). A clear account of the ontology of functions and functioning is thus an important desideratum for any top-level ontology intended for application to domains such as engineering or medicine. The benefit of using top-level ontologies in applied ontology can only be realized when each of the categories identified (...)
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  23. added 2016-06-13
    Miles Tucker (2016). The Pen, the Dress, and the Coat: A Confusion in Goodness. Philosophical Studies 173 (7):1911-1922.
    Conditionalists say that the value something has as an end—its final value—may be conditional on its extrinsic features. They support this claim by appealing to examples: Kagan points to Abraham Lincoln’s pen, Rabinowicz and Rønnow-Rasmussen to Lady Diana’s dress, and Korsgaard to a mink coat. They contend that these things may have final value in virtue of their historical or societal roles. These three examples have become familiar: many now merely mention them to establish the conditionalist position. But the widespread (...)
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  24. added 2016-06-09
    Kurt Lampe (2014). The Birth of Hedonism: The Cyrenaic Philosophers and Pleasure as a Way of Life. Princeton University Press.
  25. added 2016-06-07
    Fergus Peace (forthcoming). Consequentialism, Goodness, and States of Affairs. Journal of Value Inquiry 50:1-18.
    Consequentialists claim that their theory is simply that the right action is whichever one will lead to the best state of affairs - and that this formulation provides a powerful intuitive ground for accepting consequentialism. Recent arguments in value theory threaten to show that this formulation lacks either coherent meaning, because states of affairs cannot be good simpliciter, or philosophical power, because their goodness provides no reason to bring them about. I respond to two such arguments - from Judith Jarvis (...)
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  26. added 2016-06-07
    Kieran Setiya (forthcoming). Retrospection. Philosophers' Imprint.
    Argues from nostalgia, affirmation, and regret to a principle of ‘specificity’: it can be rational to respond more strongly to facts that provide you with reasons than to the fact that such reasons exist.
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  27. added 2016-06-06
    Nicholas Southwood (forthcoming). The Motivation Question. Philosophical Studies:1-18.
    How does it happen that our beliefs about what we ought to do cause us to intend to do what we believe we ought to do? This is what John Broome calls the "motivation question." Broome’s answer to the motivation question is that we can bring ourselves, by our own efforts, to intend to do what we believe we ought to do by exercising a special agential capacity: the capacity to engage in what he calls enkratic reasoning. My aim is (...)
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  28. added 2016-06-01
    Thomas M. Besch, Schmidtz on Moral Recognition Rules: A Critique.
    David Schmidtz’s reconstruction of morality advances Hart-type recognition rules for a “personal” and an “interpersonal” strand of morality. I argue that his view does not succeed for reasons owed both to the way in which Schmidtz construes of the task of reconstructing morality and the content of the moral recognition rules that he proposes. For Schmidtz, this task must be approached from a Hart-type “internal” perspective, but this leaves his reconstruction with an unresolved problem of parochiality. And he reconstructs morality (...)
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  29. added 2016-05-30
    Debbie Roberts (2013). 'It's Evaluation, Only Thicker'. In Simon Kirchin (ed.), Thick Concepts. Oxford University Press
  30. added 2016-05-29
    Marcus Arvan, Errata - Rightness as Fairness: A Moral and Political Theory.
  31. added 2016-05-24
    Mark Alfano, Andrew Higgins & Jacob Levernier (forthcoming). Mapping Human Values: Enhancing Social Marketing Through Obituary Data-Mining. In Eda Gurel-Atay & Lynn Kahle (eds.), Social and Cultural Values in a Global and Digital Age. Routledge
    Obituaries are an especially rich resource for identifying people’s values. Because obituaries are succinct and explicitly intended to summarize their subjects’ lives, they may be expected to include only the features that the author(s) find most salient, not only for themselves as relatives or friends of the deceased, but also to signal to others in the community the socially-recognized aspects of the deceased’s character. We report three approaches to the scientific study of virtue and value through obituaries. We begin by (...)
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  32. added 2016-05-23
    Eric Brandstedt & Maria Emmelin (2016). The Concept of Sustainable Welfare. In Max Koch & Oksana Mont (eds.), Sustainability and the Political Economy of Welfare. Routledge 15-28.
  33. added 2016-05-20
    James Tartaglia (2016). Transculturalism and the Meaning of Life. Humanities 5 (2).
    I begin by introducing the standoff between the transculturalist aim of moving beyond cultural inheritances, and the worry that this project is itself a product of cultural inheritances. I argue that this is rooted in concerns about the meaning of life, and in particular, the prospect of nihilism. I then distinguish two diametrically opposed humanistic responses to nihilism, post-Nietzschean rejections of objective truth, and the moral objectivism favoured by some analytic philosophers, claiming that both attempt, in different ways, to break (...)
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  34. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2013). نیاز جاودانگی برای معنای زندگی. Falsafeh 6 (72):81-90.
    Persian translation by Seyyed Mostafa Mousavi A’zam of 'The Immortality Requirement for Life's Meaning' (Ratio 2003).
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  35. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2012). The Concept of a Meaningful Life. In Joshua Seachris (ed.), Exploring the Meaning of Life: An Anthology and Guide. John Wiley & Sons 79-94.
    Reprint of an article that initially appeared in the American Philosophical Quarterly (2001).
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  36. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2012). The Immortality Requirement for Life's Meaning. In Joshua Seachris (ed.), Exploring the Meaning of Life: An Anthology and Guide. John Wiley & Sons 416-427.
    Reprint of an article that initially appeared in Ratio (2003).
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  37. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2012). Could God's Purpose Be the Source of Life's Meaning? In Joshua Seachris (ed.), Exploring the Meaning of Life: An Anthology and Guide. John Wiley & Sons 200-218.
    Reprint of an article that initially appeared in Religious Studies (2000).
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  38. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2003). آيا هدف خداوند مى تواند سرچشمه معناى زندگى باشد؟*. Shareh 29.
    Persian translation by Mohammad Saeedi of 'Could God's Purpose Be the Source of Life's Meaning?' (Religious Studies 2000).
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  39. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2003). آثار جدید درباره معناى زندگى. Ensani 29.
    Persian translation by Mohsen Javadi of 'Recent Work on the Meaning of Life' (Ethics 2002).
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