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Value Theory, Miscellaneous

Edited by Gwen Bradford (Rice University)
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  1. added 2016-09-23
    Donald W. Bruckner (2016). Quirky Desires and Well-Being. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 10 (2):1-34.
    According to a desire-satisfaction theory of well-being, the satisfaction of one’s desires is what promotes one’s well-being. Against this, it is frequently objected that some desires are beyond the pale of well-being relevance, for example: the desire to count blades of grass, the desire to collect dryer lint and the desire to make handwritten copies of War and Peace, to name a few. I argue that the satisfaction of such desires – I call them “quirky” desires – does indeed contribute (...)
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  2. added 2016-09-22
    Pekka Väyrynen, Thick Ethical Concepts. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Evaluative terms and concepts are often divided into “thin” and “thick”. We don’t evaluate actions and persons merely as good or bad, or right or wrong, but also as kind, courageous, tactful, selfish, boorish, and cruel. The latter evaluative concepts are "descriptively thick": their application somehow involves both evaluation and a substantial amount of non-evaluative description. This article surveys various attempts to answer four fundamental questions about thick terms and concepts. (1) A “combination question”: how exactly do thick terms and (...)
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  3. added 2016-09-21
    David McCarthy (forthcoming). The Priority View. Economics and Philosophy.
    According to the priority view, or prioritarianism, it matters more to benefit people the worse off they are. But how exactly should the priority view be defined? This article argues for a highly general characterization which essentially involves risk, but makes no use of evaluative measurements or the expected utility axioms. A representation theorem is provided, and when further assumptions are added, common accounts of the priority view are recovered. A defense of the key idea behind the priority view, the (...)
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  4. added 2016-09-19
    Toni Rønnow-Rasmussen (forthcoming). On Locating Value in Making Moral Progress. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-16.
    The endeavour to locate value in moral progress faces various substantive as well as more formal challenges. This paper focuses on challenges of the latter kind. After some preliminaries, Section 3 introduces two general kinds of “evaluative moral progress-claims”, and outlines a possible novel analysis of a descriptive notion of moral progress. While Section 4 discusses certain logical features of betterness in light of recent work in value theory which are pertinent to the notion of moral progress, Sections 5 and (...)
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  5. added 2016-09-13
    William Lauinger (forthcoming). The Morality-Welfare Circularity Problem. Philosophical Studies:1-23.
    Various moral theories are essentially welfare-involving in that they appeal to the promotion or the respect of well-being in accounting for the moral rightness of at least some acts. Further, various theories of well-being are essentially morality-involving in that they construe well-being in a way that essentially involves morality in some form or other. It seems that, for any moral theory that is essentially welfare-involving and that relies on a theory of well-being that is essentially morality-involving, a circularity problem may (...)
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  6. added 2016-09-12
    Charles Blackorby, Walter Bossert & David J. Donaldson (2005). Population Issues in Social Choice Theory, Welfare Economics, and Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    This book presents an exploration of the idea of the common or social good, extended so that alternatives with different populations can be ranked. The approach is, in the main, welfarist, basing rankings on the well-being, broadly conceived, of those who are alive. The axiomatic method is employed, and topics investigated include: the measurement of individual well-being, social attitudes toward inequality of well-being, the main classes of population principles, principles that provide incomplete rankings, principles that rank uncertain alternatives, best choices (...)
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  7. added 2016-09-07
    Thomas Vogt (2010). Buying Time – Using Nanotechnologies and Other Emerging Technologies For A Sustainable Future. In Ulrich Fiedeler, Christopher Coenen, Sarah E. Davies & Arianna Ferrari (eds.), Understanding Nanotechnology. AKA Verlag 43-60.
    Abstract: Science and emerging technologies should not be predominantly tasked with furnishing us with more sustainable societies. Continuous short-term technological bail outs without taking into account the longer socio-cultural incubation times required to transition to ‘weakly sustainable’ economies squander valuable resources and time. Emerging technologies need to be deployed strategically to buy time in order to have extended political, social and ethical discussions about the root-causes of unsustainable economies and minimize social disruptions on the path towards global sustainability. Keywords: Nanoscience; (...)
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  8. added 2016-09-07
    Raymond Aaron Younis (1995). Isabelle Eberhardt. In Scott Murray (ed.), Australian film 1978-1994. Oxford University Press
  9. added 2016-09-05
    Italo Testa (2016). Hegelian Resources for Contemporary Thought. Introductory Essay. In Testa Italo & Ruggiu Luigi (eds.), "I that is We, We that is I." Perspectives on Contemporary Hegel Social Ontology, Recognition, Naturalism, and the Critique of Kantian Constructivism. Brill 1-28.
    Introductory essay to the collection "I that is We, We that is I" (ed. by Italo Testa and Luigi Ruggiu, Brill Books, 2016). In this book an international group of philosophers explore the many facets of Hegel’s formula which expresses the recognitive and social structures of human life. The book offers a guiding thread for the reconstruction of crucial motifs of contemporary thought such as the socio-ontological paradigm; the action-theoretical model in moral and social philosophy; the question of naturalism; and (...)
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  10. added 2016-09-05
    Raymond Aaron Younis (1995). Rolf de Heer, Dingo. In Scott Murray (ed.), Australian film 1978-1994. Oxford University Press
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  11. added 2016-09-01
    Robert Seddon (forthcoming). Foreign and Native Soils: Migrants and the Uses of Landscapes. In Geoffrey Scarre, Cornelius Holtorf & Andreas Pantazatos (eds.), Cultural Heritage, Ethics and Contemporary Migrations. Routledge
    Since land is older than the borders which humans have drawn and redrawn upon its surface, it may seem that, unlike the artefacts which people make with materials taken from the landscapes around them, land itself is endlessly open for new waves of migrants to embrace as part of their own heritage. Yet humans do mark landscapes, sometimes in lasting ways: not only roads and buildings but agriculture, forestry, dams and diverted rivers, quarrying and mining and more. It is landscape (...)
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  12. added 2016-08-29
    Duncan Purves (2016). The Case for Discounting the Future. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):213-230.
    Though economists appear to discount future well-being when evaluating the costs of climate change, plausible justifications of this practice have not been forthcoming. The methods of economists thus seem to contravene the requirements of justice by discounting the moral importance of future well-being simply because it exists in the future. I defend the practice of discounting the future against the charge of injustice on grounds that moral theorists of different stripes can accept. I argue that, because public policy choices are (...)
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  13. added 2016-08-25
    David Kolb, A Shaky Walk Downhill : A Philosopher Moves Into Parkinson's World.
    I am a philosopher with Parkinson’s Disease. Over the past several years I’ve been trying to write about my situation. I wrote about how I was forced to face the disease. I described how the disease twists and distorts my world. Then I asked myself, as a philosophy writer and teacher, whether I could say anything that might help myself or others facing life with Parkinson’s? I found ideas in the ancient Stoics and expanded them with ideas about time, coming (...)
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  14. added 2016-08-24
    Swami Narasimhananda (2015). Book Review Fate and Fortune in the Indian Scriptures by Sukumari Bhattacharji. [REVIEW] Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 120 (3):293-4.
    The author could have shown the other perspective also where fate or fortune is proclaimed to be in the hands of a person. It is notable that almost all of the translations and works she cites are by authors from outside the Indian tradition, with a Semitic bearing on their thought. The author comes a bit too strongly and without sufficient background material, in brushing aside as inconsequential, years of thought and philosophising in the Indian tradition. However, no Eastern tradition (...)
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  15. added 2016-08-22
    Cristian Constantinescu (forthcoming). Vague Comparisons. Ratio 29 (4).
    Some comparisons are hard. How should we think about such comparisons? According to John Broome, we should think about them in terms of vagueness. But the vagueness account has remained unpopular thus far. Here I try to bolster it by clarifying the notion of comparative vagueness that lies at its heart.
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  16. added 2016-08-20
    Noriaki Iwasa, Inner Ethics.
    This research identifies moral standards by certain intuition and constructs what is called inner ethics. The standards consist of four elements of love, five elements of ambition, sixteen elements of virtue, and six elements of grace. In the basic sense, improving oneself in the standards by voluntary action (including inaction) is good, whereas degrading oneself in the standards by voluntary action is evil. There are two duties. The first duty is not to degrade oneself in the standards by voluntary action. (...)
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  17. added 2016-08-19
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Qoheleth and the Meaning of Life. In Stephen Leach & James Tartaglia (eds.), The Meaning of Life and the Great Philosophers. Routledge
    A short discussion of how the presumed author of the Biblical chapter Ecclesiastes would have addressed the contemporary question of what, if anything, makes human life meaningful.
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  18. added 2016-08-15
    Richard Pettigrew (2016). The Population Ethics of Belief: In Search of an Epistemic Theory X. Noûs 50 (3).
    Consider Phoebe and Daphne. Phoebe has credences in 1 million propositions. Daphne, on the other hand, has credences in all of these propositions, but she's also got credences in 999 million other propositions. Phoebe's credences are all very accurate. Each of Daphne's credences, in contrast, are not very accurate at all; each is a little more accurate than it is inaccurate, but not by much. Whose doxastic state is better, Phoebe's or Daphne's? It is clear that this question is analogous (...)
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  19. added 2016-08-14
    Thaddeus Metz (2015). معنای زندگی. Phoenix Publishing.
    Translation of 'The Meaning of Life' (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) into Persian by Abdulfazl Tavakoli Shandiz. Printed as a booklet.
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  20. added 2016-08-08
    Hanoch Ben-Pazi (2014). Joseph: The Voice From the Coffin. In Yael Lin (ed.), Levinas Faces Biblical Figures. 173 - 188.
    The place of “Jewish wisdom” in Emmanuel Levinas’ writings has been widely discussed among scholars, with a great emphasis placed on Levinas’ engagement with the Talmud and the philosophical possibilities to be uncovered in Talmudic interpretation, as well as the ethical insights that Talmudic wisdom contributes to the discourse of the philosophy of ethics. The Hebrew Bible does not occupy a central role in Levinas’ writings, and despite the many references to the Bible as a book and to biblical narratives, (...)
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  21. added 2016-08-02
    Guy Bennett-Hunter (forthcoming). Review of “Nothingness and the Meaning of Life: Philosophical Approaches to Ultimate Meaning Through Nothing and Reflexivity” by Nicholas Waghorn. [REVIEW] Journal of Moral Philosophy.
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  22. added 2016-07-31
    Richard Oxenberg, God, Goodness, and Evil: A Theological Dialogue.
    Can a rational religious faith be maintained in a world full of evils? In this theological dialogue two characters, the skeptical Simon and the man of faith, Joseph, grapple with this question. What follows is a wide-ranging conversation touching on the nature and meaning of morality, God, revelation, the Bible, evil, and the viability of faith itself.
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  23. added 2016-07-27
    Markku Roinila (2016). The Battle of the Endeavors: Dynamics of the Mind and Deliberation in New Essays on Human Understanding, Book II, Xx-Xxi. In Wenchao Li (ed.), “Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer”. Vorträge des X. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses, Hannover, 18. – 23. Juli 2016. Olms Band V, 73-87.
    In New Essays on Human Understanding, book II, chapter xxi Leibniz presents an interesting picture of the human mind as not only populated by perceptions, volitions and appetitions, but also by endeavours. The endeavours in question can be divided to entelechy and effort; Leibniz calls entelechy as primitive active forces and efforts as derivative forces. The entelechy, understood as primitive active force is to be equated with a substantial form, as Leibniz says: “When an entelechy – i.e. a primary or (...)
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  24. added 2016-07-27
    Markku Roinila (2016). Leibniz's Passionate Knowledge. Blityri (1/2 2015):75-85.
    In §18 of Principles of Nature and Grace, Based on Reason, Leibniz says: ”Thus our happiness will never consist, and must never consist, in complete joy, in which nothing is left to desire, and which would dull our mind, but must consist in a perpetual progress to new pleasures and new perfections.” -/- This passage is typical in Leibniz’s Nachlass. Universal perfection creates in us joy or pleasure of the mind and its source is our creator, God. When this joy (...)
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  25. added 2016-07-27
    Markku Roinila (2016). The Battle of the Endeavors: Dynamics of the Mind and Deliberation in New Essays on Human Understanding, Book II, Xx-Xxi. In Wenchao Li (ed.), “Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer”. Vorträge des X. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses, Hannover, 18. – 23. Juli 2016, Band V. Olms 73-87.
    In New Essays on Human Understanding, book II, chapter xxi Leibniz presents an interesting picture of the human mind as not only populated by perceptions, volitions and appetitions, but also by endeavours. The endeavours in question can be divided to entelechy and effort; Leibniz calls entelechy as primitive active forces and efforts as derivative forces. The entelechy, understood as primitive active force is to be equated with a substantial form, as Leibniz says: “When an entelechy – i.e. a primary or (...)
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  26. added 2016-07-25
    Mary C. Rawlinson & Caleb Ward (eds.) (2015). Global Food, Global Justice: Essays on Eating Under Globalization. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    As Brillant-Savarin remarked in 1825 in his classic text Physiologie du Goût, “Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you who you are.” Philosophers and political theorists have only recently begun to pay attention to food as a critical domain of human activity and social justice. Too often these discussions treat food as a commodity and eating as a matter of individual choice. Policies that address the global obesity crisis by focusing on individual responsibility and medical interventions ignore (...)
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  27. added 2016-07-16
    Preston Greene (forthcoming). Value in Very Long Lives. Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    As things currently stand, our deaths are unavoidable and our lifespans short. It might be thought that these qualities leave room for improvement. According to a prominent line of argument in philosophy, however, this thought is mistaken. Against the idea that a longer life would be better, it is claimed that negative psychological states, such as boredom, would be unavoidable if our lives were significantly longer. Against the idea that a deathless life would be better, it is claimed that such (...)
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  28. added 2016-07-14
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). Morality and Self-Interest. Amazon Digital Services LLC.
    There are many reasons to behave immorally, but, so it seems, very few reasons to behave morally. In this short work, it is shown that all genuinely self-interested behavior embodies a certain morality. It is also shown that no viable ethical system requires its adherents to deny their self-interest.
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  29. added 2016-07-12
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). The Professor as Sociopath. PHILOSOPHYPEDIA.
    This work identifies some of the masks worn by the sociopath, when he happens to be employed as a professor.
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  30. added 2016-07-11
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). Hedonism. JOHN-MICHAEL KUCZYNSKI.
    This book concisely explicates and evaluates four doctrines concerning the nature of moral obligation: hedonism (one's sole moral obligation is to enjoy oneself); egoism (one's sole moral obligation is to serve one's own interests); consequentialism (the ends justify the means), and deontology (the ends do not justify the means).
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  31. added 2016-07-11
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). What Is Justice? JOHN-MICHAEL KUCZYNSKI.
    A case is made that justice is a kind of social proxy for the cause-effect relation. When in a state of nature, man has no one but himself to rely on in his dealings with nature, which, though cruel, is consistent, driven as she is by inviolable physical laws and which, consequently, always rewards an action with an equal and opposite reaction.
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  32. added 2016-07-11
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). The Professor as Sociopath. Amazon Digital Services LLC.
    This work identifies some of the masks worn by the sociopath, when he happens to be employed as a professor.
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  33. added 2016-07-11
    Christian Piller (2015). What Is Goodness Good For? In Mark Timmons (ed.), Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics Vol 4. 179-209.
  34. added 2016-07-11
    Steve Matthews (2012). Sailing, Flow and Fulfilment. In Patrick Goold (ed.), Sailing and Philosophy. 96-109.
    In this essay I want to focus on a quality inherent in that range of feelings we associate with an experience described as ‘flow’. Csíkszentmihályi describes it as a state that arises in people involved in some skilled activity who become fully immersed in it; they reach a state of ‘intrinsic motivation’ and loss of self-awareness; their actions seem to occur spontaneously so that they seem to become simultaneously a passive witness to their own highly skilled agency. There are skilled (...)
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  35. added 2016-07-10
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2016). Conventionalism, Relativism, Nihilism. JOHN-MICHAEL KUCZYNSKI.
    It is shown that moral relativism ('morality is culture-specific') and moral conventionalism ('moral laws are agreements among people as to how to behave') both presuppose the truth of moral realism and are therefore false. It is also shown that every attempt to trivialize moral truth or to prove its non-existence is inconsistent with the fact that moral statements have the same truth-conditions as biological statements.
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  36. added 2016-07-10
    John-Michael Kuczynski (2015). Ethics. Amazon Digital Services LLC.
    A brisk introduction to the basic problems of ethics, this work consists of sharp, deep answers to foundational questions: *Do legal obligations have moral weight? *Can one act immorally towards oneself? *What is the objective basis of legitimate moral claims? *How do we know right from wrong? *How can there be moral responsibility in a deterministic world? -/- Rigorous yet approachable, this work is an ideal introduction to analytic ethics and value theory.
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  37. added 2016-07-06
    Shriniwas Hemade (2015). परिघ : लेखकाचा आणि समकालीनतेचा. Pratishthan, Publication of Marathawada Sahitya Prishad, Maharashtra, India 64 (01):23-30.
    What is exactly is the meaning of Being Contemporaryness ? is analysed in philosophical perspective with reference Indian Social Structure. Emhasis is given on one being democratic and secular for the purpose of secure humanity. The Paper is Marathi.
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  38. added 2016-07-05
    Kiyoung Kim, Hyun-Myeong Ju & Marium Khatun (2015). A Reflection on the Research Method and Exemplary. Education Journal 4 (5):250-262.
    It was a precious opportunity as a teacher and researcher that I had completed two research method classes with the peers of Laureate Education Inc. Since the generation of creative knowledge and meaningful contribution to the field is charged on the professional researcher, the classes are foundational, but unfortunately with less an attention by the scholars, and, if more problematically, even lack of courses for some graduate or training programs. Within this paper, I can be gladly reminiscent of the course (...)
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  39. added 2016-07-02
    Tomasz Żuradzki (2016). Meta-Reasoning in Making Moral Decisions Under Normative Uncertainty. In Dima Mohammed & Marcin Lewiński (eds.), Argumentation and Reasoned Action. College Publications 1093-1104.
    I analyze recent discussions about making moral decisions under normative uncertainty. I discuss whether this kind of uncertainty should have practical consequences for decisions and whether there are reliable methods of reasoning that deal with the possibility that we are wrong about some moral issues. I defend a limited use of the decision theory model of reasoning in cases of normative uncertainty.
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  40. added 2016-07-01
    Ian James Kidd (forthcoming). Exemplarism, Ethics, and Illness Narratives. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics.
    Many people report that reading first-person narratives of the experience of illness can be morally instructive or educative. But although they are ubiquitous and typically sincere, the precise nature of such educative experiences is puzzling—for those narratives typically lack the features that modern philosophers regard as constitutive of moral reason. I argue that such puzzlement should disappear, and the morally educative power of illness narratives explained, if one distinguishes two different styles of moral reason: an inferentialist style that generates the (...)
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  41. added 2016-06-29
    Anne Schwenkenbecher (forthcoming). What is Wrong with NIMBYs? Renewable Energy, Landscape Impacts and Incommensurable Values. Environmental Values.
    Local opposition to infrastructure projects implementing renewable energy (RE) such as wind farms is often strong even if state-wide support for RE is strikingly high. The slogan “Not In My BackYard” (NIMBY) has become synonymous for this kind of protest. This paper revisits the question of what is wrong with NIMBYs about RE projects and how to best address them. I will argue that local opponents to wind farm (and other RE) developments do not necessarily fail to contribute their fair (...)
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