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Value Theory, Miscellaneous

Edited by Gwen Bradford (Rice University)
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  1. added 2016-06-25
    Juliano Santos do Carmo, Flávia Carvalho, Clademir Araldi, Carlos Miraglia, Alberto Semeler, Adriano Naves de Brito, Sofia Stein, Marco Azevedo & Nythamar de Oliveira (2013). Naturalism: Contemporary Perspectives. NEPFIL Online | Dissertatio's Series of Philosophy.
    The basic assumption present in these articles is that naturalism is highly compatible with a wide range of relevant philosophical questions and that, regardless of the classical problems faced by the naturalist, the price paid in endorsing naturalism is lower than that paid by essentialist or supernaturalist theories. Yet, the reader will find a variety of approaches, from naturalism in Moral Philosophy and Epistemology to naturalism in the Philosophy of Language, Philosophy of Mind and of the Aesthetics.
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  2. added 2016-06-13
    Richard Oxenberg, The Teleological Suspension of the Ethical: Abraham, Isaac, and the Challenge of Faith.
    God demands that Abraham sacrifice his son Isaac. Why? Kierkegaard tells us that God requires of Abraham a "teleological suspension of the ethical." In this essay I explore the meanings of the ethical, God, and faith in an effort to shed light on Kierkegaard's claim and, more broadly, on the meaning of the biblical story itself.
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  3. added 2016-06-13
    Andrew Spear, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (forthcoming). Functions in Basic Formal Ontology. Applied Ontology 11.
    The notion of function is indispensable to our understanding of distinctions such as that between being broken and being in working order (for artifacts) and between being diseased and being healthy (for organisms). A clear account of the ontology of functions and functioning is thus an important desideratum for any top-level ontology intended for application to domains such as engineering or medicine. The benefit of using top-level ontologies in applied ontology can only be realized when each of the categories identified (...)
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  4. added 2016-06-13
    Miles Tucker (2016). The Pen, the Dress, and the Coat: A Confusion in Goodness. Philosophical Studies 173 (7):1911-1922.
    Conditionalists say that the value something has as an end—its final value—may be conditional on its extrinsic features. They support this claim by appealing to examples: Kagan points to Abraham Lincoln’s pen, Rabinowicz and Rønnow-Rasmussen to Lady Diana’s dress, and Korsgaard to a mink coat. They contend that these things may have final value in virtue of their historical or societal roles. These three examples have become familiar: many now merely mention them to establish the conditionalist position. But the widespread (...)
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  5. added 2016-06-13
    Richard Schoch (2011). Maximize Your Pleasure. In Felicia Huppert & P. Alex Linley (eds.), Happiness and Well-Being. Routeldge 27-47.
    A essay on the epicurean philosophy of happiness and well-being.
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  6. added 2016-06-09
    Kurt Lampe (2014). The Birth of Hedonism: The Cyrenaic Philosophers and Pleasure as a Way of Life. Princeton University Press.
  7. added 2016-06-07
    Kieran Setiya (forthcoming). Retrospection. Philosophers' Imprint.
    Argues from nostalgia, affirmation, and regret to a principle of ‘specificity’: it can be rational to respond more strongly to facts that provide you with reasons than to the fact that such reasons exist.
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  8. added 2016-06-07
    Fergus Peace (forthcoming). Consequentialism, Goodness, and States of Affairs. Journal of Value Inquiry 50:1-18.
    Consequentialists claim that their theory is simply that the right action is whichever one will lead to the best state of affairs - and that this formulation provides a powerful intuitive ground for accepting consequentialism. Recent arguments in value theory threaten to show that this formulation lacks either coherent meaning, because states of affairs cannot be good simpliciter, or philosophical power, because their goodness provides no reason to bring them about. I respond to two such arguments - from Judith Jarvis (...)
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  9. added 2016-06-06
    Nicholas Southwood (forthcoming). The Motivation Question. Philosophical Studies.
    How does it happen that our beliefs about what we ought to do cause us to intend to do what we believe we ought to do? This is what John Broome calls the "motivation question." Broome’s answer to the motivation question is that we can bring ourselves, by our own efforts, to intend to do what we believe we ought to do by exercising a special agential capacity: the capacity to engage in what he calls enkratic reasoning. My aim is (...)
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  10. added 2016-06-01
    Thomas M. Besch, Schmidtz on Moral Recognition Rules: A Critique.
    David Schmidtz’s reconstruction of morality advances Hart-type recognition rules for a “personal” and an “interpersonal” strand of morality. I argue that his view does not succeed for reasons owed both to the way in which Schmidtz construes of the task of reconstructing morality and the content of the moral recognition rules that he proposes. For Schmidtz, this task must be approached from a Hart-type “internal” perspective, but this leaves his reconstruction with an unresolved problem of parochiality. And he reconstructs morality (...)
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  11. added 2016-05-30
    Debbie Roberts (2013). 'It's Evaluation, Only Thicker'. In Simon Kirchin (ed.), Thick Concepts. Oxford University Press
  12. added 2016-05-29
    Marcus Arvan, Errata - Rightness as Fairness: A Moral and Political Theory.
  13. added 2016-05-23
    Mark Alfano, Andrew Higgins & Jacob Levernier (forthcoming). Mapping Human Values: Enhancing Social Marketing Through Obituary Data-Mining. In Eda Gurel-Atay & Lynn Kahle (eds.), Social and Cultural Values in a Global and Digital Age. Routledge
    Obituaries are an especially rich resource for identifying people’s values. Because obituaries are succinct and explicitly intended to summarize their subjects’ lives, they may be expected to include only the features that the author(s) find most salient, not only for themselves as relatives or friends of the deceased, but also to signal to others in the community the socially-recognized aspects of the deceased’s character. We report three approaches to the scientific study of virtue and value through obituaries. We begin by (...)
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  14. added 2016-05-23
    Eric Brandstedt & Maria Emmelin (2016). The Concept of Sustainable Welfare. In Max Koch & Oksana Mont (eds.), Sustainability and the Political Economy of Welfare. Routledge 15-28.
  15. added 2016-05-20
    James Tartaglia (2016). Transculturalism and the Meaning of Life. Humanities 5 (2).
    I begin by introducing the standoff between the transculturalist aim of moving beyond cultural inheritances, and the worry that this project is itself a product of cultural inheritances. I argue that this is rooted in concerns about the meaning of life, and in particular, the prospect of nihilism. I then distinguish two diametrically opposed humanistic responses to nihilism, post-Nietzschean rejections of objective truth, and the moral objectivism favoured by some analytic philosophers, claiming that both attempt, in different ways, to break (...)
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  16. added 2016-05-10
    Kalle Grill (forthcoming). Asymmetric Population Axiology: Deliberative Neutrality Delivered. Philosophical Studies:1-18.
    Two related asymmetries have been discussed in relation to the ethics of creating new lives: First, we seem to have strong moral reason to avoid creating lives that are not worth living, but no moral reason to create lives that are worth living. Second, we seem to have strong moral reason to improve the wellbeing of existing lives, but, again, no moral reason to create lives that are worth living. Both asymmetries have proven very difficult to account for in any (...)
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  17. added 2016-05-10
    Derek Parfit (2016). Can We Avoid the Repugnant Conclusion? Theoria 82 (2):110-127.
    According to the Repugnant Conclusion: Compared with the existence of many people who would all have some very high quality of life, there is some much larger number of people whose existence would be better, even though these people would all have lives that were barely worth living. I suggest some ways in which we might be able to avoid this conclusion. I try to defend a strong form of lexical superiority.
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  18. added 2016-05-10
    Gustaf Arrhenius (2016). Population Ethics and Different‐Number‐Based Imprecision. Theoria 82 (2):166-181.
    Recently, in his Rolf Schock Prize Lecture, Derek Parfit has suggested a novel way of avoiding the Repugnant Conclusion by introducing what he calls “imprecision” in value comparisons. He suggests that in a range of important cases, populations of different sizes are only imprecisely comparable. Parfit suggests that this feature of value comparisons opens up a way of avoiding the Repugnant Conclusion without implying other counterintuitive conclusions, and thus solves one of the major challenges in ethics. In this article, I (...)
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  19. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2013). نیاز جاودانگی برای معنای زندگی. Falsafeh 6 (72):81-90.
    Persian translation by Seyyed Mostafa Mousavi A’zam of 'The Immortality Requirement for Life's Meaning' (Ratio 2003).
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  20. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2012). The Concept of a Meaningful Life. In Joshua Seachris (ed.), Exploring the Meaning of Life: An Anthology and Guide. John Wiley & Sons 79-94.
    Reprint of an article that initially appeared in the American Philosophical Quarterly (2001).
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  21. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2012). Could God's Purpose Be the Source of Life's Meaning? In Joshua Seachris (ed.), Exploring the Meaning of Life: An Anthology and Guide. John Wiley & Sons 200-218.
    Reprint of an article that initially appeared in Religious Studies (2000).
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  22. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2012). The Immortality Requirement for Life's Meaning. In Joshua Seachris (ed.), Exploring the Meaning of Life: An Anthology and Guide. John Wiley & Sons 416-427.
    Reprint of an article that initially appeared in Ratio (2003).
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  23. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2003). آثار جدید درباره معناى زندگى. Ensani 29.
    Persian translation by Mohsen Javadi of 'Recent Work on the Meaning of Life' (Ethics 2002).
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  24. added 2016-05-07
    Thaddeus Metz (2003). آيا هدف خداوند مى تواند سرچشمه معناى زندگى باشد؟*. Shareh 29.
    Persian translation by Mohammad Saeedi of 'Could God's Purpose Be the Source of Life's Meaning?' (Religious Studies 2000).
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  25. added 2016-05-01
    Andrew Reisner (forthcoming). Two Thesis About the Distinctness of Practical and Theoretical Normativity. In C. McHugh, J. Way & D. Whiting (eds.), Normativity: Practical and Theoretical. Oxford University Press
    In tradition linked to Aristotle and Kant, many contemporary philosophers treat practical and theoretical normativity as two genuinely distinct domains of normativity. In this paper I consider the question of what it is for normative domains to be distinct. I suggest that there are two different ways that the distinctness thesis might be understood and consider the different implications of the two different distinctness theses.
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  26. added 2016-04-30
    Thaddeus Metz (2016). Happiness and Meaning in Life: The Sweet Spot Where They Meet. In Leo Bormans (ed.), The World Book of Happiness: Happiness 2.0. Lannoo Publishing
    An 850 word statement, composed for a lay audience, of respects in which happiness and meaningfulness can come apart, but highlighting the aim of engaging in projects in which they are co-present.
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  27. added 2016-04-25
    Brooke Alan Trisel (2016). Human Extinction, Narrative Ending, and Meaning of Life. Journal of Philosophy of Life 6 (1):1-22.
    Some people think that the inevitability of human extinction renders life meaningless. Joshua Seachris has argued that naturalism can be conceptualized as a meta-narrative and that it narrates across important questions of human life, including what is the meaning of life and how life will end. How a narrative ends is important, Seachris argues. In the absence of God, and with knowledge that human extinction is a certainty, is there any way that humanity could be meaningful and have a good (...)
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  28. added 2016-04-22
    Guy Bennett-Hunter (2016). Review of "Philosophy in a Meaningless Life: A System of Nihilism, Consciousness, and Reality” by James Tartaglia. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 201604.
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  29. added 2016-04-19
    John Broome (1985). Professor. Economica 52:281-94.
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  30. added 2016-04-13
    Dustin Garlitz (2014). Surplus Labor and Crime. In J. Mitchell Miller (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Theoretical Criminology. Wiley-Blackwell
    Surplus labor and crime have complemented one another since the nineteenth century, when social philosopher Karl Marx propounded a now classical theory of surplus labor, exploitation, and crime in the material sense. As illustrated in Volume 1 of Capital (Marx, 1867/1976), Marx's concept of “surplus labor”—a type of unpaid labor—represented a moral injustice, a sort of crime against humanity. In the twentieth century a distinct form of surplus labor was linked to crime in a wider range of studies, which redefined (...)
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  31. added 2016-04-13
    Dustin Garlitz (2014). Social Values. In Sherwood Thompson (ed.), Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  32. added 2016-04-13
    Dustin Garlitz (2014). Morality. In Sherwood Thompson (ed.), Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  33. added 2016-04-13
    Dustin Garlitz (2014). Social Realism. In Sherwood Thompson (ed.), Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  34. added 2016-04-13
    Dustin Garlitz (2014). Society. In Sherwood Thompson (ed.), Encyclopedia of Diversity and Social Justice. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers
  35. added 2016-04-10
    Douglas W. Portmore, Transitivity, Moral Latitude, and Supererogation.
    On what I take to be the standard account of supererogation, an act is supererogatory if and only if it is morally optional and there is more moral reason to perform it than to perform some permissible alternative. And, on this account, an agent has more moral reason to perform one act than to perform another if and only if she morally ought to prefer how things would be if she were to perform the one to how things would be (...)
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  36. added 2016-04-09
    Arto Laitinen (2011). Recognition, Acknowledgement, and Acceptance. In Heikki Ikäheimo & Arto Laitinen (eds.), Recognition and Social Ontology. Brill 309-347.
    In this chapter I distinguish between a) recognition of persons, b) normative acknowledgement and c) institution-creating acceptance. All of these go beyond a fourth, merely descriptive sense of the word “recognition,” namely identification or re-identification of something as something. I distinguish four aspects of "taking someone as a person": R1 A Belief that the other is a person, and can engage in agency-regarding relations.R2 Moral Opinion that the choice whether and when to engage with persons is ethically significant.R3 Willingness to (...)
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  37. added 2016-04-08
    Veronica Alfano & Mark Alfano (forthcoming). Still Lives: The History and Philosophy of Mourning Texts. Routledge.
    “Call no one happy until they are dead.” “Never speak ill of the dead.” If we still heed the injunctions of Solon and Chilon of Sparta, then obituaries, which represent a prominent way of expressing the human universal of grief, are a resource for philosophical anthropology. Philosophers have emphasized that we can determine what counts as a virtue for a given type of person in a given cultural context by analyzing what people say about the dead (Zagzebski 1996, p. 135). (...)
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  38. added 2016-04-07
    Jeffrey Epstein (2016). Democracy and Its Others. Bloomsbury.
    Today's unprecedented levels of human migration present urgent challenges to traditional conceptualizations of national identity, nation-state sovereignty, and democratic citizenship. Foreigners are commonly viewed as outsiders whose inclusion within or exclusion from “the people” of the democratic state rests upon whether they benefit or threaten the unity of the nation. Against this instrumentalization of the foreigner, this book traces the historical development of the concepts of sovereignty and foreignness through the thought of philosophers such as Plato, Locke, Hobbes, Rousseau, Derrida, (...)
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  39. added 2016-04-03
    Eduardo Duque (2007). Os Jovens e a Religião na Sociedade Actual. Comportamentos, Crenças, Atitudes e Valores no Distrito de Braga. Council of Europe, Secretaria de Estado da Juventude, Instituto Português da Juventude.
    As sociedades ocidentais têm considerado, pelo menos nas últimas décadas, a juventude como um elemento motriz e dinamizador do processo de transformação social. É por isso vista, pela sociedade, como a impulsionadora da História, agente de reforma, de motivação, de esperança e, até mesmo, em alguns casos, como “sujeito revolucionário”. O certo é que os jovens, nos anos sessenta e setenta, determinaram uma importante função no desenvolvimento da modernização das estruturas sociais e, rompendo com as estruturas normativas dominantes em busca (...)
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