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Value Theory

Edited by Daniel Star (Boston University)
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  1. added 2016-08-28
    Benjamin Lange (forthcoming). Restricted Prioritarianism or Competing Claims? Utilitas.
    I here settle a recent dispute between two rival theories in distributive ethics: Restricted Prioritarianism and the Competing Claims View . Both views mandate that the distribution of benefits and burdens between individuals should be justifiable to each affected party in a way that depends on the strength of each individual's separately assessed claim to receive a benefit. However, they disagree about what elements constitute the strength of those individuals’ claims. According to restricted prioritarianism, the strength of a claim is (...)
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  2. added 2016-08-28
    Jonathan Hsy (forthcoming). Symptom and Surface: Disruptive Deafness and Medieval Medical Authority. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-7.
    This essay examines constructions of deafness in medieval culture, exploring how deaf experience disrupts authoritative discourses in three textual genres: medical treatise, literary fiction, and autobiographical writing. Medical manuals often present deafness as a physical defect, yet they also suggest how social conditions for deaf people can be transformed in lieu of treatment protocols. Fictional narratives tend to associate deafness with sin or social stigma, but they can also imagine deaf experience with a remarkable degree of sympathy and nuance. Autobiographical (...)
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  3. added 2016-08-28
    Ann M. Heesters, Daniel Z. Buchman, Kyle W. Anstey, Jennifer A. H. Bell, Barbara J. Russell & Linda Wright (forthcoming). Power of Attorney for Research: The Need for a Clear Legal Mechanism. Public Health Ethics:phw035.
    A recent article in this journal described practical and conceptual difficulties faced by public health researchers studying scabies outbreaks in British residential care facilities. Their study population was elderly, decisionally incapacitated residents, many of whom lacked a legally appropriate decision-maker for healthcare decisions. The researchers reported difficulties securing Research Ethics Committee approval. As practicing healthcare ethicists working in a large Canadian research hospital, we are familiar with this challenge and welcomed the authors’ invitation to join the discussion of the ‘outstanding (...)
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  4. added 2016-08-28
    Gordon Arlen (forthcoming). Aristotle and the Problem of Oligarchic Harm: Insights for Democracy. European Journal of Political Theory:1474885116663837.
    This essay identifies ‘oligarchic harm’ as a dire threat confronting contemporary democracies. I provide a formal standard for classifying oligarchs: those who use personal access to concentrated wealth to pursue harmful forms of discretionary influence. I then use Aristotle to think through both the moral and the epistemic dilemmas of oligarchic harm, highlighting Aristotle’s concerns about the difficulties of using wealth as a ‘proxy’ for virtue. While Aristotle’s thought provides great resources for diagnosing oligarchic threats, it proves less useful as (...)
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  5. added 2016-08-28
    Przemysław Żywiczyński, Sławomir Wacewicz & Marta Sibierska (forthcoming). Defining Pantomime for Language Evolution Research. Topoi:1-12.
    Although pantomimic scenarios recur in the most important historical as well as current accounts of language origins, a serious problem is the lack of a commonly accepted definition of “pantomime”. We scrutinise several areas of study, from theatre studies to semiotics to primatology, pointing to the differences in use that may give rise to misunderstandings, and working towards a set of definitional criteria of “pantomime” specifically useful for language evolution research. We arrive at a definition of pantomime as a communication (...)
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  6. added 2016-08-28
    Mehmet Aközer & Emel Aközer (forthcoming). Ethics Teaching in Higher Education for Principled Reasoning: A Gateway for Reconciling Scientific Practice with Ethical Deliberation. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-36.
    This paper proposes laying the groundwork for principled moral reasoning as a seminal goal of ethics interventions in higher education, and on this basis, makes a case for educating future specialists and professionals with a foundation in philosophical ethics. Identification of such a seminal goal is warranted by the progressive dissociation of scientific practice and ethical deliberation since the onset of a problematic relationship between science and ethics around the mid-19th century, and the extensive mistrust of integrating ethics in science (...)
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  7. added 2016-08-28
    Benjamin Lange (forthcoming). Restricted Prioritarianism or Competing Claims? Utilitas.
    I here settle a recent dispute between two rival theories in distributive ethics: Restricted Prioritarianism and the Competing Claims View . Both views mandate that the distribution of benefits and burdens between individuals should be justifiable to each affected party in a way that depends on the strength of each individual's separately assessed claim to receive a benefit. However, they disagree about what elements constitute the strength of those individuals’ claims. According to restricted prioritarianism, the strength of a claim is (...)
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  8. added 2016-08-28
    Fabiana Marques Barbosa Nasciutti, Nikolai Veresov & Ana Maria Falcão de Aragão (2016). The Group as a Source of Development: Rethinking Professional Development in a Collaborative Perspective. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 17 (1):86-108.
    Since the later decades of the 20 th century, Brazilian psychologists have been questioning a theoretical and interventional model in educational contexts, which consider psychological phenomena apart from their cultural contexts, in order to develop an approach based on a contextualized viewpoint. Despite progress having been made in educational psychology, as a result of this critical paradigm, this area still has problems to overcome: Psychologists are becoming increasingly separate from schools, and it is now common to find psychologists who are (...)
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  9. added 2016-08-28
    Mia Glendøs (2016). Was It Useful? Multilayered Outcome of a Psychosocial Intervention with Teachers in East Greenland. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 17 (1):62-85.
    Multilayered outcomes were found in the results of a follow-up study for an action research project conducted in East Greenland. The project was based on a community psychology approach that stresses the interdependent relations of change, structure, people, and community and emphasized the fundamental issue of grounding an intervention in local utilization. The project focused on mobilizing the resilience of vulnerable schoolchildren by advocating the students’ perspectives in a collaborative intervention process with the teachers of a local school. The research (...)
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  10. added 2016-08-28
    Raj Kumar Bhattarai (2016). Empathic Actors Strengthen Organisational Immunity to Industrial Crisis: Industrial Actors’ Perception in Nepal. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 17 (1):109-128.
    This paper aims to understand the kind of activities that industrial actors develop in order to protect their enterprises during industrial crisis conditions. A series of political unrest, insurgency, economic turmoil, deadly earthquakes, and economic embargo at the Indo- Nepal boarder escalated the industrial crisis in Nepal. The quest for sustainability of enterprises during the enduring nature of the crisis stimulated for a more detail conversation and survey. A perceptual survey of industrial actors accompanying conversation therein indicates that trade union (...)
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  11. added 2016-08-28
    Federico Zuolo (2016). Individuals, Species and Equality. A Critique of McMahan’s Intrinsic Potential Account. Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (3):573-592.
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  12. added 2016-08-28
    Molly Gardner (2016). The Interspecies Killing Problem. In Mylan Engel & Gary Lynn Comstock (eds.), The Moral Rights of Animals. Lexington Books 119-139.
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  13. added 2016-08-28
    Maria Cecília Camargo Magalhães (2016). Intervention Research in a Public Elementary School: A Critical-Collaborative Teacher Education Project on Reading and Writing. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 17 (1):39-61.
    This Teacher Education Project is an intervention research aimed at creating new school roles for educating students as readers and writers as well as citizens. The methodological framework was based on Vygotsky’s discussions of method as praxis, as well as on both the Marxist practical–materialistic–revolutionary activity and Engeström’s extensions of Cultural Historical Activity Theory. The work at school was motivated by students’ limited awareness of reading and writing. The goal was to involve the school as a community in understanding and (...)
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  14. added 2016-08-28
    Michalis Kontopodis (2016). Vygotsky, Neoliberalism and Post-Structuralism: A Response to Jacob Klitmøller and Two Further Reviews of My Book “Neoliberalism, Pedagogy and Human Development”. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 17 (1):129-134.
    The paperback edition of “Neoliberalism, Pedagogy and Human Development”, which was published in 2014, almost coincided with the publication of two book review; one kindly written by Fabienne Gfeller and one by Jacob Klitmøller. A third review of “Neoliberalism, Pedagogy and Human Development” has recently been published with Power and Education. As a first response to the discussion, which the book provoked, I try to briefly explore below a central question: Is linking post-structuralist thinking and Vygotskian scholarship meaningful?
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  15. added 2016-08-28
    Julie Hengst, Maeve McCartin, Hillary Valentino, Suma Devanga & Martha Sherrill (2016). Mapping Communicative Activity: A CHAT Approach to Design of Pseudo- Intelligent Mediators for Augmentative and Alternative Communication. Outlines. Critical Practice Studies 17 (1):05-38.
    The development of AAC technologies is of critical importance to the many people who are unable to speak intelligibly due to a communication disorder, and to their many everyday interlocutors. Advances in digital technologies have revolutionized AAC, leading to devices that can “speak for” such individuals as aptly as it is illustrated in the case of the world famous physicist, Stephen Hawking. However, given their dependence on prefabricated language, current AAC devices are very limited in their ability to mediate everyday (...)
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  16. added 2016-08-28
    Subhasis Chattopadhyay (2016). Claiming the Domain of the Literary: Mourning the Death of Reading Fiction. Prabuddha Bharata or Awakened India 121 (June (6)):505-11.
    This essay reviews the domain of the literary contrasting it with other intellectual discourses; especially philosophy. It establishes the superiority of literature over philosophy. And mentions the philosophies informing literature. The essay is written consciously with copious footnotes, contrary to current ways of writing. The essay proper is simple; the footnotes often mock jargon and mimic pedantry.
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  17. added 2016-08-28
    Jacob Blair (2016). Fiona Woollard, Doing and Allowing Harm. Journal of Value Inquiry 50 (3):673-681.
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  18. added 2016-08-28
    Ezekiel J. Emanuel, Steven Joffe, Christine Grady, David Wendler & Govind Persad (2015). Clinical Research: Should Patients Pay to Play? Science Translational Medicine 7 (298):298ps16.
    We argue that charging people to participate in research is likely to undermine the fundamental ethical bases of clinical research, especially the principles of social value, scientific validity, and fair subject selection.
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  19. added 2016-08-27
    Terence Rajivan Edward, The Definition of Systematizing in S. Baron-Cohen's Gender and Autism Research.
    The professor of psychopathology Simon Baron-Cohen is well-known for his thesis that males are on average stronger at systematizing than empathizing and females are on average stronger at empathizing than systematizing. In this paper, I note an ambiguity in how he defines systematizing.
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  20. added 2016-08-27
    Megan A. Dean, Elizabeth Victor & Laura Guidry-Grimes (forthcoming). Inhospitable Healthcare Spaces: Why Diversity Training on LGBTQIA Issues Is Not Enough. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-14.
    In an effort to address healthcare disparities in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer populations, many hospitals and clinics institute diversity training meant to increase providers’ awareness of and sensitivity to this patient population. Despite these efforts, many healthcare spaces remain inhospitable to LGBTQ patients and their loved ones. Even in the absence of overt forms of discrimination, LGBTQ patients report feeling anxious, unwelcome, ashamed, and distrustful in healthcare encounters. We argue that these negative experiences are produced by a variety (...)
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  21. added 2016-08-27
    Govind C. Persad & Ezekiel J. Emanuel (2016). The Ethics of Expanding Access to Cheaper, Less Effective Treatments. The Lancet:S0140-6736(15)01025-9.
    This article examines a fundamental question of justice in global health. Is it ethically preferable to provide a larger number of people with cheaper treatments that are less effective (or more toxic), or to restrict treatments to a smaller group to provide a more expensive but more effective or less toxic alternative? We argue that choosing to provide less effective or more toxic interventions to a larger number of people is favored by the principles of utility, equality, and priority for (...)
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  22. added 2016-08-27
    Thom Brooks (2016). How Not to Save the Planet. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):119-135.
    Climate change presents us with perhaps the most pressing challenge today. But is it a problem we can solve? This article argues that existing conservationist and adaptation approaches fail to satisfy their objectives. A second issue that these approaches disagree about how best to end climate change, but accept that it is a problem that can be solved. I believe this view is mistaken: a future environmental catastrophe is an event we might at best postpone, but not avoid. This raises (...)
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  23. added 2016-08-27
    Dan C. Shahar (2016). Treading Lightly on the Climate in a Problem-Ridden World. Ethics, Policy and Environment 19 (2):183-195.
    Personal carbon footprints have become a subject of major concern among those who worry about global climate change. Conventional wisdom holds that individuals have a duty to reduce their impacts on the climate system by restricting their carbon footprints. However, I defend a new argument for thinking that this conventional wisdom is mistaken. Individuals, I argue, have a duty to take actions to combat the world’s problems. But since climate change is only one of a nearly endless list of such (...)
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  24. added 2016-08-27
    Thom Brooks (2016). Becoming British: UK Citizenship Examined. Biteback.
    From Syrian asylum seekers to super-rich foreign investors, immigration is one of the most controversial issues facing Britain today. Politicians kick the subject from one election to the next with energetic but ineffectual promises to ‘crack down’, while newspaper editors plaster it across front pages. -/- But few know the truth behind the headlines; indeed, the almost daily changes to our complex immigration laws pile up so quickly that even the officials in charge struggle to keep up. -/- In this (...)
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  25. added 2016-08-27
    Alison Wylie & Lorraine Greaves (1995). Women and Violence: Feminist Practice and Quantitative Method. In Sandra Burt & Lorraine Code (eds.), Changing Methods: Feminists Transforming Practice. Broadview Press 301-325.
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  26. added 2016-08-27
    Alison Wylie (1988). Methodological Essentialism: Comments on 'Philosophy, Sex, and Feminism' by de Sousa and Morgan. Atlantis 13 (2).
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  27. added 2016-08-26
    Ron Aboodi (forthcoming). One Thought Too Few: Where De Dicto Moral Motivation is Necessary. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-15.
    De dicto moral motivation is typically characterized by the agent’s conceiving of her goal in thin normative terms such as to do what is right. I argue that lacking an effective de dicto moral motivation would put the agent in a bad position for responding in the morally-best manner in a certain type of situations. Two central features of the relevant type of situations are the appropriateness of the agent’s uncertainty concerning her underived moral values, and the practical, moral importance (...)
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  28. added 2016-08-26
    Teresa Kouri (forthcoming). A New Interpretation of Carnap’s Logical Pluralism. Topoi:1-10.
    Rudolf Carnap’s logical pluralism is often held to be one in which corresponding connectives in different logics have different meanings. This paper presents an alternative view of Carnap’s position, in which connectives can and do share their meaning in some contexts. This re-interpretation depends crucially on extending Carnap’s linguistic framework system to include meta-linguistic frameworks, those frameworks which we use to talk about linguistic frameworks. I provide an example that shows how this is possible, and give some textual evidence that (...)
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  29. added 2016-08-26
    Ezio Di Nucci (forthcoming). IVF, Same-Sex Couples and the Value of Biological Ties. Journal of Medical Ethics.
    Ought parents, in general, to value being biologically tied to their children? Is it important, in particular, that both parents be biologically tied to their children? I will address these fundamental questions by looking at a fairly new practice within IVF treatments, so-called IVF-with-ROPA ( Reception of Oocytes from Partner ), which allows lesbian couples to „share motherhood‟ with one partner providing the eggs while the other becomes pregnant. I believe that IVF-with-ROPA is, just like other IVF treatments, morally permissible; (...)
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  30. added 2016-08-26
    Florian Cova & Hichem Naar (forthcoming). Do Intuitions About Frankfurt-Style Cases Rest on an Internalist Prejudice? Philosophical Explorations:1-16.
    “Frankfurt-style cases” (FSCs) are widely considered as having refuted the Principle of Alternate Possibilities (PAP) by presenting cases in which an agent is morally responsible even if he could not have done otherwise. However, Neil Levy has recently argued that FSCs fail because (i) our intuitions about cases involving counterfactual interveners (CIs) are inconsistent (we accept that the mere presence of CIs is enough to make us gain but not lose responsibility-underwriting capacities), and (ii) this inconsistency is best explained by (...)
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  31. added 2016-08-26
    A. J. K. Pols (forthcoming). May Stakeholders Be Involved in Design Without Informed Consent? The Case of Hidden Design. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    Stakeholder involvement in design is desirable from both a practical and an ethical point of view. It is difficult to do well, however, and some problems recur again and again, both of a practical nature, e.g. stakeholders acting strategically rather than openly, and of an ethical nature, e.g. power imbalances unduly affecting the outcome of the process. Hidden Design has been proposed as a method to deal with the practical problems of stakeholder involvement. It aims to do so by taking (...)
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  32. added 2016-08-26
    Steven Fesmire (2016). USEFUL FOR WHAT? DEWEY's CALL TO HUMANIZE TECHNO-INDUSTRIAL CIVILIZATION. Pragmatism Today 7 (1):11-19.
    The heart of Dewey’s call to humanize technoindustrial civilization was to conceive science and technology in the service of aesthetic consummations. Hence his philosophy suggests a way to reclaim and affirm technology on behalf of living more fulfilling lives. He remains a powerful ally today in the fight against deadening efficiency, narrow means-end calculation, “frantic exploitation,” and the industrialization of everything. Nonetheless, it is common to depict him as a philosopher we should think around rather than with. The first section (...)
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  33. added 2016-08-26
    Jason A. Springs (2016). Tentacles of the Leviathan? Nationalism, Islamophibia, and the and the Insufficiency-yet-Indispensability of Human Rights for Religious Freedom in Contemporary Europe. Journal of the American Academy of Religion 84 (3).
    Is the institutionalization of religious freedom through human rights jurisprudence simply a means by which the modern nation-state manufactures and regulates “religion”? Is the discourse of religious freedom principally a technology of state governance? These questions challenge the ways that scholars conceptualize the relation between states, nationalism, human rights, and religious freedom. This article forwards an approach to human rights and methodological nationalism that both counters and explores alternatives to the prevailing conceptions of human rights, nationalism, and state sovereignty in (...)
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  34. added 2016-08-26
    John McAteer (2016). Silencing Theodicy with Enthusiasm: Aesthetic Experience as a Response to the Problem of Evil in Shaftesbury, Annie Dillard, and the Book of Job. Heythrop Journal 57 (5):788-795.
    The problem of evil is not only a logical problem about God's goodness but also an existential problem about the sense of God's presence, which the Biblical book of Job conceives as a problem of aesthetic experience. Thus, just as theism can be grounded in religious experience, atheism can be grounded in experience of evil. This phenomenon is illustrated by two contrasting literary descriptions of aesthetic experience by Jean-Paul Sartre and Annie Dillard. I illuminate both of these literary texts with (...)
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  35. added 2016-08-26
    Brian Berkey (2016). Against Rawlsian Institutionalism About Justice. Social Theory and Practice 42 (4):706-732.
    One of the most influential claims made by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice is that the principles of justice apply only to the institutions of the “basic structure of society,” and do not apply directly to the conduct of individuals. In this paper, I aim to cast doubt on this view, which I call “Institutionalism about Justice,” by considering whether several of the prominent motivations for it offered by Rawls and others succeed in providing the support for the (...)
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  36. added 2016-08-26
    Toby Svoboda (2016). Environmental Philosophy as A Way of Life. Ethics and the Environment 21 (1):39-60.
    Environmental philosophy is particularly well-suited to facilitate a revival of a philosophical art of living, or the practice of philosophy as a way of life. The notion that philosophy involves the practice of living well is most often associated with Hellenistic figures, but it is also present in some modern philosophical writers. However, despite interest in this tradition of philosophy from the likes of Michel Foucault, Martha Nussbaum, and Pierre Hadot, the practice of philosophy as a way of life is (...)
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  37. added 2016-08-26
    Jovan Babić (2014). Jedan Svet, I Mi U Njemu. Strani Pravni Život 2014 (3):13-29.
    Aspiracija za jedinstvenim upravljanjem svetom je stara koliko i sam svet. Ona u suštini proizlazi iz naše percepcije sveta kao jednog, bez obzira na sve razlike koje se u njemu takođe vide. U naše vreme ova percepcija je pojačana utiskom o sve većoj međuzavisnosti delova sveta, kao i osećajem da su razlike, ma koliko bile velike, sve manje važne u odnosu na ono što je isto ili bar slično u različitim delovima sveta. Ovaj osećaj jedinstva je još više pojačan percepcijom (...)
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  38. added 2016-08-26
    David Vessey (2006). Paul Fairfield. Theorizing Praxis: Studies in Hermeneutical Pragmatism. New York: Peter Lang, 2000. Pp. 184. Cloth ISBN 0-8204-4997-0. [REVIEW] Contemporary Pragmatism 3 (2):171-175.
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  39. added 2016-08-25
    David Kolb, A Shaky Walk Downhill : A Philosopher Moves Into Parkinson's World.
    I am a philosopher with Parkinson’s Disease. Over the past several years I’ve been trying to write about my situation. I wrote about how I was forced to face the disease. I described how the disease twists and distorts my world. Then I asked myself, as a philosophy writer and teacher, whether I could say anything that might help myself or others facing life with Parkinson’s? I found ideas in the ancient Stoics and expanded them with ideas about time, coming (...)
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  40. added 2016-08-25
    Karen Zivi (forthcoming). Foucault and the Politics of Rights. Contemporary Political Theory.
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  41. added 2016-08-25
    Samantha Rose Hill (forthcoming). The Challenge of Surrealism: The Correspondence of Theodor W. Adorno and Elisabeth Lenk. Contemporary Political Theory.
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  42. added 2016-08-25
    Ben Kotzee, Agnieszka Ignatowicz & Hywel Thomas (forthcoming). Virtue in Medical Practice: An Exploratory Study. HEC Forum:1-19.
    Virtue ethics has long provided fruitful resources for the study of issues in medical ethics. In particular, study of the moral virtues of the good doctor—like kindness, fairness and good judgement—have provided insights into the nature of medical professionalism and the ethical demands on the medical practitioner as a moral person. Today, a substantial literature exists exploring the virtues in medical practice and many commentators advocate an emphasis on the inculcation of the virtues of good medical practice in medical education (...)
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  43. added 2016-08-25
    Annabelle Lever (forthcoming). Law and the Philosophy of Privacy. Contemporary Political Theory.
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  44. added 2016-08-25
    Thomas Douglas (forthcoming). Nonconsensual Neurocorrectives and Bodily Integrity: A Reply to Shaw and Barn. Neuroethics:1-12.
    In this issue, Elizabeth Shaw and Gulzaar Barn offer a number of replies to my arguments in ‘Criminal Rehabilitation Through Medical Intervention: Moral Liability and the Right to Bodily Integrity’, Journal of Ethics. In this article I respond to some of their criticisms.
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  45. added 2016-08-25
    S. Andrew Schroeder (forthcoming). Consequentializing and its Consequences. Philosophical Studies:1-23.
    Recently, a number of philosophers have argued that we can and should “consequentialize” non-consequentialist moral theories, putting them into a consequentialist framework. I argue that these philosophers, usually treated as a group, in fact offer three separate arguments, two of which are incompatible. I show that none represent significant threats to a committed non-consequentialist, and that the literature has suffered due to a failure to distinguish these arguments. I conclude by showing that the failure of the consequentializers’ arguments has implications (...)
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  46. added 2016-08-25
    Milos N. Mladenovic & Tristram McPherson (2016). Engineering Social Justice Into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles? Science and Engineering Ethics 22 (4):1131-1149.
    The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. Our central (...)
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  47. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum, B. Sina & R. Glass (2015). International Research Ethics Education. Journal of the American Medical Association 313 (5):461-62.
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  48. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2014). Introduction: International Research Ethics Education. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics: An International Journal 9 (2):1-2.
    NIH's fogarty international Center has provided grants for the development of training programs in international research ethics for low- and middle-income (LMIC) professionals since 2000. Drawing on 12 years of research ethics training experience, a group of Fogarty grantees, trainees, and other ethics experts sought to map the current capacity and need for research ethics in LMICs, analyze the lessons learned about teaching bioethics, and chart a way forward for research ethics training in a rapidly changing health research landscape. This (...)
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  49. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2013). The 50th Anniversary of the Declaration of Helsinki: Progress but Many Remaining Challenges. Journal of the American Medical Association 310 (20):2143-44.
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  50. added 2016-08-25
    J. Millum (2013). The Ethics of Placebo-Controlled Trials: Methodological Justifications. Contemporary Clinical Trials 36 (2):510-14.
    The use of placebo controls in clinical trials remains controversial. Ethical analysis and international ethical guidance permit the use of placebo controls in randomized trials when scientifically indicated in four cases: (1) when there is no proven effective treatment for the condition under study; (2) when withholding treatment poses negligible risks to participants; (3) when there are compelling methodological reasons for using placebo, and withholding treatment does not pose a risk of serious harm to participants; and, more controversially, (4) when (...)
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