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  1. added 2014-10-02
    Ruth Faden & Madison Powers (2013). Biotechnology, Justice and Health. Journal of Practical Ethics 1 (1):49-61.
    New biotechnologies have the potential to both dramatically improve human well-being and dramatically widen inequalities in well-being. This paper addresses a question that lies squarely on the fault line of these two claims: When as a matter of justice are societies obligated to include a new biotechnology in a national healthcare system? This question is approached from the standpoint of a twin aim theory of justice, in which social structures, including nation-states, have double-barreled theoretical objectives with regard to human well-being. (...)
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  2. added 2014-10-01
    Aaron Smuts, How Much Should We Be Moved by the Fate of Anna Karenina?
    It is widely assumed that we can meaningfully talk about emotional reactions as being appropriate or inappropriate. Much of the discussion has focused on one kind of appropriateness, that of fittingness. An emotional response is appropriate only if it fits its object. For instance, fear only fits dangerous things. There is another dimension of appropriateness that has been relatively ignored — proportionality. For an emotional reaction to be appropriate not only must the object fit, the reaction should be of the (...)
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  3. added 2014-10-01
    Thorsten Sander (2014). A Frege‐Geach Style Objection to Cognitivist Judgment Internalism. Dialectica 68 (3):391-408.
    According to (cognitivist) judgment internalism, there is a conceptual connection between moral judgment and motivation. This paper offers an argument against that kind of internalism that does not involve counterexamples of the amoralist sort. Instead, it is argued that these forms of judgment internalism fall prey to a Frege-Geach type argument.
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  4. added 2014-09-30
    Sem de Maagt (forthcoming). In Defence of Fact-Dependency. Canadian Journal of Philosophy:1-20.
    G.A. Cohen and David Estlund claim that, because of their fact-dependent nature, constructivist theories of justice do not qualify as moral theories about fundamental values such as justice. In this paper, I defend fact-dependent, constructivist theories of justice against this fact-independency critique. I argue that constructivists can invoke facts among the grounds for accepting fundamental principles of justice while maintaining that the foundation of morality has to be non-empirical. My claim is that constructivists ultimately account for the normativity of fact-dependent (...)
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  5. added 2014-09-30
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Why Eudaimonism is Not Enough: Meaning as the Aim of Positive Psychology (Tentative Title). In Alexander Batthyany, Pninit Russo-Netzer & Stefan Schulenberg (eds.), Meaning in Positive and Existential Psychotherapy (Tentative Title). Zeig, Tucker, and Thiessen Inc. Publishers.
    In this chapter I argue that the dominant focus on eudaimonism as the favoured objective conception of the proper end of positive psychology is too narrow. Instead, the category of meaning in life is a much better candidate for a comprehensive account of how to conceive of mental health.
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  6. added 2014-09-30
    Gunnar Björnsson (2014). Essentially Shared Obligations. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 38 (1):103-120.
    This paper lists a number of puzzles for shared obligations – puzzles about the role of individual influence, individual reasons to contribute towards fulfilling the obligation, about what makes someone a member of a group sharing an obligation, and the relation between agency and obligation – and proposes to solve them based on a general analysis of obligations. On the resulting view, shared obligations do not presuppose joint agency.
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  7. added 2014-09-30
    David Haekwon Kim & Ronald Sundstrom (2014). Xenophobia and Racism. Critical Philosophy of Race 2 (1).
    Xenophobia is conceptually distinct from racism. Xenophobia is also distinct from nativism. Furthermore, theories of racism are largely ensconced in nationalized narratives of racism, often influenced by the black-white binary, which obscures xenophobia and shelters it from normative critiques. This paper addresses these claims, arguing for the first and last, and outlining the second. Just as philosophers have recently analyzed the concept of racism, clarifying it and pinpointing why it’s immoral and the extent of its moral harm, so we will (...)
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  8. added 2014-09-30
    Juha Räikkä (1996). Are There Alternative Methods in Ethics? Grazer Philosophische Studien 52:173-189.
    Do all methods of moral justification resemble the method of reflective equilibrium in presupposing that moral judgment's being justified depends at least in part on its being appropriately related to our actual substantial moral views? Can a moral judgment be justified without such a presupposition? I shall distinguish three versions of the no-option argument According to any version of the no-option argument, there is certain fact which characterizes moral theories, and that fact implies that there is no option other than (...)
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  9. added 2014-09-29
    David O. Brink (forthcoming). Principles and Intuitions in Ethics: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives. .
    This essay situates some recent empirical research on the origin, nature, role, and reliability of moral intuitions against the background of nineteenth-century debates between ethical naturalism and rational intuitionism. The legitimate heir to Millian naturalism is the contemporary method of reflective equilibrium and its defeasible reliance on moral intuitions. Recent doubts about moral intuitions—worries that they reflect the operation of imperfect cognitive heuristics, are resistant to undermining evidence, are subject to framing effects, and are variable—are best addressed by ethical naturalism (...)
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  10. added 2014-09-29
    Christian Barry & David Wiens (forthcoming). Benefiting From Wrongdoing and Sustaining Wrongful Harm. Journal of Moral Philosophy.
  11. added 2014-09-29
    Randolph Clarke (2014). Omissions: Agency, Metaphysics, and Responsibility. Oxford University Press.
    Philosophical theories of agency have focused primarily on actions and activities. But, besides acting, we often omit to do or refrain from doing certain things. How is this aspect of our agency to be conceived? This book offers a comprehensive account of omitting and refraining, addressing issues ranging from the nature of agency and moral responsibility to the metaphysics of absences and causation. Topics addressed include the role of intention in intentional omission, the connection between negligence and omission, the distinction (...)
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  12. added 2014-09-29
    Svein Eng (2014). Why Reflective Equilibrium? III: Reflective Equilibrium as a Heuristic Tool. Ratio Juris 27 (3):440-459.
    In A Theory of Justice (1971), John Rawls introduces the concept of “reflective equilibrium.” Although there are innumerable references to and discussions of this concept in the literature, there is, to the present author's knowledge, no discussion of the most important question: Why reflective equilibrium? In particular, the question arises: Is the method of reflective equilibrium applicable to the choice of this method itself? Rawls's drawing of parallels between Kant's moral theory and his own suggests that his concept of “reflective (...)
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  13. added 2014-09-29
    Juha Räikkä (1996). Are There Alternative Methods in Ethics? Grazer Philosophische Studien 52:173-189.
    Do all methods of moral justification resemble the method of reflective equilibrium in presupposing that moral judgment's being justified depends at least in part on its being appropriately related to our actual substantial moral views? Can a moral judgment be justified without such a presupposition? I shall distinguish three versions of the no-option argument According to any version of the no-option argument, there is certain fact which characterizes moral theories, and that fact implies that there is no option other than (...)
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  14. added 2014-09-28
    Elijah Chudnoff (forthcoming). Moral Perception: High-Level Perception or Low-Level Intuition? In Thiemo Breyer & Christopher Gutland (eds.), Phenomenology of Thinking.
    Here are four examples of “seeing.” You see that something green is wriggling. You see that an iguana is in distress. You see that someone is wrongfully harming an iguana. You see that torturing animals is wrong. The first is an example of low-level perception. You visually represent color and motion. The second is an example of high-level perception. You visually represent kind properties and mental properties. The third is an example of moral perception. You have an impression of moral (...)
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  15. added 2014-09-28
    Vuko Andrić (2014). Ein Plädoyer für den Rechtsnormen-Konsequentialismus. Archiv für Rechts- Und Sozialphilosophie 140:87-98.
  16. added 2014-09-27
    Ben Blumson (2014). Depiction and Intention. In Resemblance and Representation. Open Book Publishers. 51-66.
  17. added 2014-09-27
    Ben Blumson (2014). Resemblance and Representation. Open Book Publishers.
    It’s a platitude – which only a philosopher would dream of denying – that whereas words are connected to what they represent merely by arbitrary conventions, pictures are connected to what they represent by resemblance. The most important difference between my portrait and my name, for example, is that whereas my portrait and I are connected by my portrait’s resemblance to me, my name and I are connected merely by an arbitrary convention. The first aim of this book is to (...)
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  18. added 2014-09-27
    Ben Blumson (2014). Symbol Systems. In Resemblance and Representation. Open Book Publishers. 85-98.
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  19. added 2014-09-27
    Mauro Rossi (2012). Normativity and Normative Psychology: Introduction. Les Ateliers de l'Éthique / the Ethics Forum 7 (1):141-145.
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  20. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher, Health Inequalities and Relational Egalitarianism.
    Much of the philosophical literature on health inequalities seeks to establish the superiority of one or another conception of luck egalitarianism. In recent years, however, an increasing number of self-avowed egalitarian philosophers have proposed replacing luck egalitarianism with alternatives that stress the moral relevance of distinct relationships, rather than the moral relevance of good or bad luck. After briefly explaining why I am not attracted to luck egalitarianism, I seek in this chapter to distinguish and clarify three views that have (...)
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  21. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher (forthcoming). Is There A Sacrifice-Free Solution to Climate Change? Ethics, Policy and Environment.
    John Broome claims that there is a sacrifice-free solution to climate change. He says this is a consequence of elementary economics. After explaining the economic argument in somewhat more detail than Broome, I show that the argument is unsound. A main problem with it stems from Derek Parfit’s “nonidentity effect.” But there is hope, since the nonidentity effect underwrites a more philosophical yet more plausible route to a sacrifice-free solution. So in the end I join Broome in asking economists and (...)
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  22. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher (forthcoming). Review Of: Death or Disability?: The ‘Carmentis Machine’ and Decision-Making for Critically Ill Children. [REVIEW] Mind.
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  23. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher (forthcoming). Relevance and Non-Consequentialist Aggregation. Utilitas.
    Interpersonal aggregation involves the combining and weighing of benefits and losses to multiple individuals in the course of determining what ought to be done. Most consequentialists embrace thoroughgoing interpersonal aggregation, the view that any large benefit to each of a few people can be morally outweighed by allocating any smaller benefit to each of many others, so long as this second group is sufficiently large. This would permit letting one person die in order to cure some number of mild headaches (...)
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  24. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher (2014). Public Health Paternalism and ‘Expenditure Harm’. Hastings Center Report 44 (4):4.
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  25. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher, Efficiency and Equity in Health: Philosophical Considerations. Encyclopedia of Health Economics Vol. 1.
    Efficiency and equity are central concepts for the normative assessment of health policy. Drawing on the work of academic philosophers and philosophically sophisticated economists, this article identifies important philosophical questions implicated by the notions of efficiency and equity and then summarizes influential answers to them. Promising avenues for further philosophical research are also highlighted, especially in the context of health equity and its elusive ethical foundations.
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  26. added 2014-09-26
    Simon van Rysewyk & Janneke van Leeuwen (2014). Picturing Mind Machines, An Adaptation by Janneke van Leeuwen. In Simon Peter van Rysewyk & Matthijs Pontier (eds.), Machine Medical Ethics. Springer.
  27. added 2014-09-26
    J. Paul Kelleher (2012). Review Of: Prevention Vs. Treatment: What’s the Right Balance? [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 201203.
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  28. added 2014-09-25
    Spencer Phillips Hey (forthcoming). Theory Testing and Implication in Clinical Trials. Philosophy of Science 2014.
    John Worrall (2010) and Nancy Cartwright (2011) argue that randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are "testing the wrong theory." RCTs are designed to test inferences about the causal relationships in the study population, but this does not guarantee a justified inference about the causal relationships in the more diverse population in clinical practice. In this essay, I argue that the epistemology of theory testing in trials is more complicated than either Worrall's or Cartwright's accounts suggest. I illustrate this more complex theoretical (...)
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  29. added 2014-09-25
    Andy Lamey (forthcoming). Ecosystems as Spontaneous Orders. Critical Review.
    The notion of a spontaneous order has a long history in the philosophy of economics, where it has been used to advance a view of markets as complex networks of information that no single mind can apprehend. Traditionally, the impossibility of grasping all of the information present in the spontaneous order of the market has been invoked as grounds for not subjecting markets to central planning. A less noted feature of the spontaneous order concept is that when it is applied (...)
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  30. added 2014-09-25
    Andras Szigeti (2014). Collective Responsibility and Group-Control. In Julie Zahle & Finn Collin (eds.), Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate. Springer. 97-116.
  31. added 2014-09-25
    Spencer Phillips Hey (2014). Ethics and Epistemology of Accurate Prediction in Clinical Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 10:1-4.
    All major research ethics policies assert that the ethical review of clinical trial protocols should include a systematic assessment of risks and benefits. But despite this policy, protocols do not typically contain explicit probability statements about the likely risks or benefits involved in the proposed research. In this essay, I articulate a range of ethical and epistemic advantages that explicit forecasting would offer to the health research enterprise. I then consider how some particular confidence levels may come into conflict with (...)
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  32. added 2014-09-25
    Glen Mazis (2011). &Quot;human Ethics as a Violence Towards Animals: The Demonized Wolf&Quot;. Spaziofilosofico, 3:291-304.
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  33. added 2014-09-24
    Danielle Bromwich & Annette Rid (forthcoming). Can Informed Consent to Research Be Adapted to Risk? Journal of Medical Ethics.
    The current ethical and regulatory framework for research is often charged with burdening investigators and impeding socially valuable research. To address these concerns, a growing number of research ethicists argue that informed consent should be adapted to the risks of research participation. This would require less rigorous consent standards in low-risk research than in high-risk research. However, the current discussion is restricted to cases of research in which the risks of research participation are outweighed by the potential clinical benefits for (...)
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  34. added 2014-09-24
    Pascal Massie & Lauryn Mayer (2014). Bringing Elsewhere Home: A Song of Ice and Fire’s Ethics of Disability. In Karl Fugelso (ed.), Studies in Medievalism. D S Brewer. 45-60.
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  35. added 2014-09-24
    Nicholas Maxwell (2014). Global Philosophy: What Philosophy Ought to Be. Imprint Academic.
    These essays are about education, learning, rational inquiry, philosophy, science studies, problem solving, academic inquiry, global problems, wisdom and, above all, the urgent need for an academic revolution. Despite this range and diversity of topics, there is a common underlying theme. Education ought to be devoted, much more than it is, to the exploration real-life, open problems; it ought not to be restricted to learning up solutions to already solved problems - especially if nothing is said about the problems that (...)
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  36. added 2014-09-24
    Nicholas Maxwell (2014). Global Philosophy: What Philosophy Ought to Be. Imprint Academic.
    These essays are about education, learning, rational inquiry, philosophy, science studies, problem solving, academic inquiry, global problems, wisdom and, above all, the urgent need for an academic revolution. Despite this range and diversity of topics, there is a common underlying theme. Education ought to be devoted, much more than it is, to the exploration real-life, open problems; it ought not to be restricted to learning up solutions to already solved problems - especially if nothing is said about the problems that (...)
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  37. added 2014-09-23
    Brian Treanor (2014). Emplotting Virtue. SUNY Press.
    ethics does not stress the rule-based components of action guidance does not mean that virtue ethics has no room for such rules. Indeed, action- guiding rules are an important part of a fully elaborated virtue ethics. Two substantive claims ...
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  38. added 2014-09-22
    Kieran Setiya, The Ethics of Existence.
    Argues that inadvisable procreative acts should often be affirmed in retrospect. This shift is not explained by attachment or love but by the moral impact of existence.
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  39. added 2014-09-22
    Stephen M. Campbell (forthcoming). When the Shape of a Life Matters. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-11.
    It seems better to have a life that begins poorly and ends well than a life that begins well and ends poorly. One possible explanation is that the very ‘shape’ of a life can be good or bad for us. If so, this raises a tough question: when can the shape of our lives be good or bad for us? In this essay, I present and critique an argument that the shape of a life is a non-synchronic prudential value—that is, (...)
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  40. added 2014-09-22
    Erich Hatala Matthes (forthcoming). Impersonal Value, Universal Value, and the Scope of Cultural Heritage. Ethics.
    Philosophers have used the terms 'impersonal' and 'personal value' to refer to, among others things, whether something's value is universal or particular to an individual. In this paper, I propose an account of impersonal value that, I argue, better captures the intuitive distinction than potential alternatives, while providing conceptual resources for moving beyond the traditional stark dichotomy. I illustrate the practical importance of my theoretical account with reference to debate over the evaluative scope of cultural heritage.
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  41. added 2014-09-22
    Thomas Mulligan (forthcoming). The Limits of Liberal Tolerance. Public Affairs Quarterly.
    Political philosophy has seen vibrant debate over the connection, if any, between liberalism and pluralism. Some philosophers, following Isaiah Berlin, reckon a close connection between the two concepts. Others--most notably John Gray--believe that liberalism and pluralism are incompatible. In this essay, I argue that the puzzle can be solved by distinguishing the responsibilities of liberal states to their peoples from the responsibilities of liberal states to other states. There is an entailment from pluralism to liberalism, and it in turn implies (...)
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  42. added 2014-09-22
    Sven Nyholm (2006). Reason-Based Value or Value-Based Reasons? In Björn Haglund & Helge Malmgren (eds.), Kvantifikator För En Dag. Essays Dedicated to Dag Westerståhl on His Sixtieth Birthday. Philosophical Communications. 193-202.
    In this paper, I discuss practical reasons and value, assuming a coexistence thesis according to which reasons and value always go together. I start by doing some taxonomy, distinguishing among three different ways of accounting for the relation between practical reasons and the good. I argue that, of these views, the most plausible one is that according to which something’s being good just consists in how certain facts about the thing in question – other than that of how it is (...)
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  43. added 2014-09-20
    Donald A. Landes (forthcoming). Expressive Bodies: Merleau-Ponty and Nancy on Painting and Ontology. Research in Phenomenology.
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  44. added 2014-09-20
    Luce Irigaray & Mary Green (eds.) (2008). Luce Irigaray: Teaching. Continuum.
  45. added 2014-09-20
    Sandra Raponi (2001). Grounding a Cause of Action for Torture in Transnational Law. In Craig Scott (ed.), Torture as Tort: Comparative Perspectives on the Development of Transnational Human Rights Litigation. Hart Publishing. 373-400.
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  46. added 2014-09-19
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). Relational Ethics: An African Moral Theory. Oxford University Press.
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  47. added 2014-09-18
    Tomasz Żuradzki (forthcoming). Moral Uncertainty in Bioethical Argumentation: A New Understanding of the Pro-Life View on Early Human Embryos. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics:1-17.
    In this article, I present a new interpretation of the pro-life view on the status of early human embryos. In my understanding, this position is based not on presumptions about the ontological status of embryos and their developmental capabilities but on the specific criteria of rational decisions under uncertainty and on a cautious response to the ambiguous status of embryos. This view, which uses the decision theory model of moral reasoning, promises to reconcile the uncertainty about the ontological status of (...)
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  48. added 2014-09-18
    Bence Nanay (forthcoming). The History of Vision. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism.
    According to an influential view within art history, the way the ancient Greeks saw the world was importantly different from the way we now see the world and part of what art history should study is exactly how human vision has changed in the course of history. If the ancients did see the world differently from the way we do now, then in order to understand and evaluate their art, we need to understand how they perceived it (and how this (...)
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  49. added 2014-09-18
    Bence Nanay (forthcoming). Perceptual Learning, the Mere Exposure Effect and Aesthetic Antirealism. Leonardo.
    It has been argued that some recent experimental findings about the mere exposure effect can be used to argue for aesthetic antirealism: the view that there is no fact of the matter about aesthetic value. The aim of this paper is to assess this argument and point out that this strategy, as it stands, does not work. But we may still be able to use experimental findings about the mere exposure effect in order to engage with the aesthetic realism/antirealism debate. (...)
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  50. added 2014-09-17
    Richard Yetter Chappell, Against "Saving Lives&Quot;: Equal Concern and Differential Impact.
    Bioethicists often present "saving lives" as a goal distinct from, and competing with, that of extending lives by as much as possible. I argue that this usage of the term is misleading, and provides unwarranted rhetorical support for neglecting the magnitudes of the harms and benefits at stake in medical allocation decisions, often to the detriment of the young. Equal concern for all persons requires weighting equal interests equally, but not all individuals have an equal interest in "life-saving" treatment.
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