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Value Theory

Edited by Daniel Star (Boston University)
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  1. added 2016-04-30
    Paul Scott (forthcoming). Democracy, Law and Relationships of Domination—A Response to ‘Can Republicanism Tame Public Health?’. Public Health Ethics:phw023.
    This brief comment responds to some of the issues raised by Daniel Weinstock’s paper on the application of the republican ideal to public health. It considers the application outside of that specific context of both the problem Weinstock identifies and the solution he proposes. It queries, with reference to the different sorts of relationships of domination which exist, whether a republican approach to public health might not be better to seek to begin from private relationships of domination and to define (...)
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  2. added 2016-04-30
    Adam Oliver (forthcoming). Distinguishing Between Experienced Utility and Remembered Utility. Public Health Ethics:phw014.
    In his 2015 book, Valuing Health, the philosopher, Daniel Hausman, in referring to experienced utility maximization, touches on the question of whether people accept, and ought to accept, the assumption of health maximization vis-à-vis their own lives. This essay introduces Hausman’s arguments on experienced utility, before outlining the intellectual catalyst for the renewed interest in the maximization of experienced utility as an appropriate ethical rule; namely, the literature that arose in the 1990s that demonstrated that due to the so-called gestalt (...)
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  3. added 2016-04-30
    Jonas Olson (2016). Thomas Hurka, British Ethical Theorists From Sidgwick to Ewing , Pp. Xiv + 310. Utilitas 28 (2):234-237.
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  4. added 2016-04-30
    Paul Weithman (2016). Harry Frankfurt, On Inequality , Pp. Xi + 102. Utilitas 28 (2):227-234.
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  5. added 2016-04-30
    Alfred Archer (2016). The Supererogatory and How Not To Accommodate It: A Reply to Dorsey. Utilitas 28 (2):179-188.
    It is plausible to think that there exist acts of supererogation. It also seems plausible that there is a close connection between what we are morally required to do and what it would be morally good to do. Despite being independently plausible these two claims are hard to reconcile. My aim in this article will be to respond to a recent solution to this puzzle proposed by Dale Dorsey. Dorsey's solution to this problem is to posit a new account of (...)
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  6. added 2016-04-29
    Beth Clark, Gavin B. Stewart, Luca A. Panzone, I. Kyriazakis & Lynn J. Frewer (forthcoming). A Systematic Review of Public Attitudes, Perceptions and Behaviours Towards Production Diseases Associated with Farm Animal Welfare. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics:1-24.
    Increased productivity may have negative impacts on farm animal welfare in modern animal production systems. Efficiency gains in production are primarily thought to be due to the intensification of production, and this has been associated with an increased incidence of production diseases, which can negatively impact upon FAW. While there is a considerable body of research into consumer attitudes towards FAW, the extent to which this relates specifically to a reduction in production diseases in intensive systems, and whether the increased (...)
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  7. added 2016-04-29
    Tineke Broer, Martyn Pickersgill & Ian J. Deary (forthcoming). The Movement of Research From the Laboratory to the Living Room: A Case Study of Public Engagement with Cognitive Science. Neuroethics:1-13.
    Media reporting of science has consequences for public debates on the ethics of research. Accordingly, it is crucial to understand how the sciences of the brain and the mind are covered in the media, and how coverage is received and negotiated. The authors report here their sociological findings from a case study of media coverage and associated reader comments of an article from Annals of Neurology. The media attention attracted by the article was high for cognitive science; further, as associates/members (...)
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  8. added 2016-04-29
    Chloë Kennedy (forthcoming). Lindsay Farmer: Making the Modern Criminal Law: Criminalization and Civil Order. Criminal Law and Philosophy:1-8.
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  9. added 2016-04-29
    Olaf Dammann (forthcoming). Causality, Mosaics, and the Health Sciences. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics:1-8.
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  10. added 2016-04-29
    Inez Raes, An Ravelingien & Guido Pennings (forthcoming). Donor Conception Disclosure: Directive or Non-Directive Counselling? Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-11.
    It is widely agreed among health professionals that couples using donor insemination should be offered counselling on the topic of donor conception disclosure. However, it is clear from the literature that there has long been a lack of agreement about which counselling approach should be used in this case: a directive or a non-directive approach. In this paper we investigate which approach is ethically justifiable by balancing the two underlying principles of autonomy and beneficence. To overrule one principle in favour (...)
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  11. added 2016-04-29
    Sally Ramage (2016). GENETICS CRIME AND JUSTICE, EDWARD ELGAR 2015. Current Criminal Law 9 (3):2-29.
    The UK government decided to introduce Income Tax in 1799. Later, tax avoidance schemes involved creation of Deeds of Convenant. It is a fact that crime is increasing but the number of people committing crime is not increasing because many crimes are repeated crimes committed by persons with habitual criminal behaviour, ie hard-core criminals. -/- For more than half a century now, there has been scientific evidence that genetics plays a key role in the origins of criminal behaviour. There are (...)
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  12. added 2016-04-29
    Christopher Martin & Claudia W. Ruitenberg (2016). Ethics in Professional Education: Introduction to the Special Issue. Ethics and Education 11 (1):1-4.
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  13. added 2016-04-29
    Rosemarie D. L. C. Bernabe, Ghislaine J. M. W. Van Thiel & Johannes J. M. Van Delden (2016). What Do International Ethics Guidelines Say in Terms of the Scope of Medical Research Ethics? BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-18.
    BackgroundIn research ethics, the most basic question would always be, “which is an ethical issue, which is not?” Interestingly, depending on which ethics guideline we consult, we may have various answers to this question. Though we already have several international ethics guidelines for biomedical research involving human participants, ironically, we do not have a harmonized document which tells us what these various guidelines say and shows us the areas of consensus. In this manuscript, we attempted to do just that.MethodsWe extracted (...)
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  14. added 2016-04-29
    Morten Magelssen, Magne Supphellen, Per Nortvedt & Lars Johan Materstvedt (2016). Attitudes Towards Assisted Dying Are Influenced by Question Wording and Order: A Survey Experiment. BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-9.
    BackgroundSurveys on attitudes towards assisted dying play an important role in informing public debate, policy and legislation. Unfortunately, surveys are often designed with insufficient attention to framing effects; that is, effects on the respondents’ stated attitudes caused by question wording and context. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate and measure such framing effects.MethodsSurvey experiment in which an eight-question survey on attitudes towards assisted dying was distributed to Norwegian citizens through a web-based panel. Two variations of question wording as (...)
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  15. added 2016-04-28
    Leslie Allan, A Defence of Emotivism.
    As a non-cognitivist analysis of moral language, Charles Stevenson's sophisticated emotivism is widely regarded by moral philosophers as a substantial improvement over its historical antecedent, radical emotivism. None the less, it has come in for its share of criticism. In this essay, Leslie Allan responds to the key philosophical objections to Stevenson's thesis, arguing that the criticisms levelled against his meta-ethical theory rest largely on a too hasty reading of his works.
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  16. added 2016-04-28
    Leslie Allan, The Principle of Double Effect.
    Absolutist systems of ethics have come in for harsh criticism on a number of fronts. The Principle of Double Effect was formulated by Catholic ethicists to overcome such objections. In this essay, Leslie Allan addresses four of the most prominent problems faced by an absolutist ethic and evaluates the extent to which the Principle of Double Effect is successful in avoiding or mitigating these criticisms.
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  17. added 2016-04-28
    Keith W. Miller, Marty J. Wolf & Frances Grodzinsky (forthcoming). This “Ethical Trap” Is for Roboticists, Not Robots: On the Issue of Artificial Agent Ethical Decision-Making. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-13.
    In this paper we address the question of when a researcher is justified in describing his or her artificial agent as demonstrating ethical decision-making. The paper is motivated by the amount of research being done that attempts to imbue artificial agents with expertise in ethical decision-making. It seems clear that computing systems make decisions, in that they make choices between different options; and there is scholarship in philosophy that addresses the distinction between ethical decision-making and general decision-making. Essentially, the qualitative (...)
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  18. added 2016-04-28
    Anthony Carreras (forthcoming). Amicably Deceived. Philosophical Papers.
    A widely accepted thesis in the philosophy of friendship is what I call "the self-knowledge thesis," which says that good friendship is essentially such as to conduce to self-knowledge. I argue in this paper that the self-knowledge thesis is false. Good friendship need not conduce to self-knowledge, for it is part of the nature and value of friendship that it might lead us to form false beliefs about ourselves.
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  19. added 2016-04-28
    Vasco Correia (forthcoming). Contextual Debiasing and Critical Thinking: Reasons for Optimism. Topoi:1-9.
    In this article I argue that most biases in argumentation and decision-making can and should be counteracted. Although biases can prove beneficial in certain contexts, I contend that they are generally maladaptive and need correction. Yet critical thinking alone seems insufficient to mitigate biases in everyday contexts. I develop a contextualist approach, according to which cognitive debiasing strategies need to be supplemented by extra-psychic devices that rely on social and environmental constraints in order to promote rational reasoning. Finally, I examine (...)
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  20. added 2016-04-28
    Idil Boran (forthcoming). Principles of Public Reason in the UNFCCC: Rethinking the Equity Framework. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    Since 2011, the focus of international negotiations under the UNFCCC has been on producing a new climate agreement to be adopted in 2015. This phase of negotiations is known as the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action. The goal has been to update the global effort on climate for long-term cooperation. In this period, various changes have been contemplated on the design of the architecture of the global climate effort. Whereas previously, the negotiation process consisted of setting mandated targets exclusively for (...)
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  21. added 2016-04-28
    Servaas Storm (forthcoming). How the Invisible Hand is Supposed to Adjust the Natural Thermostat: A Guide for the Perplexed. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-25.
    Mainstream climate economics takes global warming seriously, but perplexingly concludes that the optimal economic policy is to almost do nothing about it. This conclusion can be traced to just a few “normative” assumptions, over which there exists fundamental disagreement amongst economists. This paper explores two axes of this disagreement. The first axis measures faith in the invisible hand to adjust the natural thermostat. The second axis expresses differences in views on the efficiency and equity implications of climate action. The two (...)
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  22. added 2016-04-28
    Richard Heersmink (forthcoming). Distributed Selves: Personal Identity and Extended Memory Systems. Synthese:1-17.
    This paper explores the implications of extended and distributed cognition theory for our notions of personal identity. On an extended and distributed approach to cognition, external information is under certain conditions constitutive of memory. On a narrative approach to personal identity, autobiographical memory is constitutive of our diachronic self. In this paper, I bring these two approaches together and argue that external information can be constitutive of one’s autobiographical memory and thus also of one’s diachronic self. To develop this claim, (...)
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  23. added 2016-04-28
    Ernest Drucker, Kenneth Anderson, Robert Haemmig, Robert Heimer, Dan Small, Alex Walley, Evan Wood & Ingrid van Beek (forthcoming). Treating Addictions: Harm Reduction in Clinical Care and Prevention. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry:1-11.
    This paper examines the role of clinical practitioners and clinical researchers internationally in establishing the utility of harm-reduction approaches to substance use. It thus illustrates the potential for clinicians to play a pivotal role in health promoting structural interventions based on harm-reduction goals and public health models. Popular media images of drug use as uniformly damaging, and abstinence as the only acceptable goal of treatment, threaten to distort clinical care away from a basis in evidence, which shows that some ways (...)
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  24. added 2016-04-28
    Raanan Gillon (forthcoming). Why I Wrote My Advance Decision to Refuse Life-Prolonging Treatment: And Why the Law on Sanctity of Life Remains Problematic. Journal of Medical Ethics:medethics-2016-103538.
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  25. added 2016-04-28
    Katrina Sifferd (forthcoming). Book Review: Wringe, Bill. An Expressive Theory of Punishment. Ethics.
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  26. added 2016-04-28
    Matthew Talbert (2016). Symmetry, Rational Abilities, and the Ought-Implies-Can Principle. Criminal Law and Philosophy 10 (2):283-296.
    In Making Sense of Free Will and Moral Responsibility Dana Nelkin defends the “rational abilities view.” According to this view, agents are responsible for their behavior if and only if they act with the ability to recognize and act for good reasons. It follows that agents who act well are open to praise regardless of whether they could have acted differently, but agents who act badly are open to blame only if they could have acted on the moral reasons that (...)
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  27. added 2016-04-28
    Manuel R. Vargas (2016). Responsibility and the Limits of Conversation. Criminal Law and Philosophy 10 (2):221-240.
    Both legal and moral theorists have offered broadly “communicative” theories of criminal and moral responsibility. According to such accounts, we can understand the nature of responsibility by appealing to the idea that responsibility practices are in some fundamental sense expressive, discursive, or communicative. In this essay, I consider a variety of issues in connections with this family of views, including its relationship to free will, the theory of exemptions, and potential alternatives to the communicative model. Focusing on Michael McKenna’s Conversation (...)
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  28. added 2016-04-28
    Jonathan Webber (2015). Character, Attitude and Disposition. European Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):1082-1096.
    Recent debate over the empirical psychological presuppositions of virtue ethics has focused on reactive behavioural dispositions. But there are many character traits that cannot be understood properly in this way. Such traits are well described by attitude psychology. Moreover, the findings of attitude psychology support virtue ethics in three ways. First, they confirm the role of habituation in the development of character. Further, they show virtue ethics to be compatible with the situation manipulation experiments at the heart of the recent (...)
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  29. added 2016-04-28
    Dustin Garlitz (2014). Holy Alliance. In Timothy C. Dowling (ed.), Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond. ABC-Clio
  30. added 2016-04-27
    Machiel Keestra, How Do Narratives and Brains Mutually Influence Each Other? Taking Both the ‘Neuroscientific Turn’ and the ‘Narrative Turn’ in Explaining Bio-Political Orders.
    Introduction: the neuroscientific turn in political science The observation that brains and political orders are interdependent is almost trivial. Obviously, political orders require brain processes in order to emerge and to remain in place, as these processes enable action and cognition. Conversely, every since Aristotle coined man as “by nature a political animal” (Aristotle, Pol.: 1252a 3; cf. Eth. Nic.: 1097b 11), this also suggests that the political engagements of this animal has likely consequences for its natural development, including the (...)
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  31. added 2016-04-27
    Thaddeus Metz (forthcoming). A Bioethic of Communion: Beyond Care and the Four Principles with Regard to Reproduction. In Marta Soniewicka (ed.), The Ethics of Reproductive Genetics - Between Utility, Principles, and Virtues. Springer ch. 6.
    English-speaking research on morally right decisions in a healthcare context over the past three decades has been dominated by two major perspectives, namely, the Four Principles, of which the principle of respect for autonomy has been most salient, and the ethic of care, often presented as a rival to not only a focus on autonomy but also a reliance on principles more generally. In my contribution, I present a novel ethic applicable to bioethics, particular as it concerns reproductive genetics, that (...)
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  32. added 2016-04-27
    Michael Cholbi (forthcoming). Understanding Kant's Ethics. Cambridge University Press.
    Preface -/- Introduction -/- PART I -/- 1 Kant’s pursuit of the Supreme Principle of Morality -/- 2 The Categorical Imperative and the Kantian theory of value, part I -/- 3 The Categorical Imperative and the Kantian theory of value, part II -/- 4 Dignity -/- 5 Freedom, reason, and the possibility of the Categorical Imperative -/- PART II -/- 6 Objections to the Formula of Universal Law -/- 7 Three problems in Kant’s practical ethics -/- 8 Reason and sentiment: (...)
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  33. added 2016-04-27
    Bronwyn Finnigan (forthcoming). The Nature of a Buddhist Path: Is There a Single Approach to Buddhist Ethical Theory? In Jake Davis (ed.), TBA. Oxford
    Is there a ‘common element’ in Buddhist ethical thought from which one might rationally reconstruct a Buddhist normative ethical theory? Many construe this as the question: which contemporary normative theory does Buddhist ethics best approximate; consequentialism or virtue ethics? This paper will argue that two distinct evaluative relations underlie these distinct positions; an instrumental and constitutive analysis. It will raise some difficulties for linking these distinct analyses to particular normative ethical theories but will give reasons to think that both may (...)
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  34. added 2016-04-27
    Elizabeth Finneron-Burns (forthcoming). Contractualism and the Non-Identity Problem. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-13.
    This paper argues that T.M. Scanlon’s contractualism can provide a solution to the non-identity problem. It first argues that there is no reason not to include future people in the realm of those to whom we owe justification, but that merely possible people are not included. It then goes on to argue that a person could reasonably reject a principle that left them with a barely worth living life even though that principle caused them to exist, and that current people (...)
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  35. added 2016-04-27
    Jon Robson & Aaron Meskin (2016). Video Games as Self‐Involving Interactive Fictions. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 74 (2):165-177.
    This article explores the nature and theoretical import of a hitherto neglected class of fictions which we term ‘self-involving interactive fictions’. SIIFs are interactive fictions, but they differ from standard examples of interactive fictions by being, in some important sense, about those who consume them. In order to better understand the nature of SIIFs, and the ways in which they differ from other fictions, we focus primarily on the most prominent example of the category: video-game fictions. We argue that appreciating (...)
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  36. added 2016-04-27
    Michael Cholbi (2016). The Denial of Moral Dilemmas as a Regulative Ideal. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 46 (2):268-289.
    The traditional debate about moral dilemmas concerns whether there are circumstances in which an agent is subject to two obligations that cannot both be fulfilled. Realists maintain there are. Irrealists deny this. Here I defend an alternative, methodologically-oriented position wherein the denial of genuine moral dilemmas functions as a regulative ideal for moral deliberation and practice. That is, moral inquiry and deliberation operate on the implicit assumption that there are no genuine moral dilemmas. This view is superior to both realism (...)
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  37. added 2016-04-27
    Elliott Mark Weiss & David A. Munson (2016). Action and Uncertainty in Neonatal Intensive Care. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):31-33.
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  38. added 2016-04-27
    Katerina Deligiorgi (2016). Finite Agents, Sublime Feelings: Response to Hanauer. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 74 (2):199-202.
    Tom Hanauer's thoughtful discussion of my article “The Pleasures of Contra-purposiveness: Kant, the Sublime, and Being Human” puts pressure on two important issues concerning the affective phenomenology of the sublime. My aim in that article was to present an analysis of the sublime that does not suffer from the problems identified by Jane Forsey in “Is a Theory of the Sublime Possible?”. I argued that Kant's notion of reflective judgment can help with this task, because it allows us to (...)
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  39. added 2016-04-27
    Abraham P. Schwab (2016). Applying Heuristics and Biases More Broadly and Cautiously. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):25-27.
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  40. added 2016-04-27
    David Egan (2016). HARRISON, BERNARD What Is Fiction For? Literary Humanism Restored. Indiana University Press, 2015, Xxvi + 593 Pp., $85.00 Cloth, $35.00 Paper. [REVIEW] Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 74 (2):212-215.
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  41. added 2016-04-27
    Rosamond Rhodes (2016). How to Respond to Knowledge About Biases. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):29-31.
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  42. added 2016-04-27
    Yolonda Wilson, Marion Danis & Amina White (2016). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “Bioethicists Can and Should Contribute to Addressing Racism”. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):1-4.
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  43. added 2016-04-27
    Jaro Kotalik & Gerry Martin (2016). Aboriginal Health Care and Bioethics: A Reflection on the Teaching of the Seven Grandfathers. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):38-43.
    Contemporary bioethics recognizes the importance of the culture in shaping ethical issues, yet in practice, a process for ethical analysis and decision making is rarely adjusted to the culture and ethnicity of involved parties. This is of a particular concern in a health care system that is caring for a growing Aboriginal population. We raise the possibility of constructing a bioethics grounded in traditional Aboriginal knowledge. As an example of an element of traditional knowledge that contains strong ethical guidance, we (...)
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  44. added 2016-04-27
    Andrew Crowden (2016). Indigenous Health Care, Bioethics and the Influence of Place. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):56-58.
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  45. added 2016-04-27
    Fay Niker, Peter B. Reiner & Gidon Felsen (2016). Pre-Authorization: A Novel Decision-Making Heuristic That May Promote Autonomy. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):27-29.
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  46. added 2016-04-27
    Julija Kelecevic (2016). The Story Moved Me, But Will It Move Health Care Forward? American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):58-59.
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  47. added 2016-04-27
    J. S. Blumenthal-Barby (2016). Biases and Heuristics in Decision Making and Their Impact on Autonomy. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):5-15.
    Cognitive scientists have identified a wide range of biases and heuristics in human decision making over the past few decades. Only recently have bioethicists begun to think seriously about the implications of these findings for topics such as agency, autonomy, and consent. This article aims to provide an overview of biases and heuristics that have been identified and a framework in which to think comprehensively about the impact of them on the exercise of autonomous decision making. I analyze the impact (...)
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  48. added 2016-04-27
    P. D. Magnus (2016). Kind of Borrowed, Kind of Blue. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 74 (2):179-185.
    In late 2014, the jazz combo Mostly Other People Do the Killing released Blue—an album that is a note-for-note remake of Miles Davis's 1959 landmark album Kind of Blue. This is a thought experiment made concrete, raising metaphysical puzzles familiar from discussion of indiscernible counterparts. It is an actual album, rather than merely a concept, and so poses the aesthetic puzzle of why one would ever actually listen to it.
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  49. added 2016-04-27
    Ming Dong Gu (2016). Patterns of Tao : The Birth of Chinese Writing and Aesthetics. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 74 (2):151-163.
    In the Chinese tradition, the relationship between art and philosophy is conceptually explored in terms of the relationship between dao and wen, which may respectively be viewed as representing philosophy and art. Over history, discourses on dao 道 and wen 文 are central to studies of Chinese literature, art, culture, and civilization. But just as dao holds a range of ideas in Chinese philosophy, wen is also one of the most complex terms in Chinese tradition, whose denotations and connotations are (...)
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  50. added 2016-04-27
    David Campbell (2016). Relevance and Guidance: Two Questions for the Seven Grandfathers. American Journal of Bioethics 16 (5):48-49.
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