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Value Theory

Edited by Daniel Star (Boston University)
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  1. added 2016-06-01
    Paul Bou-Habib (forthcoming). Locke, Natural Law and Civil Peace: Reply to Tate. European Journal of Political Theory:1474885116650422.
    In this comment, I reply to two objections John Tate raises against my discussion of the trajectory of Locke's ideas on toleration Tate maintains that I misunderstand the role of natural law and civil peace in Locke's thought. I defend my interpretation of the role of natural law and show that Tate is mistaken in his claim that Locke's concern to preserve civil peace conflicted with his separate concern to protect individual rights.
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  2. added 2016-06-01
    Thomas Boysen Anker (forthcoming). Analysis of the Paternalistic Justification of an Agenda Setting Public Health Policy: The Case of Tobacco Plain Packaging. Public Health Ethics:phw007.
    This article analyses the paternalistic justification of the world’s first mandatory tobacco plain packaging policy, which came into force in Australia in 2012. The policy is setting international precedence, with a range of developed and developing countries planning and implementing similar policies. Understanding the paternalistic dimension of the policy is therefore of imminent international importance. The policy meets important ethical benchmarks such as respect for citizens’ self-interests and protection of others against harm. However, plain packaging faces a number of ethical (...)
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  3. added 2016-06-01
    Ryan R. Nash & Courtney E. Thiele (forthcoming). Informing Consent for Organ Donation. HEC Forum:1-5.
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  4. added 2016-06-01
    Amir Muzur, Iva Rinčić & Stephen Sodeke (forthcoming). The Real Wisconsin Idea: The Seven Pillars of Van Rensselaer Potter’s Bioethics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics:1-10.
    Mindful of how the history of bioethics has often been presented, we explore the background, contributions, and influence of Van Rensselaer Potter on the roots of bioethics. In the last few decades, dozens of papers have been written and published, including several doctoral theses and defenses on V. R. Potter‘s concept of bioethics. In those works, the context of the emergence of Potter’s bioethics has sometimes been suggested, but never analyzed thoroughly. We identify seven pillars of influence for Van Rensselaer (...)
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  5. added 2016-06-01
    A. M. Viens (forthcoming). Public Health and Political Theory: The Importance of Taming Individualism. Public Health Ethics:phw025.
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  6. added 2016-06-01
    Guillaume Beaulac & Tim Kenyon (forthcoming). The Scope of Debiasing in the Classroom. Topoi:1-10.
    Critical thinking is often taught with some emphasis on categories and operations of cognitive biases. The underlying thought is that knowledge of biases equips students to reduce them. The empirical evidence, however, doesn’t provide much support for this thought. We have previously argued that the emphasis on debiasing in critical thinking education is worth preserving, but in light of a more explicit and broader conception of debiasing. We now argue that this broader conception of debiasing strategies obliges critical thinking instructors (...)
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  7. added 2016-06-01
    Brian Sloan (2016). Adult Social Care and Property Rights. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 36 (2):428-458.
    This article assesses the possible impact of the Care Act 2014 on the provision of social care for elderly and disabled adults in England, focusing particularly on the balance between ensuring adequate care and affecting the property rights of the recipients of social care, their families, and others who might have legal or moral claims to their property. The article uses the European Convention on Human Rights to measure the Act’s implications, arguing that normative problems remain despite the Act’s general (...)
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  8. added 2016-05-31
    Christian Barry & Patrick Tomlin (forthcoming). Moral Uncertainty and Permissibility: Evaluating Option Sets. Canadian Journal of Philosophy.
    In this essay, we explore an issue of moral uncertainty: what we are permitted to do when we are unsure about which moral principles are correct. We develop a novel approach to this issue that incorporates important insights from previous work on moral uncertainty, while avoiding some of the difficulties that beset existing alternative approaches. Our approach is based on evaluating and choosing between option sets rather than particular conduct options. We show how our approach is particularly well-suited to address (...)
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  9. added 2016-05-31
    Martin Capstick (forthcoming). Defending Dreyfus Against the ‘Expert in X’. Topoi:1-11.
    Since its introduction, Hubert Dreyfus’ account of expertise has been a topic of debate and continues to be. This article focuses on one particular critique: Selinger and Crease :245–279, 2002) argument that Dreyfus wrongfully denies expertise to those whose expertise is a matter of propositional knowledge, which they call an ‘expert in x’. This article sets out to defend Dreyfus against the ‘expert in x’ by showing that Selinger and Crease’s use of Gilbert Ryle’s distinction between know-how and know-that as (...)
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  10. added 2016-05-31
    Andrew Spear, Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (forthcoming). Functions in Basic Formal Ontology. Applied Ontology 11.
    The notion of function is indispensable to our understanding of distinctions such as that between being broken and being in working order (for artifacts) and between being diseased and being healthy (for organisms). A clear account of the ontology of functions and functioning is thus an important desideratum for any top-level ontology intended for application to domains such as engineering or medicine. The benefit of using top-level ontologies in applied ontology can only be realized when each of the categories identified (...)
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  11. added 2016-05-31
    A. G. Holdier (forthcoming). The Pig’s Squeak: Towards a Renewed Aesthetic Argument for Veganism. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics:1-12.
    In 1906, Henry Stephens Salt published a short collection of essays that presented several rhetorically powerful, if formally deficient arguments for the vegetarian position. By interpreting Salt as a moral sentimentalist with ties to Aristotelian virtue ethics, I propose that his aesthetic argument deserves contemporary consideration. First, I connect ethics and aesthetics with the Greek concepts of kalon and kalokagathia that depend equally on beauty and morality before presenting Salt’s assertion: slaughterhouses are disgusting, therefore they should not be promoted. I (...)
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  12. added 2016-05-31
    Jason Chen (2016). One Child: Do We Have a Right to More? Sarah Conly, 2016 New York, Oxford University Press 248 Pp., $26.81. [REVIEW] Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):n/a-n/a.
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  13. added 2016-05-31
    Christopher Jay (2016). Embracing Impossible Justice. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2).
    It is often thought that considerations of practicality speak in favour of accepting the principle that if there is no practical alternative to something then that thing is not unjust. I present an argument which suggests that there are in fact practical costs to accepting such a principle, so that on grounds of practicality we perhaps ought to reject it. That argument does not assume that there are any demands of justice which it is impossible to meet, but only that (...)
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  14. added 2016-05-31
    Norbert Paulo (2016). The Confluence of Philosophy and Law in Applied Ethics. Palgrave.
    The law serves functions that are not often taken seriously enough by ethicists, namely feasibility and practicability. A consequence of feasibility is that most laws do not meet the demands of ideal ethical theory. A consequence of practicability is that law requires elaborated and explicit methodologies that determine how to do things with norms. These two consequences form the core idea behind this book, which employs methods from legal theory to inform and examine debates on methodology in applied ethics, particularly (...)
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  15. added 2016-05-31
    Liam Shields (2016). Private School, College Admissions and the Value of Education. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):n/a-n/a.
    In this article, I defend a proposal to cap the proportion of students admitted to elite colleges who were educated at elite, often private, schools to not more than the proportion of students who attend such schools in society as a whole. In order to defend this proposal, I draw on recent debates that pit principles of equality against principles of adequacy, and I defend the need for a pluralist account of educational fairness that includes both elements. I argue that (...)
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  16. added 2016-05-31
    Jason Chen (2016). One Child: Do We Have a Right to More? Sarah Conly, 2016 New York, Oxford University Press 248 Pp., $26.81. [REVIEW] Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):n/a-n/a.
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  17. added 2016-05-31
    Norbert Paulo (2016). The Confluence of Philosophy and Law in Applied Ethics. Palgrave.
    The law serves functions that are not often taken seriously enough by ethicists, namely feasibility and practicability. A consequence of feasibility is that most laws do not meet the demands of ideal ethical theory. A consequence of practicability is that law requires elaborated and explicit methodologies that determine how to do things with norms. These two consequences form the core idea behind this book, which employs methods from legal theory to inform and examine debates on methodology in applied ethics, particularly (...)
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  18. added 2016-05-31
    Luke Taylor (2016). Can Robert Adams Survive Moral Twin Earth? Journal of Religious Ethics 44 (2):334-351.
    Richard Boyd and Robert Adams have both developed semantic accounts of moral terms based on Hilary Putnam's causal regulation theory for natural kind terms, according to which the terms in question refer to the properties which predominantly causally regulated the terms. However, Terence Horgan and Mark Timmons have mounted an objection to Boyd's semantics—their Moral Twin Earth argument. If this argument is successful against Boyd then it might be thought that it should also be successful against Adams, given the similarity (...)
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  19. added 2016-05-31
    Liam Shields (2016). Private School, College Admissions and the Value of Education. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2).
    In this article, I defend a proposal to cap the proportion of students admitted to elite colleges who were educated at elite, often private, schools to not more than the proportion of students who attend such schools in society as a whole. In order to defend this proposal, I draw on recent debates that pit principles of equality against principles of adequacy, and I defend the need for a pluralist account of educational fairness that includes both elements. I argue that (...)
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  20. added 2016-05-31
    Christopher Jay (2016). Embracing Impossible Justice. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2).
    It is often thought that considerations of practicality speak in favour of accepting the principle that if there is no practical alternative to something then that thing is not unjust. I present an argument which suggests that there are in fact practical costs to accepting such a principle, so that on grounds of practicality we perhaps ought to reject it. That argument does not assume that there are any demands of justice which it is impossible to meet, but only that (...)
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  21. added 2016-05-31
    Walter Ott (2016). Phenomenal Intentionality and the Problem of Representation. Journal of the American Philosophical Association 2:131--145.
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  22. added 2016-05-31
    Bob Fischer & Burkay Ozturk (2016). Facsimiles of Flesh. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (2):n/a-n/a.
    Ed Gein was a serial killer, grave robber, and body snatcher who made a lampshade from human skin. Now consider the detective who found that lampshade. Let's suppose that he would never want to own it; however, he does find that he wants a synthetic one just like it – a perfect replica. We assume that there is something morally problematic about the detective having such a replica. We then argue that, given as much, we can reach the surprising conclusion (...)
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  23. added 2016-05-31
    James Stacey Taylor (2015). Does Remuneration for Plasma Compromise Autonomy? HEC Forum 27 (4):387-400.
    In accordance with a recent statement released by the World Health Organization, the Canadian province of Ontario is moving to ban payment for plasma donation. This is partially based on contentions that remuneration for blood and blood products undermines autonomy and personal dignity. This paper is dedicated to evaluating this claim. I suggest that traditional autonomy-based arguments against commodification of human body parts and substances are less compelling in the context of plasma donation in Canada, but that there is another (...)
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  24. added 2016-05-31
    James Stacey Taylor (2015). The Gift Relationship Revisited. HEC Forum 27 (4):301-317.
    If unremunerated blood donors are willing to participate, and if the use of them is economical from the perspective of those collecting blood, I can see no objection to their use. But there seems to me no good reason, moral or practical, why they should be used. The system of paid plasmapheresis as it currently operates in the United States and in Canada would seem perfectly adequate, and while there may always be ways in which the safety and efficiency of (...)
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  25. added 2016-05-31
    James Stacey Taylor (2015). Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the ‘Implicit Price’ of Readily Available Body Parts. HEC Forum 27 (4):347-359.
    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area—often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health minister (...)
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  26. added 2016-05-31
    James Stacey Taylor (2015). Money for Blood and Markets for Blood. HEC Forum 27 (4):331-345.
    Ontario’s Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed—and sometimes practiced—as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. (...)
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  27. added 2016-05-31
    James Stacey Taylor (2015). Errors and Omissions: Donor Compensation Policies and Richard Titmuss. HEC Forum 27 (4):319-330.
    Many global and national systems of regulation of blood donors and donor compensation rely for intellectual support on Richard Titmuss’s views, represented in The Gift Relationship. Based on selective interpretation of data from the 1960s, Titmuss engineered an ethical view pertaining to donors and, in so doing, created not only ongoing stereotypes, but created a cause for followers to perpetuate misunderstandings about the nature of such donations. In many cases, donors are, in fact compensated, but regulatory systems persevere in using (...)
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  28. added 2016-05-31
    James Stacey Taylor (2015). Compensation for Blood Plasma Donation as a Distinctive Ethical Hazard: Reformulating the Commodification Objection. HEC Forum 27 (4):401-416.
    In this essay, I argue that the Commodification Objection, locates a phenomenon of real moral significance. In defending the Commodification Objection, I review three common criticisms of it, which claim firstly, that commodification doesn’t always lead to instrumentalization; secondly, that commodification isn’t the only route to such an outcome; and finally, that the Commodification Objection applies only to persons, and human organs are not persons. In response, I conclude that moral significance does not require that an undesirable outcome be a (...)
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  29. added 2016-05-31
    James Stacey Taylor (2015). The Ethics of Paid Plasma Donation: A Plea for Patient Centeredness. HEC Forum 27 (4):417-429.
    Plasma protein therapies are a group of essential medicines extracted from human plasma through processes of industrial scale fractionation. They are used primarily to treat a number of rare, chronic disorders ensuing from inherited or acquired deficiencies of a number of physiologically essential proteins. These disorders include hemophilia A and B, different immunodeficiencies and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. In addition, acute blood loss, burns and sepsis are treated by PPTs. Hence, a population of vulnerable and very sick individuals is dependent on (...)
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  30. added 2016-05-31
    James Stacey Taylor (2015). Author Index to Volume 27: 2015. HEC Forum 27 (4):431-432.
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  31. added 2016-05-31
    James Stacey Taylor (2015). “I Can’T Eat If I Don’T Plass”: Impoverished Plasma Donors, Alternatives, and Autonomy. HEC Forum 27 (4):361-385.
    One of the central considerations to be taken into account in evaluating the ethics of compensation for donated plasma is respect for donor autonomy. And one of the main arguments against compensated donation systems is that many donors do or would come from circumstances of poverty that restrict their alternatives in a way that compromises those donors’ autonomy. In this paper, I develop and defend a novel version of this “compromised autonomy argument” which improves upon extant versions by employing a (...)
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  32. added 2016-05-31
    Sonia Sedivy (2004). Wittgenstein Against Interpretation: "the Meaning of a Text Does Not Stop Short of its Facts". In John Gibson Wolfgang Huemer (ed.), The Literary Wittgenstein. Routledge 165-185.
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  33. added 2016-05-30
    Debbie Roberts (forthcoming). Naturalism, Nonnaturalism and Supervenience. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume.
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  34. added 2016-05-30
    Debbie Roberts (forthcoming). 'Thick Concepts'. In Tristram McPherson & David Plunkett (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Metaethics. Routledge
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  35. added 2016-05-30
    Tony Lynch & Lesley McLean (forthcoming). How to Do Animal Ethics. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics:1-10.
    Many think doing animal ethics demands we see moral humanism as a speciesist prejudice of the kind found with sexism and racism. The only serious case for this rests on the Argument from Marginal Cases. We find that argument to the point, but show that properly understood it supports humanism. Understanding why it does this lets us see how we ought to go on in animal ethics.
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  36. added 2016-05-30
    Debbie Roberts (forthcoming). 'The Naturalistic Fallacy, Naturalism and the Fact-Value Distinction'. In Neil Sinclair (ed.), The Naturalistic Fallacy. Cambridge University Press
  37. added 2016-05-30
    Mark Alfano (forthcoming). Swanton, Christine. The Virtue Ethics of Hume & Nietzsche. [REVIEW] Ethics.
    This book has a noble aim: to free virtue ethics from the grip of the neo-Aristotelianism that limits its scope in contemporary Anglophone philosophy. Just as there are deontological views that are not Kant’s or even Kantian, just as there are consequentialist views that are not Bentham’s or even utilitarian, so, Swanton contends, there are viable virtue ethical views that are not Aristotle’s or even Aristotelian. Indeed, the history of both Eastern and Western philosophy suggests that the majority of normative (...)
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  38. added 2016-05-30
    Troy Jollimore (2016). John Gibson, Ed., The Philosophy of Poetry. Estetika: The Central European Journal of Aesthetics 53 (1):100-110.
    A review of John Gibson´s The Philosophy of Poetry.
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  39. added 2016-05-30
    James Stillwaggon (2016). The Indirection of Influence: Poetics and Pedagogy in Aristotle and Plato. Journal of Aesthetic Education 50 (2):8-25.
    Transmitting knowledge or skills from one person or group to another has traditionally been understood as a merely proximate goal of education, the ultimate end being the lives students spend in pursuit of those learned ideals that keep our societies’ traditions alive. It is only by the life lived by the educated person or the collective life shared by an educated society that any account of educational success could properly be taken.1 Beliefs, attitudes, and habits appropriate to the society for (...)
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  40. added 2016-05-30
    Robert R. Clewis (2016). What's the Big Idea?: On Emily Brady's Sublime. Journal of Aesthetic Education 50 (2):104-118.
    “The sublime is a massive concept,” Emily Brady states in her book’s first sentence. Her lucid study of the sublime should interest scholars from a wide range of disciplines, from environmental philosophy and aesthetics to the history of philosophy, art history, and literary criticism. Although its title refers to modern philosophy, the book examines not only the period typically classified in philosophy as “modern,” but also romanticism and contemporary aesthetics. Brady aims “to reassess, and to some extent reclaim, the meaning (...)
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  41. added 2016-05-30
    Debbie Roberts (2016). 'Explanatory Indispensability Arguments in Metaethics and Philosophy of Mathematics'. In Neil Sinclair & Uri Leibowitz (eds.), Explanation in Ethics and Mathematics. OUP
  42. added 2016-05-30
    Jeffrey Petts (2016). The Cultural Promise of The Aesthetic by Monique Roelofs. Journal of Aesthetic Education 50 (2):119-123.
    The central claim of Monique Roelofs’s wide-ranging examination of the aesthetic is that it “hold[s] out the promise of a shared culture... people and objects [connected] in flourishing collective and material bonds”. Roelofs acknowledges Kant’s and Hume’s commitment to shared human faculties that allow judgements of taste “to attain intersubjective validity”; but her argument quickly develops from this “promise” to one with social and political consequences—of a harmonious and egalitarian society—and to radically different theoretical formulations and conclusions. Roelofs then also (...)
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  43. added 2016-05-30
    Tim Prentki (2016). Citizen Artists and Human Becomings. Journal of Aesthetic Education 50 (2):72-83.
    Quince: Bless thee, Bottom, bless thee! Thou art translated.Yet it can happen suddenly, unexpectedly, and most frequently in the half-light-of-glimpses, that we catch sight of another visible order which intersects with ours and has nothing to do with it.This article is a reflection on the process of transformation: whether that be a change of the physical kind undergone by Bottom through the acquisition of a donkey’s head or the inner alteration wrought by a moment of heightened perception of the type (...)
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  44. added 2016-05-30
    Angelo Caranfa (2016). Learning to See: Art, Beauty, and the Joy of Creation in Education. Journal of Aesthetic Education 50 (2):84-103.
    Education takes for granted that sight is there but that it isn’t turned the right way.A work of art... provokes in us... an image, which in our souls awakes surprise—sometimes, meditation—often, and always, the joy of creation.To place oneself in the path of beauty is the basic impulse underlying education.In The Aims of Education, Alfred North Whitehead claims that the goal of education is to cultivate an “aesthetic sense of realized perfection”1—namely, to instruct us in the way of the beautiful. (...)
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  45. added 2016-05-30
    Giulia Martina (2016). Pictorial Aesthetics and Two Kinds of Inflected Seeing-In. Estetika: The Central European Journal of Aesthetics 53 (1):74-92.
    Inflected seeing-in is a special experience of the vehicle and subject of a picture, which are experienced as related to each other. Bence Nanay recently defended the idea that inflected picture perception is central to the aesthetic appreciation of pictures. Here I critically discuss his characterization of inflection, and advance a new one, that better accounts for the structure and content of inflected experience in terms of properties of the pictures themselves and also clarifies the distinctive contribution of inflection to (...)
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  46. added 2016-05-30
    Akos Krassoy (2016). The Ethics of the Face in Art: On the Margins of Levinas’s Theory of Ethical Signification in Art. Estetika: The Central European Journal of Aesthetics 53 (1):42-73.
    In ‘Reality and Its Shadow’, Levinas dismisses knowledge as a whole from art. This has deep implications for the ethical. The aesthetic event has nothing to do with the ethical event – art does not seem to hold a place for ethical knowledge. This situation is problematic with respect to the conflicting phenomenological evidence as well as with respect to Levinas himself, who occasionally relies on works of art in his ethical phenomenological analyses. My article aims to fill in the (...)
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  47. added 2016-05-30
    Emanuela Ceva (2016). Interactive Justice. A Proceduralist Approach to Value Conflict in Politics. Routledge.
    Contemporary societies are riddled with disputes caused by conflicts between the holders of value claims competing for the regulation of matters of public concern. Disputes regarding whether to permit euthanasia or the presence of religious symbols in public places illustrate this well. This familiar state of affairs is relevant for one of the most important debates within liberal political thought: should institutions seek to realize justice or peace? This book contributes to this debate by moving beyond the apparent dichotomy between (...)
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  48. added 2016-05-30
    Chris Perricone (2016). Aesthetic Quality: A Darwinian View. Journal of Aesthetic Education 50 (2):45-56.
    Je sais que la poesie est indepensable, mais je ne sais pas a quoi. [I know poetry is indispensable, but I don’t know what for.]A crucial characteristic of any aesthetic education is to understand the nature of aesthetic quality, that is, how to determine whether one artwork is superior to another. For example, I want to say that J. S. Bach’s Sixth Suite for Unaccompanied Cello performed by YoYo Ma is superior to “Thriller,” composed by Rod Temperton and performed by (...)
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  49. added 2016-05-30
    Tyson E. Lewis (2016). The Pedagogical Function of Art as Interpretation. Journal of Aesthetic Education 50 (2):57-71.
    Today, art and education have precarious statuses. Arts programs are being cut from the curriculum at an alarming rate. While the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 acknowledged the arts as a core academic subject, the arts were quickly eclipsed by the push toward quantifiable improvements on standardized tests. How should art educators respond to this urgent situation? While some might retreat back to an art-for-art’s-sake perspective, others find new justifications for the arts through the discourses of high-stakes testing (...)
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  50. added 2016-05-30
    Gianluca Consoli (2016). In Search of the Ontological Common Core of Artworks: Radical Embodiment and Non-Universalization. Estetika: The Central European Journal of Aesthetics 53 (1):14-41.
    I propose that artworks represent a specific and homogeneous ontological kind, grounded in a common ontological core. I call this common core ‘non-universalizable embodied meaning’, and I argue that this common core explains how artworks unfold their ontological identity at the physical, intentional, and social levels on the basis of an original and irreducible mode of material embodiment and cultural emergence; this common core functions as the constitutive rule of art and institutes an axiological normativity, that is, normativity based on (...)
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