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Value Theory

Edited by Daniel Star (Boston University)
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  1. added 2016-07-25
    R. J. Leland & Han van Wietmarschen (forthcoming). Political Liberalism and Political Community. New Content is Available for Journal of Moral Philosophy.
    _ Source: _Page Count 26 We provide a justification for political liberalism’s Reciprocity Principle, which states that political decisions must be justified exclusively on the basis of considerations that all reasonable citizens can reasonably be expected to accept. The standard argument for the Reciprocity Principle grounds it in a requirement of respect for persons. We argue for a different, but compatible, justification: the Reciprocity Principle is justified because it makes possible a desirable kind of political community. The general endorsement of (...)
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  2. added 2016-07-25
    Caleb Ward (2016). The Ethics of Eating as a Human Organism. In Mary C. Rawlinson & Caleb Ward (eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Food Ethics. Routledge 48-58.
    Conventional ethics of how humans should eat often ignore that human life is itself a form of organic activity. Using Henri Bergson’s notions of intellect and intuition, this chapter brings a wider perspective of the human organism to the ethical question of how humans appropriate life for nutriment. The intellect’s tendency to instrumentalize living things as though they were inert seems to subtend the moral failures evident in practices such as industrial animal agriculture. Using the case study of Temple Grandin’s (...)
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  3. added 2016-07-25
    Mary C. Rawlinson & Caleb Ward (eds.) (2015). Global Food, Global Justice: Essays on Eating Under Globalization. Cambridge Scholars Publishing.
    As Brillant-Savarin remarked in 1825 in his classic text Physiologie du Goût, “Tell me what you eat, and I will tell you who you are.” Philosophers and political theorists have only recently begun to pay attention to food as a critical domain of human activity and social justice. Too often these discussions treat food as a commodity and eating as a matter of individual choice. Policies that address the global obesity crisis by focusing on individual responsibility and medical interventions ignore (...)
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  4. added 2016-07-24
    Joshua Schechter (forthcoming). Explanatory Challenges in Metaethics. In Tristram McPherson & David Plunkett (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Metaethics. Routledge
    There are several important arguments in metaethics that rely on explanatory considerations. Gilbert Harman has presented a challenge to the existence of moral facts that depends on the claim that the best explanation of our moral beliefs does not involve moral facts. The Reliability Challenge against moral realism depends on the claim that moral realism is incompatible with there being a satisfying explanation of our reliability about moral truths. The purpose of this chapter is to examine these and related arguments. (...)
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  5. added 2016-07-24
    James W. Nickel (forthcoming). Can a Right to Health Care Be Justified by Linkage Arguments? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics:1-14.
    Linkage arguments, which defend a controversial right by showing that it is indispensable or highly useful to an uncontroversial right, are sometimes used to defend the right to health care. This article evaluates such arguments when used to defend RHC. Three common errors in using linkage arguments are neglecting levels of implementation, expanding the scope of the supported right beyond its uncontroversial domain, and giving too much credit to the supporting right for outcomes in its area. A familiar linkage argument (...)
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  6. added 2016-07-24
    E. A. Parker (forthcoming). Precarity and Elemental Difference: On Butlers Re-Writing of Irigarayan Difference. Political Theory.
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  7. added 2016-07-24
    Michele M. Moody-Adams (forthcoming). Moral Progress and Human Agency. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-16.
    The idea of moral progress is a necessary presupposition of action for beings like us. We must believe that moral progress is possible and that it might have been realized in human experience, if we are to be confident that continued human action can have any morally constructive point. I discuss the implications of this truth for moral psychology. I also show that once we understand the complex nature and the complicated social sources of moral progress, we will appreciate why (...)
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  8. added 2016-07-24
    J. S. Dryzek (forthcoming). The Forum, the System, and the Polity: Three Varieties of Democratic Theory. Political Theory.
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  9. added 2016-07-24
    Margreet Stolper, Bert Molewijk & Guy Widdershoven (2016). Bioethics Education in Clinical Settings: Theory and Practice of the Dilemma Method of Moral Case Deliberation. BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):45.
    BackgroundMoral Case Deliberation is a specific form of bioethics education fostering professionals’ moral competence in order to deal with their moral questions. So far, few studies focus in detail on Moral Case Deliberation methodologies and their didactic principles. The dilemma method is a structured and frequently used method in Moral Case Deliberation that stimulates methodological reflection and reasoning through a systematic dialogue on an ethical issue experienced in practice.MethodsIn this paper we present a case-study of a Moral Case Deliberation with (...)
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  10. added 2016-07-23
    A. Norris (forthcoming). Michael Oakeshott and the Postulates of Individuality. Political Theory.
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  11. added 2016-07-23
    Joana Margarida Sequeira Neto & Etienne Mullet (forthcoming). Perceived Acceptability of Organizational Layoffs and Job Alliances During a Recession: A Mapping of Portuguese People’s Views. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  12. added 2016-07-23
    Ron Welters (forthcoming). On Ascetic Practices and Hermeneutical Cycles. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy:1-14.
    Sports reflection is rather locked into a binary view of narrow and broad internalists. Narrow internalists, or formalists, argue that sports are solely constituted by their rules: the ‘autotelic’ stance. Broad internalists, or interpretivists, on the other hand, reason that sport is more than just a lusory end in itself. This paper will revitalize reflection on sports as a locus of the human condition by breaking through this binary opposition. It will focus on the positive aspects of the concept of (...)
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  13. added 2016-07-23
    Shane N. Glackin (2016). Three Aristotelian Accounts of Disease and Disability. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):311-326.
    The question of whether medical and psychiatric judgements involve a normative or evaluative component has been a source of wide and vehement disagreement. But among those who think such a component is involved, there is considerable further disagreement as to its nature. In this article, I consider several versions of Aristotelian normativism, as propounded by Christopher Megone, Michael Thompson and Philippa Foot, and Martha Nussbaum. The first two, I claim, can be persuasively rebutted by different modes of liberal pluralist challenge (...)
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  14. added 2016-07-23
    Jessica Toit (2016). Is Having Pets Morally Permissible? Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):327-343.
    In this article, I consider the question of whether having pets is morally permissible. However, I do so indirectly by considering three objections to the practice of having pets — what I shall call the ‘restriction of freedom objection’, the ‘property objection’, and the ‘dependency objection’. The restriction of freedom objection is dismissed relatively easily. The property objection also fails to show that having pets is morally impermissible. However, my consideration of this second objection does lead to the conclusion that (...)
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  15. added 2016-07-23
    Javier Hidalgo (2016). Selling Citizenship: A Defence. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):223-239.
    Many people think that citizenship should not be for sale. On their view, it is morally wrong for states to sell citizenship to foreigners. In this article, I challenge this view. I argue that it is in principle permissible for states to sell citizenship. I contend that, if states can permissibly deny foreigners access to citizenship in some cases, then states can permissibly give foreigners the option of buying citizenship in these cases. Furthermore, I defend the permissibility of selling citizenship (...)
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  16. added 2016-07-23
    Tina Rulli & David Wendler (2016). The Duty to Take Rescue Precautions. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):240-258.
    There is much philosophical literature on the duty to rescue. Individuals who encounter and could save, at relatively little cost to themselves, a person at risk of losing life or limb are morally obligated to do so. Yet little has been said about the other side of the issue. There are cases in which the need for rescue could have been reasonably avoided by the rescuee. We argue for a duty to take rescue precautions, providing an account of the circumstances (...)
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  17. added 2016-07-23
    Robert Huseby (2016). Can Luck Egalitarianism Justify the Fact That Some Are Worse Off Than Others? Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):259-269.
    According to luck egalitarianism it is bad or unjust if someone is worse off than another through no fault or choice of her own. This article argues that there is a tension in standard luck egalitarian theory between justifying absolute and comparative welfare levels. If a person responsibly acts in a way that brings her welfare level below that of others, this is justified according to the theory. However, even if we can say that the person's new welfare level is (...)
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  18. added 2016-07-23
    Nigel Pleasants (2016). The Question of the Holocaust's Uniqueness: Was It Something More Than or Different From Genocide? Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):297-310.
    Dating back to the very beginning of our knowledge of the events that constituted the Holocaust, some historians, social scientists, philosophers, theologians and public intellectuals argue that it was a unique historical, or even trans-historical, event. The aim of this article is to clarify what the uniqueness question should be about and to ascertain whether there are good reasons for judging that the Holocaust is unique. It examines the core meanings of ‘unique’ that feature in the literature and identifies which (...)
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  19. added 2016-07-23
    Trystan S. Goetze (2016). The Limits of Knowledge: Generating Pragmatist Feminist Cases for Situated Knowing by Nancy Arden McHugh, 2015 Albany, NY, State University of New York Press. Xii + 189 Pp, US$75 , US$75. [REVIEW] Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):344-346.
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  20. added 2016-07-23
    Sabine Salloch (2016). Same same but different: why we should care about the distinction between professionalism and ethics. BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1.
    _BMC Medical Ethics_ is an open access journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles in relation to the ethical aspects of biomedical research and clinical practice, including professional choices and conduct, medical technologies, healthcare systems and health policies. _BMC __Medical Ethics _is part of the _BMC_ series which publishes subject-specific journals focused on the needs of individual research communities across all areas of biology and medicine. We do not make editorial decisions on the basis of the interest of a study or (...)
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  21. added 2016-07-23
    Marvin J. H. Lee, Ravi S. Edara, Peter A. Clark & Andrew T. Myers (2016). Zika Virus: Can Artificial Contraception Be Condoned? Internet Journal of Infectious Diseases 15 (1).
    As the Zika virus pandemic continues to bring worry and fear to health officials and medical scientists, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended that residents of the Zika-infected countries, e.g., Brazil, and those who have traveled to the area should delay having babies which may involve artificial contraceptive, particularly condom. This preventive policy, however, is seemingly at odds with the Roman Catholic Church’s position on the contraceptive. As least since the promulgation of (...)
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  22. added 2016-07-23
    Eric Chwang (2016). Consent's Been Framed: When Framing Effects Invalidate Consent and How to Validate It Again. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):270-285.
    In this article I will argue first that if ignorance poses a problem for valid consent in medical contexts then framing effects do too, and second that the problem posed by framing effects can be solved by eliminating those effects. My position is thus a mean between two mistaken extremes. At one mistaken extreme, framing effects are so trivial that they never impinge on the moral force of consent. This is as mistaken as thinking that ignorance is so trivial that (...)
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  23. added 2016-07-23
    Gerhard Øverland (2016). Why Kamm's Principle of Secondary Permissibility Cannot Save the Doctrine of Double Effect. Journal of Applied Philosophy 33 (3):286-296.
    The DDE yields counterintuitive verdicts about certain cases: it may deem it permissible to kill a certain number of people when they are not used as means and their death is not intended, but deny that killing fewer of these people is permissible if that requires intending their death, or using them as means. To accommodate the judgement that we may kill the lesser number in such cases, supporters of the DDE may appeal to Frances Kamm's Principle of Secondary Permissibility. (...)
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  24. added 2016-07-22
    Jeremy Snyder & Valorie A. Crooks (forthcoming). Can We Care for Aging Persons Without Worsening Global Inequities? The Case of Long-Term Care Worker Migration From the Anglophone Caribbean. Public Health Ethics:phw031.
    The international migration of health workers, including long-term care workers for aging populations, contributes to a shortage of these workers in many parts of the world. In the Anglophone Caribbean, LCW shortages and the migration of nurses to take on LCW positions abroad threaten the health of local populations and widen global inequities in health. Many responses have been proposed to address the international migration of health workers generally, including making it more difficult for these workers to emigrate and increasing (...)
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  25. added 2016-07-22
    Joseph Fishkin (forthcoming). Bottlenecks, Disability, and Preference-Formation in Advance. Social Philosophy Today.
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  26. added 2016-07-22
    Giovanni De Grandis & Vidar Halgunset (2016). Conceptual and terminological confusion around personalised medicine: a coping strategy. BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1.
    _BMC Medical Ethics_ is an open access journal publishing original peer-reviewed research articles in relation to the ethical aspects of biomedical research and clinical practice, including professional choices and conduct, medical technologies, healthcare systems and health policies. _BMC __Medical Ethics _is part of the _BMC_ series which publishes subject-specific journals focused on the needs of individual research communities across all areas of biology and medicine. We do not make editorial decisions on the basis of the interest of a study or (...)
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  27. added 2016-07-22
    Ronald C. Arkin (2013). The Robot Didn't Do It: A Position Paper for the Workshop on Anticipatory Ethics, Responsibility and Artificial Agents. Workshop on Anticipatory Ethics, Responsibility and Artificial Agents 2013.
    This position paper addresses the issue of responsibility in the use of autonomous robotic systems. We are nowhere near autonomy in the philosophical sense, i.e., where there exists free agency and moral culpability for a non-human artificial agent. Sentient robots and the singularity are not concerns in the near to mid-term. While agents such as corporations can be held legally responsible for their actions, these exist of organizations under the direct control of humans. Intelligent robots, by virtue of their autonomous (...)
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  28. added 2016-07-22
    Ronald C. Arkin (2009). Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots. .
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  29. added 2016-07-21
    Andrew Edgar (forthcoming). Three Ways of Watching a Sports Video. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy:1-13.
    It does not typically seem to be worthwhile rewatching a sport match, for example, in a video recording, once the result is known. Sports matches are like detective stories. Once one knows ‘whodunit’, there seems little point in revisiting the tale. By drawing on an argument from musicologist Edward T. Cone, this paper argues that certain sports matches may be revisited with profit. The initial experience of a game may be of a series of events that are often ambiguous or (...)
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  30. added 2016-07-21
    Patrick Maynard (forthcoming). Neuroaesthetics, Gombrich, and Depiction. British Journal of Aesthetics:ayv015.
    For philosophical readers, a review of biology Nobel laureate Eric R. Kandel’s Age of Insight historical thesis, that today’s ‘neuroaesthetics’ is a continuation of Vienna’s great contributions to modernism from 1900 on, becomes a ‘critical study’, by closely examining Kandel’s valuable account of E.H. Gombrich’s psychology, then, broadly, his own case for the validity of ‘neuroaesthetics’. The article much credits Kandel for recognising and explaining—unlike most philosophers, with their epistemological and metaphysical perspectives—why Gombrich’s Art and Illusion is subtitled ‘Psychology’, since (...)
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  31. added 2016-07-21
    Seongtae Kim, Claudia Colicchia & David Menachof (forthcoming). Ethical Sourcing: An Analysis of the Literature and Implications for Future Research. Journal of Business Ethics.
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  32. added 2016-07-21
    Javad Yahaghi, Salmia Bnt Beddu & Zakaria Che Muda (forthcoming). Plagiarism in Publications Using the Unpublished Raw Data of Archived Research. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-2.
    It is obligatory to educate student researchers before they start their work by teaching them about the various types of plagiarism and how to avoid them. It is also vital that research supervisors take into account the sources of data that are explored in their students’ manuscripts. This article tries to draw the reader’s attention to the importance of avoiding all types of plagiarism in their research.
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  33. added 2016-07-21
    Bjørn Hofmann, Dušan Haustein & Laurens Landeweerd (forthcoming). Smart-Glasses: Exposing and Elucidating the Ethical Issues. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-21.
    The objective of this study is to provide an overview over the ethical issues relevant to the assessment, implementation, and use of smart-glasses. The purpose of the overview is to facilitate deliberation, decision making, and the formation of knowledge and norms for this emerging technology. An axiological question-based method for human cognitive enhancement including an extensive literature search on smart-glasses is used to identify relevant ethical issues. The search is supplemented with relevant ethical issues identified in the literature on human (...)
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  34. added 2016-07-21
    John Harris (forthcoming). Moral Blindness – The Gift of the God Machine. Neuroethics:1-5.
    The continuing debate between Persson and Savulescu and myself over moral enhancement concerns two dimensions of a very large question. The large question is: what exactly makes something a moral enhancement? This large question needs a book length study and this I provide in my How to be Good, Oxford 2016.. In their latest paper Moral Bioenhancement, Freedom and Reason take my book as their point of departure and the first dimension of the big question they address is one that (...)
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  35. added 2016-07-21
    Darrel Moellendorf (forthcoming). Anti-Poverty, Development, and the Limits of Progress. Res Publica:1-9.
    In this paper I critically engage with Hennie Lötter’s impressive book, Poverty, Ethics and Justice. I discuss his conception of poverty, and offer an interpretation of his claim that poverty is a uniquely human scourge. I exam the various harms of poverty that Lötter discusses. I consider two reasons that he offers for why we have a moral duty to end poverty, and I argue that the reason based on what we can justify to others if we take their human (...)
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  36. added 2016-07-21
    Ana Zimmermann & Soraia Saura (forthcoming). Body, Environment and Adventure: Experience and Spatiality. Sport, Ethics and Philosophy:1-14.
    The purpose of this article is to investigate human spatiality and perception in general, with the experience of adventure sports as its background. These activities highlight especially our strong relationship with the world when we consider the specific way in which the environment participates in the development of human potential. We first analyse the notions of risk and instability as important elements in adventure sports. Then we explore the notion of experience and spatiality, considering the way in which we establish (...)
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  37. added 2016-07-21
    Gary Lilienthal & Nehaluddin Ahmad (forthcoming). Deconstructing the Criminal Defence of Insanity. International Journal for the Semiotics of Law - Revue Internationale de Sémiotique Juridique:1-19.
    The significance of this article is in its deconstruction of the criminal insanity defence in a meta-legal critical context. The article’s objective is to critically review beliefs that the insanity defence was designed solely for public protection from insane violent people, or, for criminal deterrence. Arising from the long and continued use of the Roman Law concept of non compos mentis, the question arises as to what has become of the practical meaning of the term “insanity”, when used as a (...)
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  38. added 2016-07-21
    Nabina Liebow (2016). Internalized Oppression and Its Varied Moral Harms: Self‐Perceptions of Reduced Agency and Criminality. Hypatia 31 (3):n/a-n/a.
    The dominant view in the philosophical literature contends that internalized oppression, especially that experienced in virtue of one's womanhood, reduces one's sense of agency. Here, I extend these arguments and suggest a more nuanced account. In particular, I argue that internalized oppression can cause a person to conceive of herself as a deviant agent as well as a reduced one. This self-conception is also damaging to one's moral identity and creates challenges that are not captured by merely analyzing a reduced (...)
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  39. added 2016-07-21
    E. Taku (2016). AN INTIMATE INSIGHT ON PSYCHOPATHY AND A NOVEL HERMENEUTIC PSYCHOLOGICAL SCIENCE. SSRN Electronic Journal 9 (7):entire issue.
    This paper is rather a profound hermeneutic enunciation putting into question our present understanding of psychopathy. It further articulates, in complement, a novel theoretical and methodological conceptualisation for a hermeneutic psychological science. Methodology-wise, it puts into question a traditional more or less categorical and mechanical approach to the social and behavioural sciences as it strives to introduce a creative and insightful approach for the articulation of ideas. It rather seeks to construe the scientific method as being more about falsifiability and (...)
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  40. added 2016-07-21
    Whitney Barnett, Kirsty Brittain, Katherine Sorsdahl, Heather J. Zar & Dan J. Stein (2016). Maternal Participant Experience in a South African Birth Cohort Study Enrolling Healthy Pregnant Women and Their Infants. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 11 (1):3.
    BackgroundCritical to conducting high quality research is the ability to attract and retain participants, especially for longitudinal studies. Understanding participant experiences and motivators or barriers to participating in clinical research is crucial. There are limited data on healthy participant experiences in longitudinal research, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to investigate quantitatively participant experiences in a South African birth cohort study.MethodsMaternal participant experience was evaluated by a self-administered survey in the Drakenstein Child Health Study, a longitudinal birth (...)
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  41. added 2016-07-20
    Gunnar Björnsson (forthcoming). The Significance of Ethical Disagreement for Theories of Ethical Thought and Talk. In Tristram McPherson & David Plunkett (eds.), Routledge Handbook of Metaethics. Routledge
    This chapter has two sections, each focusing on a distinct way in which ethical disagreement and variations in ethical judgment matter for theories of ethical thought and talk. In the first section, we look at how the variation poses problems for both cognitivist and non-cognitivist ways of specifying the nature of ethical judgments. In the second, we look at how disagreement phenomena have been taken to undermine cognitivist accounts, but also at how the seeming variation in cognitive and non-cognitive contents (...)
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  42. added 2016-07-20
    Christian Quast (forthcoming). Expertise: A Practical Explication. Topoi:1-17.
    In this paper I will introduce a practical explication for the notion of expertise. At first, I motivate this attempt by taking a look on recent debates which display great disagreement about whether and how to define expertise in the first place. After that I will introduce the methodology of practical explications in the spirit of Edward Craig’s Knowledge and the state of nature along with some conditions of adequacy taken from ordinary and scientific language. This eventually culminates in the (...)
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  43. added 2016-07-20
    Doris Schroeder, Sally Dalton-Brown, Benjamin Schrempf & David Kaplan (2016). Responsible, Inclusive Innovation and the Nano-Divide. NanoEthics 10 (2):177-188.
    Policy makers from around the world are trying to emulate successful innovation systems in order to support economic growth. At the same time, innovation governance systems are being put in place to ensure a better integration of stakeholder views into the research and development process. In Europe, one of the most prominent and newly emerging governance frameworks is called Responsible Research and Innovation. This article aims to substantiate the following points: The concept of RRI and the concept of justice can (...)
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  44. added 2016-07-20
    Kimberly Jarvis (2016). Dilemmas in International Research and the Value of Practical Wisdom. Developing World Bioethics 16 (2):n/a-n/a.
    When conducting research in an international setting, in a country different than that of the researcher, unpredictable circumstances can arise. A study conducted by a novice North American researcher with a vulnerable population in northern Ghana highlights these happenings with an emphasis placed on the ethical challenges encountered. An illustration from the research is used to highlight an ethical dilemma while in the field, and how utilizing a moral decision-making framework can assist in making choices about a participant's right to (...)
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  45. added 2016-07-20
    Nate Jackson (2016). Moral Particularism and the Role of Imaginary Cases: A Pragmatist Approach. European Journal of Pragmatism and American Philosophy 8 (1):237-259.
    I argue that John Dewey’s analysis of imagination enables an account of learning from imaginary cases consistent with Jonathan Dancy’s moral particularism. Moreover, this account provides a more robust account of learning from cases than Dancy’s own. Particularism is the position that there are no, or at most few, true moral principles, and that competent reasoning and judgment do not require them. On a particularist framework, one cannot infer from an imaginary case that because a feature has a particular moral (...)
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  46. added 2016-07-20
    José Luis Moreno Pestaña, Carmen González Marín & Faustino Oncina Coves (2015). Filosofía y ethos universitario. Isegoría 52:9-14.
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  47. added 2016-07-20
    Manuel Cruz & Alicia García Ruiz (2013). Horizontes de Lo Común: Sujetos y Comunidades Post-Identitarios. Isegoría 49:373-376.
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  48. added 2016-07-19
    Mark Wagner & Anthony J. Gambino (forthcoming). Erratum To: Variations in the Anisotropy and Affine Structure of Visual Space: A Geometry of Visibles with a Third Dimension. Topoi:1-1.
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  49. added 2016-07-19
    Fiona MacCallum & Heather Widdows (forthcoming). Altered Images: Understanding the Influence of Unrealistic Images and Beauty Aspirations. Health Care Analysis:1-11.
    In this paper we consider the impact of digitally altered images on individuals’ body satisfaction and beauty aspirations. Drawing on current psychological literature we consider interventions designed to increase knowledge about the ubiquity and unreality of digital images and, in the form of labelling, provide information to the consumer. Such interventions are intended to address the negative consequences of unrealistic beauty ideals. However, contrary to expectations, such initiatives may not be effective, especially in the long-term, and may even be counter-productive. (...)
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  50. added 2016-07-19
    Diego M. Papayannis (2016). Independence, Impartiality and Neutrality in Legal Adjudication. Revus 28.
    This paper presents an analysis of the various dimensions of independence and impartiality. Among other things, I will argue that the two concepts, both of which are profoundly implicated in the rule of law, can be conceived as values and are perfectly distinguishable from each other. I will also propose a conception of neutrality, as a third distinct value that satisfies the requirement for non-redundancy with regard to independence and impartiality. Hence, judges and arbitrators must be independent, impartial and neutral. (...)
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