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  1. Jerrold L. Aronson (1982). Untangling Ontology From Epistemology in Causation. Erkenntnis 18 (3):293 - 305.
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  2. Helen Beebee (2001). Recent Work on Causation. Philosophical Books 42 (1):33-45.
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  3. Gunnar Björnsson (2007). How Effects Depend on Their Causes, Why Causal Transitivity Fails, and Why We Care About Causation. Philosophical Studies 133 (3):349 - 390.
    Despite recent efforts to improve on counterfactual theories of causation, failures to explain how effects depend on their causes are still manifest in a variety of cases. In particular, theories that do a decent job explaining cases of causal preemption have problems accounting for cases of causal intransitivity. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the counterfactual accounts makes it difficult to see why the concept of causation would be such a central part of our cognition. In this paper, I propose an (...)
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  4. David Braddon-Mitchell (1993). The Microstructural Causation Hypothesis. Erkenntnis 39 (2):257 - 283.
    I argue against a priori objections to the view that causation may be reducible to some micro-structural process in principle discoverable by physics. I distinguish explanation from causation, and argue that the main objections to such a reduction stem from conflating these two notions. Explanation is the collection of pragmatically relevant, possibly counterfactual information about causation; and causation is to be identified in a necessary a posteriori way with whatever physical processes underwrite our explanatory claims.
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  5. Erik Brown (1979). The Direction of Causation. Mind 88 (351):334-350.
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  6. John Carroll, Chapter 13 Anti-Reductionism.
    showing what makes causal facts both true and accessible enough for us to have the knowledge of them that we ordinarily take ourselves to have. Some current approaches to analyzing causation were once resisted. First, analyses that use the counterfactual conditional were viewed with suspicion because philosophers also sought (and still do seek) similar understanding of counterfactual facts. Since the same can be said for the other nomic concepts--causation, lawhood, explanation, chance, dispositions, and their conceptual kin--philosophy demonstrated a preference for (...)
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  7. John W. Carroll (1992). The Unanimity Theory and Probabilistic Sufficiency. Philosophy of Science 59 (3):471-479.
    The unanimity theory is an account of property-level causation requiring that causes raise the probability of their effects in specified test situations. Richard Otte (1981) and others have presented counterexamples in which one property is probabilistically sufficient for at least one other property. Given the continuing discussion (e.g., Cartwright 1989; Cartwright and Dupre 1988; Eells 1988a,b), many apparently think that these problems are minor. By considering the impact of Otte's cases on recent versions of the theory, by raising several new (...)
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  8. John W. Carroll (1988). General Causation. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:311 - 317.
    The traditional model and the contextual unanimity model are two probabilistic accounts of general causation subject to many well-known problems; e.g. cases of epiphenomena, causes raising their own probability, effects raising the probability of the cause, et cetera. After reviewing these problems and raising a new problem for the two models, I suggest the beginnings of an alternative probabilistic account. My suggestion avoids the problems encountered by earlier models, in large part, by an appeal to singular causation.
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  9. V. C. Chappell (1963). Causation and the Identification of Actions: Comments. Journal of Philosophy 60 (23):700-701.
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  10. Scott DeVito (1996). Completeness and Indeterministic Causation. Philosophy of Science 63 (3):184.
    In The Chances of Explanation, Paul Humphreys presents a metaphysical analysis of causation. In this paper, I argue that this analysis is flawed. Humphreys' model of Causality incorporates three completeness requirements. I show that these completeness requirements, when applied in the world, force us to take causally irrelevant factors to be causally relevant. On this basis, I argue that Humphreys' analysis should be rejected.
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  11. Edmond M. Dewan (1976). Consciousness as an Emergent Causal Agent in the Context of Control System Theory. In Gordon G. Globus, Grover Maxwell & I. Savodnik (eds.), Consciousness and the Brain. Plenum Press.
  12. Phil Dowe (2010). Proportionality and Omissions. Analysis 70 (3):446-451.
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  13. Phil Dowe (2009). Absences, Possible Causation, and the Problem of Non-Locality. The Monist 92 (1):23-40.
    I argue that so-called ‘absence causation’must be treated in terms of counterfactuals about causation such as ‘had a occurred, a would have caused b’. First, I argue that some theories of causation that accept absence causation are unattractive because they undermine the idea of possible causation. And second, I argue that accepting absence causation violates a principle commonly associated with relativity.
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  14. Curt John Ducasse (1969). Causation and the Types of Necessity. New York, Dover Publications.
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  15. Antony Eagle (2007). Pragmatic Causation. In Huw Price & Richard Corry (eds.), Causation, Physics, and the Constitution of Reality: Russell's Republic Revisited. Oxford University Press.
    Russell famously argued that causation should be dispensed with. He gave two explicit arguments for this conclusion, both of which can be defused if we loosen the ties between causation and determinism. I show that we can define a concept of causation which meets Russell’s conditions but does not reduce to triviality. Unfortunately, a further serious problem is implicit beneath the details of Russell’s arguments, which I call the causal exclusion problem. Meeting this problem involves deploying a minimalist pragmatic account (...)
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  16. Douglas Ehring (1989). Preemption and Probabilistic Counterfactual Theory. Philosophical Studies 56 (3):307 - 313.
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  17. Douglas Ehring (1984). Probabilistic Causality and Preemption. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 35 (1):55-57.
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  18. R. D. Ellis (1983). Agent Causation, Chance, and Determinism. Philosophical Inquiry 5 (1):29-42.
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  19. Anne M. Fagot (1984). About Causation in Medicine: Some Shortcomings of a Probabilistic Account of Causal Explanations. In Lennart Nordenfelt & B. I. B. Lindahl (eds.), Health, Disease, and Causal Explanations in Medicine. Reidel. 101--126.
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  20. Lois Frankel (1986). Mutual Causation, Simultaneity and Event Description. Philosophical Studies 49 (3):361 - 372.
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  21. R. G. Frey (1978). Causal Responsibility and Contributory Causation. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 39 (1):106-119.
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  22. Anton Froeyman & Leen De Vreese (2008). Unravelling the Methodology of Causal Pluralism. Philosophica 81 (1).
    In this paper we try to bring some clarification in the recent debate on causal pluralism. Our first aim is to clarify what it means to have a pluralistic theory of causation and to articulate the criteria by means of which a certain theory of causation can or cannot qualify as a pluralistic theory of causation. We also show that there is currently no theory on the\nmarket which meets these criteria, and therefore no full-blown pluralist theory of causation exists. Because (...)
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  23. Brian Garrett (2014). Black on Backwards Causation. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 3 (3):230-233.
    In this discussion paper I argue that Max Black's well-known bilking argument does not succeed in showing the impossibility of backwards causation.
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  24. C. Glymour (2005). Review: Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World. [REVIEW] Mind 114 (455):728-733.
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  25. Clark Glymour, Essay Review: Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World, Phil Dowe and Paul Noordhof, Eds., Routledge, 2004.
    For most of the contributions to this volume, the project is this: Fill out “Event X is a cause of event Y if and only if……” where the dots on the right are to be filled in by a claims formulated in terms using any of (1) descriptions of possible worlds and their relations; (2) a special predicate, “is a law;” (3) “chances;” and (4) anything else one thinks one needs. The form of analysis is roughly the same as that (...)
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  26. Clark Glymour, Review of Phil Dowe and Paul Nordhoff: "Cause and Chance: Causation in an Indeterministic World. [REVIEW]
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  27. Hegel Gwf (forthcoming). ACTION, Philosophy Of. Philosophy Today.
  28. Eric Hiddleston (2005). Critical Notice: Timothy O'Connor, Persons and Causes. Noûs 39 (3):541-56.
  29. I. Hinkfuss & D. H. Mellor (1997). The Facts of Causation. Philosophical Books 38 (1):1-11.
    Everything we do relies on causation. We eat and drink because this causes us to stay alive. Courts tell us who causes crimes, criminology tell us what causes people to commit them. D.H. Mellor shows us that to understand the world and our lives we must understand causation. The Facts of Causation , now available in paperback, is essential reading for students and for anyone interested in reading one of the ground-breaking theories in metaphysics. We cannot understand the world and (...)
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  30. C. Hitchcock (forthcoming). Causation, Probabilistic. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  31. Christopher Hitchcock (2008). Causation. In Martin Curd & Stathis Psillos (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
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  32. Christopher Hitchcock (1996). A Probabilistic Theory of Second Order Causation. Erkenntnis 44 (3):369 - 377.
    Larry Wright and others have advanced causal accounts of functional explanation, designed to alleviate fears about the legitimacy of such explanations. These analyses take functional explanations to describe second order causal relations. These second order relations are conceptually puzzling. I present an account of second order causation from within the framework of Eells' probabilistic theory of causation; the account makes use of the population-relativity of causation that is built into this theory.
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  33. Christopher Read Hitchcock (1993). A Generalized Probabilistic Theory of Causal Relevance. Synthese 97 (3):335 - 364.
    I advance a new theory of causal relevance, according to which causal claims convey information about conditional probability functions. This theory is motivated by the problem of disjunctive factors, which haunts existing probabilistic theories of causation. After some introductory remarks, I present in Section 3 a sketch of Eells's (1991) probabilistic theory of causation, which provides the framework for much of the discussion. Section 4 explains how the problem of disjunctive factors arises within this framework. After rejecting three proposed solutions, (...)
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  34. Paul Humphreys (1980). Probabilistic Causality and Multiple Causation. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:25 - 37.
    It is argued in this paper that although much attention has been paid to causal chains and common causes within the literature on probabilistic causality, a primary virtue of that approach is its ability to deal with cases of multiple causation. In doing so some ways are indicated in which contemporary sine qua non analyses of causation are too narrow (and ways in which probabilistic causality is not) and an argument by Reichenbach designed to provide a basis for the asymmetry (...)
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  35. Ian Hunt (2005). Omissions and Preventions as Cases of Genuine Causation. Philosophical Papers 34 (2):209-233.
    How should we deal with apparent causation involving events that have not happened when omissions are cited as causes or when something is said to prevent some event? Phil Dowe claims that causal statements about preventions and omissions are ‘quasi-causal' claims about what would have been a cause, if the omitted event had happened or been caused if the prevention had not occurred. However, one important theory of the logic of causal statements – Donald Davidson's – allows us to take (...)
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  36. Douglas N. Husak (1980). Omissions, Causation and Liability. Philosophical Quarterly 30 (121):318-326.
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  37. Frederick S. Ellett Jr & David P. Ericson (1986). An Analysis of Probabilistic Causation in Dichotomous Structures. Synthese 67 (2):175 - 193.
    During the past decades several philosophers of science and social scientists have been interested in the problems of causation. Recently attention has been given to probabilistic causation in dichotomous causal systems. The paper uses the basic features of probabilistic causation to argue that the causal modeling approaches developed by such researchers as Blalock (1964) and Duncan (1975) can provide, when an additional assumption is added, adequate qualitative measures of one variableś causal influence upon another. Finally, some of the difficulties and (...)
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  38. S. Kamefuchi (1975). A Non-Causal Approach to Physical Time. In J. T. Fraser & Nathaniel M. Lawrence (eds.), The Study of Time Ii. Springer-Verlag. 239--248.
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  39. Jaegwon Kim (1977). Causation, Emphasis, and Events. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 2 (1):100-103.
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  40. A. David Kline (1980). Are There Cases of Simultaneous Causation? PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1980:292 - 301.
    Alleged cases of simultaneous causation have played a prominent role in the critique of various accounts of explanation/causation and in the formation of alternative accounts. It is argued that none of the stated cases are genuine instances of simultaneous causations, since they all violate the special theory of relativity (STR). The conditions a genuine case would have to meet in light of the restrictions imposed by STR are outlined.
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  41. Boris Kment (2010). Causation: Determination and Difference-Making. Noûs 44 (1):80-111.
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  42. Igal Kvart (1999). Corrections to Igal Kvart, "Cause and Some Positive Causal Impact," Philosophical Perspectives, 11, Mind, Causation, and World, 1997. Noûs 33 (s13):519-520.
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  43. Daniel Lerner (ed.) (1965). Cause and Effect. New York, Free Press.
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  44. Weyma Lübbe (1993). Die Theorie -der Adäquaten Verursachung. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 24 (1):87 - 102.
    The Adequate Cause Theory: On the relation of Philosophical and Legal Concepts of Causality. The paper discusses the first explicit and logically convincing introduction of a concept of probabilistic causality into legal theories of causation in Germany by Johannes von Kries (1888). First, it is shown how this step was prepared by the failure of the philosophical analysis of causation which took its leading examples from physics to overcome the difficulties which presented themselves in cases of "irreducible multicausality". Secondly, I (...)
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  45. Raymond Martin (1972). Singular Causal Explanations. Theory and Decision 2 (3):221-237.
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  46. Roberta L. Millstein (2006). Natural Selection as a Population-Level Causal Process. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 57 (4):627-653.
    Recent discussions in the philosophy of biology have brought into question some fundamental assumptions regarding evolutionary processes, natural selection in particular. Some authors argue that natural selection is nothing but a population-level, statistical consequence of lower-level events (Matthen and Ariew [2002]; Walsh et al. [2002]). On this view, natural selection itself does not involve forces. Other authors reject this purely statistical, population-level account for an individual-level, causal account of natural selection (Bouchard and Rosenberg [2004]). I argue that each of these (...)
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  47. Richard Otte (1981). A Critique of Suppes' Theory of Probabilistic Causality. Synthese 48 (2):167 - 189.
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  48. Andrés Páez (2013). Probability-lowering causes and the connotations of causation. Ideas Y Valores 62 (151):43-55.
    A common objection to probabilistic theories of causation is that there are prima facie causes that lower the probability of their effects. Among the many replies to this objection, little attention has been given to Mellor's (1995) indirect strategy to deny that probability-lowering factors are bona fide causes. According to Mellor, such factors do not satisfy the evidential, explanatory, and instrumental connotations of causation. The paper argues that the evidential connotation only entails an epistemically relativized form of causal attribution, not (...)
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  49. Arthur Pap (1957). A Note on Causation and the Meaning of "Event". Journal of Philosophy 54 (6):155-159.
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  50. David Papineau (1978). Salmon, Statistics, and Backwards Causation. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1978:302 - 313.
    In order to explain why falling barometers don't cause rain, a "no-eclipsing" requirement needs to be added to the regularity account of causation. This refinement of the regularity account allows us to see how conclusions about deterministic causes can be based on statistical premises, and thus indicates a criticism of Wesley Salmon's "statistical relevance" account of causation. The refinement also casts some light on the problem of backwards causation.
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