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  1. B. A. (1998). Paul Rooney. Divine Command Morality. (Aldershot: Avebury, 1996.) Pp. 128. £32.50. Religious Studies 34 (2):231-234.
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  2. Robert M. Adams (1997). A Modified Divine Command Theory of Ethical Wrongness. In Thomas L. Carson & Paul K. Moser (eds.), Morality and the Good Life. Oup Usa.
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  3. Robert M. Adams (1996). The Concept of a Divine Command. In D. Z. Phillips (ed.), Religion and Morality. St. Martin's Press. 59--80.
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  4. William Alston (1990). Some Suggestions for Divine Command Theorists. In M. Beaty (ed.), Christian Theism and the Problems of Philosophy. University of Notre Dame Press. 303--326.
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  5. Skelton Anthony (2002). Review of Robert Myers Self-Governance and Cooperation. [REVIEW] Utilitas 14 (1):128-130.
  6. I. Barry'S. Argument (1996). Justice, Contestability, and Conceptions of the Good. Utilitas 8 (3).
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  7. Chris Barker & Geoffrey K. Pullum (1990). A Theory of Command Relations. Linguistics and Philosophy 13 (1):1 - 34.
  8. Deborah Baumgold (2005). Ross Harrison, Hobbes, Locke, and Confusion's Masterpiece (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), Pp. 281. Utilitas 17 (3):348-349.
  9. Edwyn R. Bevan (1900). Note on the Command Held by Seleukos, 323–321 B.C. The Classical Review 14 (08):396-398.
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  10. Hector-Neri Castañeda (1971). There Are Command Sh-Inferences. Analysis 32 (1):13 - 19.
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  11. John Chandler (1985). Divine Command Theories and the Appeal to Love. American Philosophical Quarterly 22 (3):231 - 239.
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  12. Norman O. Dahl (1986). Obligation and Moral Worth: Reflections on Prichard and Kant. Philosophical Studies 50 (3):369 - 399.
  13. Kristopher Duda (2001). Reconsidering Mo Tzu on the Foundations of Morality. Asian Philosophy 11 (1):23 – 31.
    Dennis Ahern and David Soles raise substantial problems for the conventional interpretation of Mo Tzu as a utilitarian. Although they defend different interpretations, both scholars agree that Mo Tzu is committed to a divine command theory in some form, citing the same key passages where, supposedly, Mo Tzu explicitly endorses the divine command theory. In this paper, I defend the orthodox interpretation, insisting that Mo Tzu is a utilitarian. I show that the passages cited by Ahern and Soles do not (...)
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  14. W. D. Falk (1945). Obligation and Rightness. Philosophy 20 (76):129 - 147.
    Butler observes in the Preface to the Sermons that the subject of morals can be approached in two different ways: “One begins from enquiring into the abstract relations of things: the other from a matter of fact, namely what the particular nature of man is, its several parts, their economy or constitution; from whence it proceeds to determine what course of life it is, which is correspondent to his whole nature. In the former method the conclusion is expressed thus, that (...)
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  15. Fred Feldman (2006). Daniel Kahneman, Ed Diener, and Norbert Schwarz (Eds.) , Well-Being: The Foundations of Hedonic Psychology (New York: The Russell Sage Foundation, 1999), Pp. Xii + 593. Utilitas 18 (02):192-.
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  16. Bas C. Van Fraassen (1973). Values and the Heart's Command. Journal of Philosophy 70 (1):5 - 19.
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  17. Gerald Gaus, What is Deontology?, Part One: Orthodox Viewsa Gerald F. Gaus.
    Current moral philosophy is often seen as essentially a debate between the two great traditions of consequentialism and deontology. Although there has been considerable work clarifying consequentialism, deontology is more often attacked or defended than analyzed. Just how we are to understand the very idea of a deontological ethic? We shall see that competing conceptions of deontology have been advanced in recent ethical thinking, leading to differences in classifying ethical theories. If we do not focus on implausible versions, the idea (...)
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  18. Pablo Gilabert (2005). Two Sets of Concerns About Heath's Pragmatic Theory of Convergence. Dialogue 44 (2):383-390.
  19. John E. Hare (2013). Divine Command. In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), The International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  20. Thomas Hurka (2014). Sidgwick on Consequentialism and Deontology: A Critique. Utilitas 26 (2):129-152.
    In The Methods of Ethics Henry Sidgwick argued against deontology and for consequentialism. More specifically, he stated four conditions for self-evident moral truth and argued that, whereas no deontological principles satisfy all four conditions, the principles that generate consequentialism do. This article argues that both his critique of deontology and his defence of consequentialism fail, largely for the same reason: that he did not clearly grasp the concept W. D. Ross later introduced of a prima facie duty or duty other (...)
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  21. George Knox (1959). Lost Command: "Benito Cereno" Reconsidered. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 40 (3):280.
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  22. Court Lewis (2013). Understanding Peace Within Contemporary Moral Theory. Philosophia 41 (4):1049-1068.
    In this essay, I continue Nicholas Wolterstorff’s work of developing a rights-based theory of ethics called eirenéism, which maintains the good life only occurs when justice—as a moral state of affairs where agents enjoy the goods to which they have a right—is achieved. As a result, justice is eirenē (the Greek word for peace). In the process of developing eirenéism I explain how eirenē differs from other conceptions of peace, and I offer several interpretive arguments for how best to understand (...)
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  23. Stephen Maitzen (2004). A Semantic Attack on Divine-Command Metaethics. Sophia 43 (2):15-28.
    According to divine-command metaethics (DCM), whatever is morally good or right has that status because, and only because, it conforms to God’s will. I argue that DCM is false or vacuous: either DCM is false, or else there are no instantiated moral properties, and no moral truths, to which DCM can even apply. The sort of criticism I offer is familiar, but I develop it in what I believe is a novel way.
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  24. Kavka Martin & Rashkover Randi (2004). A Jewish Modified Divine Command Theory. Journal of Religious Ethics 32 (2).
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  25. Thaddeus Metz (2012). African Conceptions of Human Dignity: Vitality and Community as the Ground of Human Rights. Human Rights Review 13 (1):19-37.
    I seek to advance enquiry into the philosophical question of in virtue of what human beings have a dignity of the sort that grounds human rights. I first draw on values salient in sub-Saharan African moral thought to construct two theoretically promising conceptions of human dignity, one grounded on vitality, or liveliness, and the other on our communal nature. I then argue that the vitality conception cannot account for several human rights that we intuitively have, while the community conception can (...)
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  26. Tim Mulgan (1997). A Non-Proportional Hybrid Moral Theory. Utilitas 9 (03):291-.
    A common objection to consequentialism is that it makes unreasonable demands upon moral agents, by failing to allow agents to give special weight to their own personal projects and interests. A prominent recent response to this objection is that of Samuel Scheffler, who seeks to make room for moral agents by building agent-centred prerogatives into a consequentialist moral theory. In this paper, I present a new objection to Scheffler's account. I then sketch an improved prerogative, which avoids this objection by (...)
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  27. Philip L. Quinn (2000). Divine Command Theory. In Hugh LaFollette - (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to Ethical Theory. Blackwell Publishers. 53--73.
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  28. Philip L. Quinn (1990). The Recent Revival of Divine Command Ethics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 50:345-365.
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  29. M. A. Roberts (2007). The Non-Identity Fallacy: Harm, Probability and Another Look at Parfit's Depletion Example. Utilitas 19 (3):267-311.
    The non-identity problem is really a collection of problems having distinct logical features. For that reason, non-identity problems can be typed. This article focuses on just one type of non-identity problem, the problem, which includes Derek Parfit's depletion example and many others. The can't-expect-better problem uses an assessment about the low probability of any particular person's coming into existence to reason that an earlier wrong act does not harm that person. This article argues that that line of reasoning is unusually (...)
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  30. Philip Stratton-Lake (2011). Recalcitrant Pluralism. Ratio 24 (4):364-383.
    In this paper I argue that the best form of deontology is one understood in terms of prima facie duties. I outline how these duties are to be understood and show how they offer a plausible and elegant connection between the reason why we ought to do certain acts, the normative reasons we have to do these acts, the reason why moral agents will do them, and the reasons certain people have to resent someone who does not do them. I (...)
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  31. Bas C. Van Fraassen (1973). Values and the Heart's Command. Journal of Philosophy 70 (1):5-19.
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  32. Gary A. Wedeking (1970). Are There Command Arguments? Analysis 30 (5):161 - 166.
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  33. Edward Wierenga (1984). Utilitarianism and the Divine Command Theory. American Philosophical Quarterly 21 (4):311 - 318.
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  34. T. M. Wilkinson (1999). Robert George (Ed.), Natural Law, Liberalism, and Morality, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1996, Pp. X + 311. Utilitas 11 (01):134-.
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Divine Command Theories
  1. Robert Adams, Abraham's Dilemma.
    A convincing defense of a divine command theory of the nature of obligation must address our darkest fear about God's commands--the fear that God may command something evil. Certainly some of the things that God has been thought to require have been evil. Rivers of blood have been shed in obedience to supposed divine commands. Can we accept a divine command theory without assuming a potential obligation to perform such horrible deeds?
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  2. Robert Merrihew Adams (1987). Divine Commands and the Social Nature of Obligation. Faith and Philosophy 4 (3):262-275.
    Divine command metaethics is one of those theories according to which the nature of obligation is grounded in personal or social relationships. In this paper I first try to show how facts about human relationships can fill some of the role that facts of obligation aresupposed to play, specifically with regard to moral motivation and guilt. Then I note certain problems that arise for social theories of obligation, and argue that they can be dealt with more adequately by an expansion (...)
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  3. Robert Merrihew Adams (1979). Divine Command Metaethics Modified Again. Journal of Religious Ethics 7 (1):66 - 79.
    This essay presents a version of divine command metaethics inspired by recent work of Donnellan, Kripke, and Putnam on the relation between necessity and conceptual analysis. What we can discover a priori, by conceptual analysis, about the nature of ethical wrongness is that wrongness is the property of actions that best fills a certain role. What property that is cannot be discovered by conceptual analysis. But I suggest that theists should claim it is the property of being contrary to the (...)
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  4. David E. Alexander (2011). Problems for Moral/Natural Supervenience. Religious Studies 47 (1):73 - 84.
    'Everyone agrees that the moral features of things supervene on their natural features' (Smith (1994), 22). Everyone is wrong, or so I will argue. In the first section, I explain the version of moral supervenience that Smith and others argue everyone should accept. In the second section, I argue that the mere conceptual possibility of a divine command theory of morality (DCT) is sufficient to refute the version of moral supervenience under consideration. Lastly, I consider and respond to two objections, (...)
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  5. David E. Alexander (2010). Problems for Moral/Natural Supervenience: DAVID E. ALEXANDER. Religious Studies 47 (1):73-84.
    ???Everyone agrees that the moral features of things supervene on their natural features??? , 22). Everyone is wrong, or so I will argue. In the first section, I explain the version of moral supervenience that Smith and others argue everyone should accept. In the second section, I argue that the mere conceptual possibility of a divine command theory of morality is sufficient to refute the version of moral supervenience under consideration. Lastly, I consider and respond to two objections, showing, among (...)
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  6. Michael J. Almeida (2004). Supervenience and Property-Identical Divine-Command Theory. Religious Studies 40 (3):323-333.
    Property-identical divine-command theory (PDCT) is the view that being obligatory is identical to being commanded by God in just the way that being water is identical to being H2O. If these identity statements are true, then they express necessary a posteriori truths. PDCT has been defended in Robert M. Adams (1987) and William Alston (1990). More recently Mark C. Murphy (2002) has argued that property-identical divine-command theory is inconsistent with two well-known and well-received theses: the free-command thesis and the supervenience (...)
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  7. Mariam Attar (2010). Islamic Ethics: Divine Command Theory in Arabo-Islamic Thought. Routledge.
    This book explores philosophical ethics in Arabo-Islamic thought.
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  8. Robert Audi (2007). Divine Command Morality and the Autonomy of Ethics. Faith and Philosophy 24 (2):121-143.
    This paper formulates a kind of divine command ethical theory intended to comport with two major views: that basic moral principles are necessary truths and that necessary truths are not determined by divine will. The theory is based on the possibility that obligatoriness can be a theological property even if its grounds are such that the content of our obligations has a priori limits. As developed in the paper, the proposed divine command theory is compatible with the centrality of God (...)
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  9. Michael W. Austin, Divine Command Theory. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  10. Robert Burch (1980). Objective Values and the Divine Command Theory of Morality. New Scholasticism 54 (3):279-304.
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  11. Richard Brian Davis & W. Paul Franks (forthcoming). Counterpossibles and the 'Terrible' Divine Command Deity. Religious Studies:1-19.
    In a series of articles, Wes Morriston has launched what can only be considered a full-scale assault on the divine command theory (DCT) of morality. According to Morriston, proponents of this theory are committed to an alarming counterpossible: that if God did command an annual human sacrifice, it would be morally obligatory. Since only a ‘terrible’ deity would do such a ‘terrible’ thing, we should reject DCT. Indeed, if there were such a deity, the world would be a terrible place—certainly (...)
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  12. David Efird (2009). Divine Command Theory and the Semantics of Quantified Modal Logic. In Yujin Nagasawa & Erik J. Wielenberg (eds.), New Waves in Philosophy of Religion. Palgrave Macmillan. 91.
    I offer a series of axiomatic formalizations of Divine Command Theory motivated by certain methodological considerations. Given these considerations, I present what I take to be the best axiomatization of Divine Command Theory, an axiomatization which requires a non-standardsemantics for quantified modal logic.
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  13. Matthew Flannagan (2012). Is Ethical Naturalism More Plausible Than Supernaturalism? A Reply to Walter Sinnott-Armstrong. Philo 15 (1):19-37.
    In many of his addresses and debates, William Lane Craig has defended a Divine Command Theory of moral obligation (DCT). In a recent article and subsequent monograph, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong has criticized Craig’s position.1 Armstrong contended that a DCT is subject to several devastating objections and further contended that even if theism is true a particular form of ethical naturalism is a more plausible account of the nature of moral obligations than a DCT is. This paper critiques Armstrong’s argument. I will (...)
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  14. Scott Hill (2010). Richard Joyce's New Objections to the Divine Command Theory. Journal of Religious Ethics 38 (1):189-196.
    In a 2002 paper for this journal, Richard Joyce presents three new arguments against the Divine Command Theory. In this comment, I attempt to show that each of these arguments is either unpersuasive or uninteresting. Two of Joyce’s arguments are unpersuasive because they rely on an implausible principle or an implausible claim about what counts as a platitude governing use of the term “wrong.” Joyce’s other argument is uninteresting because it is persuasive only if Joyce’s formulation of the Euthyphro Problem (...)
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  15. Jeffery L. Johnson (1994). Procedure, Substance, and the Divine Command Theory. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 35 (1):39 - 55.
    Natural theology is still practiced as though substantive theological conclusions can be derived by a quasi-deductive process. Perhaps relevant "evidence" may lead to interesting theological conclusions -- the fact of natural evil, or the cosmic fine-tuning we hear about in contemporary cosmology, both cry out for theological explanation. I remain a skeptic, however, about the value of "a priori" methods in natural theology. The case study in this short discussion is the well known attempt to establish the logical incoherence of (...)
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  16. Hardy Jones (1980). Concerning a New Version of the Divine Command Theory of Morality. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 11 (3):195 - 205.
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