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  1. Richard J. Arneson, Whatever of What?
    In 1980, Amartya Sen’s essay ‘Equality of What?’ stimulated a still ongoing discussion on the question: ‘Insofar as one holds that social justice demands rendering people’s condition more nearly equal, what aspects of people’s condition should be equalized?’ (Sen, 1982). In what respects should people be rendered more nearly the same? Prominent responses include resources, fundamental liberties, capabilities, advantages, welfare, and opportunities for welfare.1 There is a more general question in this neighbourhood that should be of interest. We might conceive (...)
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  2. Richard J. Arneson (1990). Liberalism, Distributive Subjectivism, and Equal Opportunity for Welfare. Philosophy and Public Affairs 19 (2):158-194.
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  3. S. Bedi (forthcoming). The Scope of Formal Equality of Opportunity: The Horizontal Effect of Rights in a Liberal Constitution. Political Theory.
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  4. Robert A. Berenson & David A. Hyman (1990). When Opportunity Knocks. Hastings Center Report 20 (6):33.
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  5. Myles Brand (1972). On Having the Opportunity. Theory and Decision 2 (4):307-313.
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  6. Alan Carter (2004). The Quest for an Egalitarian Metric. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 7 (1):94-113.
    For two decades, egalitarian analytical philosophers have sought to identify the metric to be employed in order to ascertain whether any distribution is equal or not. This essay provides a review of the seminal contributions to this debate by Amartya Sen, Ronald Dworkin, Richard Arneson and G.A. Cohen.
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  7. Amanda Cassity & John Petrovic (2010). “Meaningful Educational Opportunity” May Not Be Equality of Educational Opportunity [Essay Review of the Book Moving Every Child Ahead: From NCLB Hype to Meaningful Educational Opportunity]. Educational Studies 46 (1):116-128.
    (2010). “Meaningful Educational Opportunity” May Not be Equality of Educational Opportunity [Essay Review of the Book Moving Every Child Ahead: From NCLB Hype to Meaningful Educational Opportunity] Educational Studies: Vol. 46, No. 1, pp. 116-128.
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  8. Matt Cavanagh (2003). Against Equality of Opportunity. Clarendon Press.
    These days almost everyone seems to think it obvious that equality of opportunity is at least part of what constitutes a fair society. At the same time they are so vague about what equality of opportunity actually amounts to that it can begin to look like an empty term, a convenient shorthand for the way jobs should be allocated, whatever that happens to be. Matt Cavanagh offers a highly provocative and original new view, suggesting that the way we think about (...)
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  9. Emanuela Ceva, 'Audi Alteram Partem’ but Why? On Procedural Equality and Justice.
    This paper addresses the problem of the foundation of a procedural and minimalist approach to justice in terms of fair hearing. This approach may be summarised in the ‘principle of adversary argument’ (the idea that each side in a conflict should be heard). In particular, I intend to test whether this principle may provide the bases for a conception of justice applicable to conflicts of value in politics. More precisely, the considerations I shall offer aim to answer the following question: (...)
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  10. Alan M. S. J. Coffee (2012). Mary Wollstonecraft, Freedom and the Enduring Power of Social Domination. European Journal of Political Theory 12 (2):116-135.
    Even long after their formal exclusion has come to an end, members of previously oppressed social groups often continue to face disproportionate restrictions on their freedom, as the experience of many women over the last century has shown. Working within in a framework in which freedom is understood as independence from arbitrary power, Mary Wollstonecraft provides an explanation of why such domination may persist and offers a model through which it can be addressed. Republicans rely on processes of rational public (...)
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  11. Gerald A. Cohen (1999). Socialism and Equality of Opportunity. In Michael Rosen & Jonathan Wolff (eds.), Political Thought. Oup Oxford. 354--358.
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  12. R. Curren, Equal Opportunity and Fairness in Student Evaluation.
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  13. Joseph Fishkin (2014). Bottlenecks: A New Theory of Equal Opportunity. Oup Usa.
    Bottlenecks introduces a powerful new way of understanding equal opportunity. Rather than literal equalization, Joseph Fishkin argues that Americans ought to aim to broaden the range of opportunities open to people, at every stage in life, to pursue different paths.
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  14. Marc Fleurbaey (2011). Four Approaches to Equal Opportunity. In Carl Knight & Zofia Stemplowska (eds.), Responsibility and Distributive Justice. Oup Oxford.
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  15. G. J. Fritzberg (2002). Freedom That Counts: The Historic Underpinnings of Positive Libarty and Equality of Educational Opportunity. Journal of Thought 37 (2):7-20.
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  16. Gregory J. Fritzbert (2001). Opportunities of Substance: Reconceptualizing Equality of Educational Opportunity. Journal of Thought 36 (1):43-54.
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  17. Anca Gheaus (2009). How Much of What Matters Can We Redistribute? Love, Justice, and Luck. Hypatia 24 (4):68-90.
    By meeting needs for individualized love and relatedness, the care we receive deeply shapes our social and economic chances and therefore represents a form of luck. Hence, distributive justice requires a fair distribution of care in society. I look at different ways of ensuring this and argue that full redistribution of care is beyond our reach. I conclude that a strong individual morality informed by an ethics of care is a necessary complement of well-designed institutions.
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  18. Thomas F. Green (1971). Equal Educational Opportunity: The Durable Injustice. Philosophy of Education 7977:121-143.
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  19. Claes Hägg (1983). Just Price and Equal Opportunity. Journal of Business Ethics 2 (4):269 - 272.
    The purpose of this paper is to investigate if just price could be given a precise and relevant definition. First, the historical background is sketched. Then a definition is formulated which is based on a gradual interpretation of possibility. The meaning of the definition is, that the buyer and the seller are given equal opportunity of reaching a justified standard of living.
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  20. L. Jacobs (2009). Rawls's Commitment to Fair Equality of Opportunity: Rethinking His Arguments for Democratic Equality Four Decades Later'. In Shaun Young (ed.), Reflections on Rawls: An Assessment of His Legacy. Ashgate. 61--71.
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  21. Niko Kolodny (2014). Rule Over None II: Social Equality and the Justification of Democracy. Philosophy and Public Affairs 42 (4):287-336.
  22. A. Levin (2008). Andrew Mason, Levelling the Playing Field: The Idea of Equal Opportunity and Its Place in Egalitarian Thought. Philosophy in Review 28 (1):52.
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  23. Abigail Levin (2009). Andrew Mason, Levelling the Playing Field: The Idea of Equal Opportunity and Its Place in Egalitarian Thought Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 28 (1):52-54.
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  24. Audre Lorde (forthcoming). Equal Opportunity. Feminist Studies.
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  25. J. G. R. Martinez & N. C. Martinez (1997). Academe's Secret Problem: The Tug of War Between Privilege and Equal Opportunity. Journal of Thought 32:73-84.
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  26. Andrew Mason (2004). Equality of Opportunity and Differences in Social Circumstances. Philosophical Quarterly 54 (216):368 - 388.
    It is often supposed that the point of equality of opportunity is to create a level playing-field. This is understood in different ways, however. A common proposal is what I call the neutralization view: that people's social circumstances should not differentially affect their life chances in any serious way. I raise problems with this view, before developing an alternative conception of equal opportunity which allows some variations in social circumstances to create differences in life prospects. The meritocratic conception which I (...)
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  27. A. W. Moore (1918). The Opportunity of Philosophy. Philosophical Review 27 (2):117-133.
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  28. Mario Morelli (1993). Equal Educational Opportunity. Social Philosophy Today 8 (3):347-356.
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  29. Philippe Van Parijs (2004). Equality of Resources Versus Undominated Diversity. In Ronald Dworkin & Justine Burley (eds.), Dworkin and His Critics: With Replies by Dworkin. Blackwell Pub..
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  30. Louis Pojman (2002). Review of Matt Cavanagh, Against Equal Opportunity. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2002 (12).
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  31. Sean Sayers (1990). Equal Opportunity. Philosophical Books 31 (3):176-177.
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  32. John Schaar (1997). Equality of Opportunity and Beyond. In Louis P. Pojman & Robert Westmoreland (eds.), Equality: Selected Readings. Oup Usa.
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  33. A. Schotter & K. Weigelt (1988). The Benefits of Equal Opportunity. Business and Society Review 6:45-47.
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  34. Shlomi Segall (2013). Equality and Opportunity. Oup Oxford.
    Egalitarians have traditionally been suspicious of equality of opportunity, but recently there has been a sea-change in thinking about that concept. Shlomi Segall brings together these developments and offers a new account of 'radical equality of opportunity', which removes all obstacles (to one's opportunity-set) that lie outside one's control.
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  35. Seana Valentine Shiffrin (2004). Race, Labor, and the Fair Equality of Opportunity Principle. Fordham Law Review 1643-1675 (2004) 72 (5):1643-1675.
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  36. Vincent Vaccaro (1977). Accountability and Equal Opportunity. Metaphilosophy 8 (2-3):244-248.
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  37. Robert van der Veen (2002). Equality of Talent Resources: Procedures or Outcomes? Ethics 113 (1):55-81.
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  38. Peter Westen (1985). The Concept of Equal Opportunity. Ethics 95 (4):837-850.
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  39. Robert Young (1989). Equality of Opportunity. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 70 (3):261-280.
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Equality of Welfare
  1. Larry Alexander & Maimon Schwarzschild (1987). Liberalism, Neutrality, and Equality of Welfare Vs. Equality of Resources. Philosophy and Public Affairs 16 (1):85-110.
  2. Simon Birnbaum (2010). Radical Liberalism, Rawls and the Welfare State: Justifying the Politics of Basic Income. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 13 (4):495-516.
  3. Ronald Dworkin, Dworkin Versus Equality of Welfare Dick Arneson.
    Dworkin wonders, in so far as we might be for equality, to some degree, what would we be for? He thinks equality is a complex, multi-faceted ideal. One facet is distributional equality. Here the question is, concerning money and other resources to be privately owned by individuals, when is the distribution an equal one? Equality of welfare “holds that a distributional scheme treats people as equals when it distributes or transfers resources among them until no further transfer would leave them (...)
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  4. Ronald Dworkin (1981). What is Equality? Part 1: Equality of Welfare. Philosophy and Public Affairs 10 (3):185-246.
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  5. Christian List, Multidimensional Inequality Measurement: A Proposal.
    Two essential intuitions about the concept of multidimensional inequality have been highlighted in the emerging body of literature on this subject: first, multidimensional inequality should be a function of the uniform inequality of a multivariate distribution of goods or attributes across people (Kolm, 1977); and, second, it should also be a function of the cross-correlation between distributions of goods or attributes in different dimensions (Atkinson and Bourguignon, 1982; Walzer, 1983). While the first intuition has played a major role in the (...)
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  6. Rodney G. Peffer, What is to Be Distributed? The Paideia Project.
    I take up the "What is equality?" controversy begun by Amartya Sen in 1979 by critically considering utility (J. S. Mill), primary goods (John Rawls), property rights (John Roemer) and basic capabilities in terms of what is to be distributed according to principles and theories of social justice. I then consider the four most general principles designed to answer issues raised by the Equality of Welfare principle, Equality of Opportunity for Welfare principle, Equality of Resources principle and Equality of Opportunity (...)
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  7. T. M. Scanlon Jr (1986). Equality of Resources and Equality of Welfare: A Forced Marriage? Ethics 97 (1):111-118.
Equality of Resources
  1. Larry Alexander & Maimon Schwarzschild (1987). Liberalism, Neutrality, and Equality of Welfare Vs. Equality of Resources. Philosophy and Public Affairs 16 (1):85-110.
  2. Christian Arnsperger (1997). Reformulating Equality of Resources. Economics and Philosophy 13 (1):61-77.
    Ronald Dworkin's theory of equality of resources draws heavily on conceptual tools developed in economic theory. His criterion for a just distribution of resources is closely connected with two economic ideas: first, the idea that a distribution of resources reflects a concern for equality if it is envy-free ; second, the idea that such an envy-free distribution of resources is attainable as a competitive equilibrium from equal split . The objective of this paper is to show that the criterion of (...)
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  3. Paula Casal & Andrew Williams (2004). Equality of Resources and Procreative Justice. In Ronald Dworkin & Justine Burley (eds.), Dworkin and His Critics: With Replies by Dworkin. Blackwell Pub.. 150--169.
  4. Miriam Cohen Christofidis (2004). Talent, Slavery and Envy in Dworkin's Equality of Resources. Utilitas 16 (3):267-287.
    In this article I argue against Ronald Dworkin's rejection of the labour auction in his ‘Equality of Resources’. I criticize Dworkin's claims that the talented would envy the untalented in such an auction, and that the talented in particular would be enslaved by it. I identify some ways in which the talent auction is underdescribed and I compare the results for the condition of the talented of different further descriptions of it. I conclude that Dworkin's deviation from the ‘envy test’ (...)
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