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  1. Richard J. Arneson, Whatever of What?
    In 1980, Amartya Sen’s essay ‘Equality of What?’ stimulated a still ongoing discussion on the question: ‘Insofar as one holds that social justice demands rendering people’s condition more nearly equal, what aspects of people’s condition should be equalized?’ (Sen, 1982). In what respects should people be rendered more nearly the same? Prominent responses include resources, fundamental liberties, capabilities, advantages, welfare, and opportunities for welfare.1 There is a more general question in this neighbourhood that should be of interest. We might conceive (...)
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  2. Alan Carter (2004). The Quest for an Egalitarian Metric. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 7 (1):94-113.
    For two decades, egalitarian analytical philosophers have sought to identify the metric to be employed in order to ascertain whether any distribution is equal or not. This essay provides a review of the seminal contributions to this debate by Amartya Sen, Ronald Dworkin, Richard Arneson and G.A. Cohen.
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  3. Emanuela Ceva, 'Audi Alteram Partem’ but Why? On Procedural Equality and Justice.
    This paper addresses the problem of the foundation of a procedural and minimalist approach to justice in terms of fair hearing. This approach may be summarised in the ‘principle of adversary argument’ (the idea that each side in a conflict should be heard). In particular, I intend to test whether this principle may provide the bases for a conception of justice applicable to conflicts of value in politics. More precisely, the considerations I shall offer aim to answer the following question: (...)
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  4. Alan M. S. J. Coffee (2012). Mary Wollstonecraft, Freedom and the Enduring Power of Social Domination. European Journal of Political Theory 12 (2):116-135.
    Even long after their formal exclusion has come to an end, members of previously oppressed social groups often continue to face disproportionate restrictions on their freedom, as the experience of many women over the last century has shown. Working within in a framework in which freedom is understood as independence from arbitrary power, Mary Wollstonecraft provides an explanation of why such domination may persist and offers a model through which it can be addressed. Republicans rely on processes of rational public (...)
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  5. Anca Gheaus (2009). How Much of What Matters Can We Redistribute? Love, Justice, and Luck. Hypatia 24 (4):68-90.
    By meeting needs for individualized love and relatedness, the care we receive deeply shapes our social and economic chances and therefore represents a form of luck. Hence, distributive justice requires a fair distribution of care in society. I look at different ways of ensuring this and argue that full redistribution of care is beyond our reach. I conclude that a strong individual morality informed by an ethics of care is a necessary complement of well-designed institutions.
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Equality of Welfare
  1. Larry Alexander & Maimon Schwarzschild (1987). Liberalism, Neutrality, and Equality of Welfare Vs. Equality of Resources. Philosophy and Public Affairs 16 (1):85-110.
  2. Simon Birnbaum (2010). Radical Liberalism, Rawls and the Welfare State: Justifying the Politics of Basic Income. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 13 (4):495-516.
  3. Ronald Dworkin, Dworkin Versus Equality of Welfare Dick Arneson.
    Dworkin wonders, in so far as we might be for equality, to some degree, what would we be for? He thinks equality is a complex, multi-faceted ideal. One facet is distributional equality. Here the question is, concerning money and other resources to be privately owned by individuals, when is the distribution an equal one? Equality of welfare “holds that a distributional scheme treats people as equals when it distributes or transfers resources among them until no further transfer would leave them (...)
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  4. Ronald Dworkin (1981). What is Equality? Part 1: Equality of Welfare. Philosophy and Public Affairs 10 (3):185-246.
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  5. Christian List, Multidimensional Inequality Measurement: A Proposal.
    Two essential intuitions about the concept of multidimensional inequality have been highlighted in the emerging body of literature on this subject: first, multidimensional inequality should be a function of the uniform inequality of a multivariate distribution of goods or attributes across people (Kolm, 1977); and, second, it should also be a function of the cross-correlation between distributions of goods or attributes in different dimensions (Atkinson and Bourguignon, 1982; Walzer, 1983). While the first intuition has played a major role in the (...)
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  6. Rodney G. Peffer, What is to Be Distributed? The Paideia Project.
    I take up the "What is equality?" controversy begun by Amartya Sen in 1979 by critically considering utility (J. S. Mill), primary goods (John Rawls), property rights (John Roemer) and basic capabilities in terms of what is to be distributed according to principles and theories of social justice. I then consider the four most general principles designed to answer issues raised by the Equality of Welfare principle, Equality of Opportunity for Welfare principle, Equality of Resources principle and Equality of Opportunity (...)
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  7. T. M. Scanlon Jr (1986). Equality of Resources and Equality of Welfare: A Forced Marriage? Ethics 97 (1):111-118.
Equality of Resources
  1. Larry Alexander & Maimon Schwarzschild (1987). Liberalism, Neutrality, and Equality of Welfare Vs. Equality of Resources. Philosophy and Public Affairs 16 (1):85-110.
  2. Christian Arnsperger (1997). Reformulating Equality of Resources. Economics and Philosophy 13 (1):61-77.
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  3. Paula Casal & Andrew Williams (2004). Equality of Resources and Procreative Justice. In Ronald Dworkin & Justine Burley (eds.), Dworkin and His Critics: With Replies by Dworkin. Blackwell Pub.. 150--169.
  4. Miriam Cohen Christofidis (2004). Talent, Slavery and Envy in Dworkin's Equality of Resources. Utilitas 16 (3):267-287.
    In this article I argue against Ronald Dworkin's rejection of the labour auction in his ‘Equality of Resources’. I criticize Dworkin's claims that the talented would envy the untalented in such an auction, and that the talented in particular would be enslaved by it. I identify some ways in which the talent auction is underdescribed and I compare the results for the condition of the talented of different further descriptions of it. I conclude that Dworkin's deviation from the ‘envy test’ (...)
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  5. Ronald Dworkin (1981). What is Equality? Part 2: Equality of Resources. Philosophy and Public Affairs 10 (4):283 - 345.
    The JSTOR Archive is a trusted digital repository providing for long-term preservation and access to leading academic journals and scholarly literature from around the world. The Archive is supported by libraries, scholarly societies, publishers, and foundations. It is an initiative of JSTOR, a not-for-profit organization with a mission to help the scholarly community take advantage of advances in technology. For more information regarding JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.
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  6. Marc Fleurbaey (2002). Equality of Resources Revisited. Ethics 113 (1):82-105.
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  7. Rasmus Hansen (2011). Equality of Resources and the Problem of Recognition. Res Publica 17 (2):157-174.
    Liberal egalitarianism is commonly criticized for being insufficiently sensitive to status inequalities and the effects of misrecognition. I examine this criticism as it applies to Ronald Dworkin’s ‘equality of resources’ and argue that, in fact, liberal egalitarians possess the resources to deal effectively with recognition-type issues. More precisely, while conceding that the distributive principles required to realize equality of resources must apply against a particular institutional background, I point out, following Dworkin, that among the principles guiding this background is a (...)
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  8. Rasmus Sommer Hansen & Søren Flinch Midtgaard (2011). Sinking Cohen's Flagship — or Why People with Expensive Tastes Should Not Be Compensated. Journal of Applied Philosophy 28 (4):341-354.
    G. A. Cohen argues that egalitarians should compensate for expensive tastes or for the fact that they are expensive. Ronald Dworkin, by contrast, regards most expensive tastes as unworthy of compensation — only if a person disidentifies with his own such tastes (i.e. wishes he did not have them) is compensation appropriate. Dworkinians appeal, inter alia, to the so-called ‘first-person’ or ‘continuity’ test. According to the continuity test, an appropriate standard of interpersonal comparison reflects people's own assessment of their relative (...)
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  9. Daniel Hausman, Problems with Supply-Side Egalitarianism.
    Samuel Bowles and Herbert Gintis want to redirect egalitarianism away from redistribution of income and toward redistribution of assets, particularly productive assets. <1> Their main reason, apart from the fact that income redistribution is so obviously dead in the political waters, is that income redistribution lowers productivity and competitiveness, while asset redistribution raises these, and in the long run the welfare of the worst-off depends more on increasing productivity than it does on distribution. Compound interest is a wonderful thing. Young (...)
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  10. Joseph Heath (2004). Dworkin’s Auction. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (3):313-335.
    Ronald Dworkin’s argument for resource egalitarianism has as its centerpiece a thought experiment involving a group of shipwreck survivors washed ashore on an uninhabited island, who decide to divide up all of the resources on the island equally using a competitive auction. Unfortunately, Dworkin misunderstands how the auction mechanism works, and so misinterprets its significance for egalitarian political philosophy. First, he makes it seem as though there is a conceptual connection between the ‘envy-freeness’ standard and the auction, when in fact (...)
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  11. Carl Knight (2012). Distributive Luck. South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (2):541-559.
    This article explores the Rawlsian goal of ensuring that distributions are not influenced by the morally arbitrary. It does so by bringing discussions of distributive justice into contact with the debate over moral luck initiated by Williams and Nagel. Rawls’ own justice as fairness appears to be incompatible with the arbitrariness commitment, as it creates some equalities arbitrarily. A major rival, Dworkin’s version of brute luck egalitarianism, aims to be continuous with ordinary ethics, and so is (a) sensitive to non-philosophical (...)
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  12. Carl Knight (2009). Describing Equality. Law and Philosophy 28 (4):327 - 365.
    This articles proposes that theories and principles of distributive justice be considered substantively egalitarian iff they satisfy each of three conditions: (1) they consider the bare fact that a person is in certain circumstances to be a conclusive reason for placing another relevantly identically entitled person in the same circumstances, except where this conflicts with other similarly conclusive reasons arising from the circumstances of other persons; (2) they can be stated as 'equality of x for all persons', making no explicit (...)
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  13. Carl Knight (2009). Luck Egalitarianism: Equality, Responsibility, and Justice. Edinburgh University Press.
    How should we decide which inequalities between people are justified, and which are unjustified? One answer is that such inequalities are only justified where there is a corresponding variation in responsible action or choice on the part of the persons concerned. This view, which has become known as 'luck egalitarianism', has come to occupy a central place in recent debates about distributive justice. This book is the first full length treatment of this significant development in contemporary political philosophy. Each of (...)
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  14. Margaret Moore (2012). Natural Resources, Territorial Right, and Global Distributive Justice. Political Theory 40 (1):84 - 107.
    The current statist order assumes that states have a right to make rules involving the transfer and/or extraction of natural resources within the territory. Cosmopolitan theories of global justice have questioned whether the state is justified in its control over natural resources, typically by pointing out that having resources is a matter of good luck, and this unfairness should be addressed. This paper argues that self-determination does generate a right over resources, which others should not interfere with. It does not (...)
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  15. Rodney G. Peffer, What is to Be Distributed? The Paideia Project.
    I take up the "What is equality?" controversy begun by Amartya Sen in 1979 by critically considering utility (J. S. Mill), primary goods (John Rawls), property rights (John Roemer) and basic capabilities in terms of what is to be distributed according to principles and theories of social justice. I then consider the four most general principles designed to answer issues raised by the Equality of Welfare principle, Equality of Opportunity for Welfare principle, Equality of Resources principle and Equality of Opportunity (...)
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  16. Martin E. Sandbu (2004). On Dworkin’s Brute-Luck–Option-Luck Distinction and the Consistency of Brute-Luck Egalitarianism. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 3 (3):283-312.
    Egalitarian thinkers have adopted Ronald Dworkin’s distinction between brute and option luck in their attempts to construct theories that better respect our intuitions about what it is that egalitarian justice should equalize. I argue that when there is no risk-free choice available, it is less straightforward than commonly assumed to draw this distinction in a way that makes brute-luck egalitarianism plausible. I propose an extension of the brute-luck–option-luck distinction to this more general case. The generalized distinction, called the ‘least risky (...)
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  17. T. M. Scanlon Jr (1986). Equality of Resources and Equality of Welfare: A Forced Marriage? Ethics 97 (1):111-118.
  18. Alan Thomas, The Permissibility of Prerogative Grounded Incentives in Liberal Egalitarianism.
    G. A. Cohen's critique of Rawlsian special incentives has been criticised as internally inconsistent on the grounds that Cohen concedes the existence of incentives that are legitimate because they are grounded on agent-centred prerogatives. This, Cohen's critics argue, invites a slippery slope argument: there is no principled line between those incentives Cohen permits and those he condemns. This paper attempts a partial defence of Cohen: a prerogative can be granted but then its operation internally qualified. (...)
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  19. Philippe Van Parijs (2004). Equality of Resources Versus Undominated Diversity. In Ronald Dworkin & Justine Burley (eds.), Dworkin and His Critics: With Replies by Dworkin. Blackwell Pub..
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  20. Hal R. Varian (1985). Dworkin on Equality of Resources. Economics and Philosophy 1 (1):110-125.
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  21. Andrew Williams (1999). Resource Egalitarianism and the Limits to Basic Income. Economics and Philosophy 15 (01):85-.
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  22. Jonathan Wolff (2002). Addressing Disadvantage and the Human Good. Journal of Applied Philosophy 19 (3):207–218.
    This paper sets out a framework in which we can distinguish between four types of redistributive attention to the disadvantaged: compensation; personal enhancement; targeted resource enhancement; and status enhancement. It is argued that in certain cases many of us will have strong intuitions in favour or against one or more strategies for addressing disadvantage, and it is further argued that in such cases it is likely that our reactions are based on assumptions about the human good. Hence the two issues (...)
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Equality of Opportunity
  1. Elizabeth Anderson (2007). Fair Opportunity in Education: A Democratic Equality Perspective. Ethics 117 (4):595-622.
  2. R. J. Arneson (1999). Equality of Opportunity for Welfare Defended and Recanted. Journal of Political Philosophy 7 (4):488–497.
    Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen’s interesting criticisms of the ideal of equality of opportunity for welfare provide a welcome occasion for rethinking the requirements of egalitarian distributive justice.1 In the essay he criticizes I had proposed that insofar as we think distributive justice requires equality of any sort, we should conceive of distributive equality as equal opportunity provision. Roughly put, my suggestion was that equality of opportunity for welfare obtains among a group of people when all would have the same expected welfare over (...)
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  3. Richard Arneson, Equality of Opportunity. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  4. Richard J. Arneson (1999). Against Rawlsian Equality of Opportunity. Philosophical Studies 93 (1):77-112.
    According to John Rawls, "Justice is the first virtue of social institutions."1 Like Gaul, justice is tripartite. Rawls affirms an Equal Liberty Principle that guarantees equal basic or constitutional liberties for all citizens and a Difference Principle that requires inequalities in the distribution of certain social and economic benefits, the primary social goods, to be set so that the long-term holdings of primary social goods are maximized for the citizens whose holdings are least. Sandwiched between these two principles is a (...)
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  5. Richard J. Arneson (1989). Equality and Equal Opportunity for Welfare. Philosophical Studies 56 (1):77 - 93.
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  6. Andrew Askland (1996). Conflicting Accounts of Equal Opportunity. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 10 (2):35-44.
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  7. Yonathan Reshef Avner de-Shalit (2009). Levelling the Playing Field: The Idea of Equal Opportunity and its Place in Egalitarian Thought – Andrew Mason. Philosophical Quarterly 59 (237):756-760.
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  8. John Baker (2004). Review of Lesley A. Jacobs, Pursuing Equal Opportunities: The Theory and Practice of Egalitarian Justice. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2004 (5).
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  9. Jan H. Blits (1990). Equality of Opportunity and the Problem of Nature. Educational Theory 40 (3):309-319.
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  10. Bernard R. Boxil (1987). Global Equality of Opportunity and National Integrity. Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (01):143-.
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  11. Harry Brighouse (2007). Equality of Opportunity and Complex Equality: The Special Place of Schooling. [REVIEW] Res Publica 13 (2):147-158.
    This paper is an engagement with Equality by John Baker, Kathleen Lynch, Judy Walsh and Sara Cantillon. It identifies a dilemma for educational egalitarians, which arises within their theory of equality, arguing that sometimes there may be a conflict between advancing equality of opportunity and providing equality of respect and recognition, and equality of love care and solidarity. It argues that the latter values may have more weight in deciding what to do than traditional educational egalitarians have usually thought.
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  12. Harry Brighouse & Adam Swift (2008). Putting Educational Equality in its Place. Educational Policy and Finance 3 (4):444-466.
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  13. Harry Brighouse & Adam Swift (2008). Putting Educational Equality in its Place. Educational Policy and Finance 3 (4):444-466.
  14. Gillian Brock (2005). The Difference Principle, Equality of Opportunity, and Cosmopolitan Justice. Journal of Moral Philosophy 2 (3):333-351.
    What kinds of principles of justice should a cosmopolitan support? In recent years some have argued that a cosmopolitan should endorse a Global Difference Principle. It has also been suggested that a cosmopolitan should support a Principle of Global Equality of Opportunity. In this paper I examine how compelling these two suggestions are. I argue against a Global Difference Principle, but for an alternative Needs-Based Minimum Floor Principle (where these are not co-extensive, as I explain). Though I support a negative (...)
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  15. Alexander Brown (2006). Equality of Opportunity for Education: One-Off or Lifelong? Journal of Philosophy of Education 40 (1):63–84.
  16. Les Burwood (1992). Equality of Opportunity as a Sensible Educational Ideal. Journal of Philosophy of Education 26 (2):257–259.
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