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Varieties of Modality

Edited by Barbara Vetter (Humboldt-University, Berlin)
Assistant editor: Steffen Koch (Humboldt-University, Berlin)
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  1. Charles Bray (1890). The Philosophy of Necessity. The Monist 1:136.
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  2. Robert C. Stalnaker (1997). Reference and Necessity. In Bob Hale & Crispin Wright (eds.), A Companion to the Philosophy of Language. Blackwell.
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  3. Frederick Steiner (2013). The Necessity of Constraints. Connecting Built Forms and Nature. Topos: European Landscape Magazine 83:78.
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  4. Galen Strawson (1991). The Contingent Reality of Natural Necessity. Analysis 51 (4):209 - 213.
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  5. Niko Strobach (1998). Time and Development in Kripke's “Naming and Necessity”. Theoria 13 (3):503-517.
    In this article, I want to focus on time and development in Kripke’s “Naming and Necessity” by considering two topics: (1) the evolution of scientific knowledge; (2) the evolution of biographies. In connection with (1) I suggest the introduction of a sentence operator for epistemic possibility and argue that some of Kripke’s strong metaphysical statements are finely counterbalanced by rather “Popperian” epistemological considerations. In connection with (2) I consider the idea of exploiting necessity of origin for a crossworld identity criterion.
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  6. A. Sudbery (1980). The Necessity of Not Doing Otherwise. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 58 (3):280 – 283.
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  7. Dennis Temple (1978). Nomic Necessity and Counterfactual Force. American Philosophical Quarterly 15 (3):221 - 227.
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  8. John Thomson (1905). The Necessity of Religion, a Paper.
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  9. Robert Joseph Toole (1976). Virtue, God, and Necessity: A Study of the Metaphysical Background of Shaftesbury's Ethical Thought. Dissertation, State University of New York at Binghamton
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  10. Shelley Liane Trianosky-Stillwell (1979). Necessity and Provability Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Necessity. Dissertation, Purdue University
    In Chapter V, I conclude by defending Wittgenstein from the charge that, on his view, we can never know any proposition to be necessary. I argue that in fact his account is an anti-sceptical account of necessity. ;I carry out the most central part of my project in Chapters I and III. I present strong evidence for holding that Wittgenstein's later account of necessity is anti-relativistic. Specifically, I argue that that account is every bit as "absolutistic" as the positions of (...)
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  11. George Tsai (2013). Lamentable Necessities. Review of Metaphysics 66 (4):775-808.
  12. Bas C. van Fraassen (1977). The Only Necessity is Verbal Necessity. Journal of Philosophy 74 (2):71-85.
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  13. Wilko van Holten (2003). God, Necessity, and Self-Explanation. Bijdragen 64 (2):179-195.
    In the traditional arguments for the existence of God it is argued from the world, or features of the world, to God as the ground or explanation of the world. Such arguments inevitably raise the question as to who or what explains God in turn. In response to this question some theologians have argued that God cannot be explained any further because God’s exists necessarily. Sometimes God’s necessary existence is taken to imply his self-explanation. In the present paper the author (...)
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  14. Philip Kinsey Von Bretzel (1973). Conventionalism, Constructivism and Logical Necessity. Dissertation, University of Michigan
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  15. Victoria Voytko (1997). Necessity or Contingency. Review of Metaphysics 51 (2):454-456.
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  16. Robert Wachbroit (1987). Logical Compulsion and Necessity. Erkenntnis 26 (1):45 - 56.
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  17. Jack Weir (2005). The Necessity of Repentence. Southwest Philosophy Review 21 (2):175-178.
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  18. David D. Welker (1988). On the Necessity of Bodies. Erkenntnis 28 (May):363-385.
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  19. J. E. White (1972). Logical Necessity and God's Existence. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 53 (2):199.
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  20. Unni Wikan (1995). The Self in a World of Urgency and Necessity. Ethos 23 (3):259-285.
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  21. David Clair Williams (2000). Using Aristotle's Philosophy of Mathematics to Understand the Scope of Hypothetical and Simple Necessity in His Philosophy of Biology. Dissertation, The University of Utah
    Commentators on Aristotle's philosophy of biology construe teleological explanations in one of two ways. Call these two ways T1: the natural world contains both teleological and nonteleological properties, and T2: the natural world contains only teleological properties, there are no nonteleological properties. The problem of attributing either T1 or T2 to Aristotle arises because the relationship between what he calls "hypothetical necessity" and "simple necessity" is not clearly understood. Properties that are hypothetically necessitated are teleological . Properties that are simply (...)
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  22. Jane S. Zembaty (1976). The Essentialism of Kripke and Madden and Metaphysical Necessity. Dissertation, Georgetown University
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Conceptual Necessity
  1. Ross P. Cameron (2007). The Contingency of Composition. Philosophical Studies 136 (1):99-121.
    There is widespread disagreement as to what the facts are concerning just when a collection of objects composes some further object; but there is widespread agreement that, whatever those facts are, they are necessary. I am unhappy to simply assume this, and in this paper I ask whether there is reason to think that the facts concerning composition hold necessarily. I consider various reasons to think so, but find fault with each of them. I examine the theory of composition as (...)
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  2. Fabrice Correia (2012). On the Reduction of Necessity to Essence. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 84 (3):639-653.
    In his influential paper ‘‘Essence and Modality’’, Kit Fine argues that no account of essence framed in terms of metaphysical necessity is possible, and that it is rather metaphysical necessity which is to be understood in terms of essence. On his account, the concept of essence is primitive, and for a proposition to be metaphysically necessary is for it to be true in virtue of the nature of all things. Fine also proposes a reduction of conceptual and logical necessity in (...)
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  3. Daniel Dohrn (2011). Are There a Posteriori Conceptual Necessities? Philosophical Studies 155 (2):181-197.
    I critically assess Stephen Yablo’s claim that cassinis are ovals is an a posteriori conceptual necessity. One does not know it simply by mastering the relevant concepts but by substantial empirical scrutiny. Yablo represents narrow content by would have turned out -conditionals. An epistemic reading of such conditionals does not bear Yablo’s claim. Two metaphysically laden readings are considered. In one reading, Yablo’s conditionals test under what circumstances concepts remain the same while their extensions diverge. As an alternative, I develop (...)
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  4. Bob Hale (2002). Knowledge of Possibility and of Necessity. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 103 (1):1–20.
    I investigate two asymmetrical approaches to knowledge of absolute possibility and of necessity--one which treats knowledge of possibility as more fundamental, the other according epistemological priority to necessity. Two necessary conditions for the success of an asymmetrical approach are proposed. I argue that a possibility-based approach seems unable to meet my second condition, but that on certain assumptions--including, pivotally, the assumption that logical and conceptual necessities, while absolute, do not exhaust the class of absolute necessities--a necessity-based approach may be able (...)
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  5. By Toby Handfield (2004). Counterlegals and Necessary Laws. Philosophical Quarterly 54 (216):402–419.
    Necessitarian accounts of the laws of nature have an apparent difficulty in accounting for counterlegal conditionals because, despite appearing to be substantive, on the necessitarian thesis they are vacuous. I argue that the necessitarian may explain the apparently substantive content of such conditionals by pointing out the presuppositions of counterlegal discourse. The typical presupposition is that a certain conceptual possibility has been realized; namely, that necessitarianism is false. (The idea of conceptual possibility is explicated in terms of recent work in (...)
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  6. Rom Harre & E. H. Madden (2008). Conceptual and Natural Necessity. In Ruth Groff (ed.), Revitalizing Causality: Realism About Causality in Philosophy and Social Science. Routledge.
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  7. Eli Hirsch (1986). Metaphysical Necessity and Conceptual Truth. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 11 (1):243-256.
  8. Frederik Kaufman (1990). Conceptual Necessity, Causality and Self-Ascriptions of Sensation. International Studies in Philosophy 22 (3):3-11.
  9. Olga Markic (2001). Is Language of Thought a Conceptual Necessity? Acta Analytica 16 (26):53-60.
  10. Michael T. Putnam & Thomas S. Stroik (2009). Part I. Introduction: Traveling Without Moving: The Conceptual Necessity of Survive-Minimalism. In Towards a Derivational Syntax: Survive-Minimalism. John Benjamins Pub. Company.
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  11. Steven Rieber (1998). The Concept of Personal Identity. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (3):581-594.
    Theories of personal identity try to explain what the identity of a person necessarily consists in, but frequently leave open what kind of necessity is at issue. This paper is concerned with conceptual necessity. It proposes an analysis of the concept of personal identity in terms of a definite description. The analysis coheres with out judgments about clear cases and explains why cases of division seem indeterminate. The apparent indeterminacy results from attempting to apply a definite description to a situation (...)
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  12. Robert K. Shope (1988). Powers, Causation, and Modality. Erkenntnis 28 (3):321 - 362.
    A complex theory concerning powers, natures, and causal necessity has emerged from the writings of P. H. Hare, E. H. Madden, and R. Harré. In the course of rebutting objections that other critics have raised to the power account of causation, I correct three of its genuine difficulties: its attempt to analyze power attributions in terms of conditional statements; its characterization of the relation between something's powers and its nature; and its doctrines concerning conceptual necessity. The resulting interpretation of causal (...)
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  13. Daniel von Wachter (1994). Wo es Notwendigkeit nicht gibt. Kontroversen 6:3-28.
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  14. Brian Weatherson (2004). Morality, Fiction, and Possibility. Philosophers' Imprint 4 (3):1-27.
    Authors have a lot of leeway with regard to what they can make true in their story. In general, if the author says that p is true in the fiction we’re reading, we believe that p is true in that fiction. And if we’re playing along with the fictional game, we imagine that, along with everything else in the story, p is true. But there are exceptions to these general principles. Many authors, most notably Kendall Walton and Tamar Szabó Gendler, (...)
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Logical Necessity
  1. Arif Ahmed (2000). Hale on Some Arguments for the Necessity of Necessity. Mind 109 (433):81-91.
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  2. Virgil C. Aldrich (1969). Logically Necessary A Posteriori Propositions. Analysis 29 (4):140 - 142.
  3. Gordon Barnes (2002). Hale’s Necessity: It’s Indispensable, But is It Real? My Cms 13:3 - 10.
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  4. José A. Benardete (1962). Is There a Problem About Logical Possibility? Mind 71 (283):342-352.
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  5. Jonathan Bennett (1961). A Myth About Logical Necessity. Analysis 21 (3):59 - 63.
    In these few pages I shall try to demonstrate the emptiness of the most cumbersome piece of unexamined intellectual baggage at present being hauled about by English philosophers. I here cite one example to be going on with, at the end of the paper I shall give a handful more, and it would be easy to multiply the number by ten from the writings of reputable philosophers. The outstanding philosophical achievement of the ha1f-century which has just drawn to a close (...)
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  6. Stephen J. Boulter (2002). Hume on Induction: A Genuine Problem or Theology's Trojan Horse? Philosophy 77 (1):67-86.
    In this paper I offer a straight solution to Hume's problem of induction by defusing the assumptions on which it is based. I argue that Hume's problem only arises if we accept (i) that there is no necessity but logical necessity, or (ii) that it is unreasonable to believe that there is any form of necessity in addition to logical necessity. I show that Hume's arguments in favour of (i) and (ii) are unsound. I then offer a suggestion as to (...)
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  7. Phillip Bricker (1991). Plenitude of Possible Structures. Journal of Philosophy 88 (11):607-619.
    Which mathematical structures are possible, that is, instantiated by the concrete inhabitants of some possible world? Are there worlds with four-dimensional space? With infinite-dimensional space? Whence comes our knowledge of the possibility of structures? In this paper, I develop and defend a principle of plenitude according to which any mathematically natural generalization of possible structure is itself possible. I motivate the principle pragmatically by way of the role that logical possibility plays in our inquiry into the world.
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  8. Phillip Bricker (1983). Worlds and Propositions: The Structure and Ontology of Logical Space. Dissertation, Princeton University
    In sections 1 through 5, I develop in detail what I call the standard theory of worlds and propositions, and I discuss a number of purported objections. The theory consists of five theses. The first two theses, presented in section 1, assert that the propositions form a Boolean algebra with respect to implication, and that the algebra is complete, respectively. In section 2, I introduce the notion of logical space: it is a field of sets that represents the propositional structure (...)
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  9. John P. Burgess (2003). Which Modal Models Are the Right Ones (for Logical Necessity)? Theoria 18 (2):145-158.
    Recently it has become almost the received wisdom in certain quarters that Kripke models are appropriate only for something like metaphysical modalities, and not for logical modalities. Here the line of thought leading to Kripke models, and reasons why they are no less appropriate for logical than for other modalities, are explained. It is also indicated where the fallacy in the argument leading to the contrary conclusion lies. The lessons learned are then applied to the question of the status of (...)
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  10. F. K. C. (1975). The Nature of Necessity. Review of Metaphysics 28 (4):762-763.
  11. John V. Canfield (1975). Anthropological Science Fiction and Logical Necessity. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 4 (3):467 - 479.
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  12. James Cargile (2000). Skepticism and Possibilities. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 61 (1):157-171.
    One skeptical strategy against A’s claim to know that P is to hold that it is logically possible for someone to have the same “base” for P as A does in spite of its not being true that P. Philosophical replies have focussed on showing that these are not genuine possibilities. Whether they are can be an interesting question of metaphysics, but it is argued in this paper that this metaphysical discussion is not the proper focus for an assessment of (...)
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  13. Leo K. C. Cheung (2004). Showing, Analysis and the Truth-Functionality of Logical Necessity in Wittgenstein's Tractatus. Synthese 139 (1):81 - 105.
    This paper aims to explain how the Tractatus attempts to unify logic by deriving the truth-functionality of logical necessity from the thesis that a proposition shows its sense. I first interpret the Tractarian notion of showing as the displaying of what is intrinsic to an expression (or a symbol). Then I argue that, according to the Tractatus, the thesis that a proposition shows its sense implies the determinacy of sense, the possibility of the complete elimination of non-primitive symbols, the analyticity (...)
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  14. Nino Cocchiarella (1975). On the Primary and Secondary Semantics of Logical Necessity. Journal of Philosophical Logic 4 (1):13 - 27.
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