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  1. Thorsten Botz-Borstein (2004). Virtual Reality and Dreams. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 11 (2):1-10.
    The virtual annuls all suspension of time that could, through its tragic or stylistic character, confer to time an existential value. This condition is contrasted with time as it functions in dreams. On the grounds of these observations it is shown that there are resemblances between “autistic” symptoms and the virtual world.
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  2. Philip Brey (1999). The Ethics of Representation and Action in Virtual Reality. Ethics and Information Technology 1 (1):5-14.
    This essay addresses ethical aspects of the design and use of virtual reality (VR) systems, focusing on the behavioral options made available in such systems and the manner in which reality is represented or simulated in them. An assessment is made of the morality of immoral behavior in virtual reality, and of the virtual modeling of such behavior. Thereafter, the ethical aspects of misrepresentation and biased representation in VR applications are discussed.
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  3. Annamaria Carusi (2011). Trust in the Virtual/Physical Interworld. In Charles Ess & May Thorseth (eds.), Trust in Virtual Worlds: Contemporary Perspectives. Peter Lang.
    The borders between the physical and the virtual are ever-more porous in the daily lives of those of us who live in Internet enabled societies. An increasing number of our daily interactions and transactions take place on the Internet. Social, economic, educational, medical, scientific and other activities are all permeated by the digital in one or other kind of virtual environment. Hand in hand with the ever-increasing reach of the Internet, the digital and the virtual, go concerns about trust. In (...)
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  4. David J. Chalmers (2005). The Matrix as Metaphysics. In Christopher Grau (ed.), Philosophers Explore the Matrix. Oxford University Press. 132.
    The Matrix presents a version of an old philosophical fable: the brain in a vat. A disembodied brain is floating in a vat, inside a scientist’s laboratory. The scientist has arranged that the brain will be stimulated with the same sort of inputs that a normal embodied brain receives. To do this, the brain is connected to a giant computer simulation of a world. The simulation determines which inputs the brain receives. When the brain produces outputs, these are fed back (...)
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  5. Wes Cooper (1995). Virtual Reality and the Metaphysics of Self, Community and Nature. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 9 (2):1-14.
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  6. Richard Coyne (2007). Thinking Through Virtual Reality. Techne 10 (3):26-38.
    Critics and researchers apply various criteria to evaluate the efficacy of VR, including the conformity of VR environments to the character of place. I wish to add a further test: do VR environments enable thought? The paper thus applies to VR the controversial proposition advanced by Clark and others that thinking, i.e. human cognitive processes, are situated and spatial. As a further term in this mix I introduce the concept of non-place, as elucidated by Augé and propose that non-places can (...)
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  7. John Dilworth (2010). Realistic Virtual Reality and Perception. Philosophical Psychology 23 (1):23-42.
    Realistic uses of Virtual Reality (VR) technology closely integrate user training on virtual objects with VR-assisted user interactions with real objects. This paper shows how the Interactive Theory of Perception (ITP) may be extended to cover such cases. Virtual objects are explained as concrete models (CMs) that have an inner generation mechanism, and the ITP is used to explain how VR users can both perceive such local CMs, and perceptually represent remote real objects. Also, concepts of modeling and representation are (...)
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  8. Paul J. Ford (2001). A Further Analysis of the Ethics of Representation in Virtual Reality: Multi-User Environments. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 3 (2):113-121.
    This is a follow-up article toPhilip Brey's ``The ethics of representation andaction in Virtual Reality'' (published in thisjournal in January 1999). Brey's call for moreanalysis of ethical issues of virtual reality(VR) is continued by further analyzing issuesin a specialized domain of VR – namelymulti-user environments. Several elements ofBrey's article are critiqued in order to givemore context and a framework for discussion.Issues surrounding representations ofcharacters in multi-user virtual realities aresurveyed in order to focus attention on theimportance of additional discussion andanalysis of (...)
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  9. William C. Frederick (1994). The Virtual Reality of Fact Vs. Value. Business Ethics Quarterly 4 (2):171-173.
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  10. Geert Gooskens (2011). Beyond Good and Evil? Morality in Video Games. Philosophical Writings (1):37-44.
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  11. Geert Gooskens (2010). Where Am I? The Problem of Bilocation in Virtual Environments. Postgraduate Journal of Aesthetics 7 (3):13-24.
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  12. Peter Horsfield (2003). Continuities and Discontinuities in Ethical Reflections on Digital Virtual Reality. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (3 & 4):155 – 172.
    This article considers the ethical implications of digital virtual reality (DVR) within the context of the place of virtual reality in general in human life and development. This is elaborated through a comparative analysis of the continuity and discontinuity between virtual reality in other mediated forms and DVR. The important role played by virtual reality in human creativity and adaptation sets the context for considering the ethics of DVR in 4 main areas: epistemological questions, questions of distraction and displacement, the (...)
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  13. Jaron Lanier, A Vintage Virtual Reality Interview.
    Jaron Lanier: Maybe we should go over what Virtual Reality is. We are speaking about a technology that uses computerized clothing to synthesize shared reality. It recreates our relationship with the physical world in a new plane, no more, no less. It doesn't affect the subjective world; it doesn't have anything to do directly with what's going on inside your brain. It only has to do with what your sense organs perceive. The physical world, the thing on the other side (...)
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  14. Peter Limper (2002). Process and (Virtual) Reality. Process Studies 31 (1):130-145.
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  15. Andreas Martin Lisewski (2006). The Concept of Strong and Weak Virtual Reality. Minds and Machines 16 (2):201-219.
    We approach the virtual reality phenomenon by studying its relationship to set theory. This approach offers a characterization of virtual reality in set theoretic terms, and we investigate the case where this is done using the wellfoundedness property. Our hypothesis is that non-wellfounded sets (so-called hypersets) give rise to a different quality of virtual reality than do familiar wellfounded sets. To elaborate this hypothesis, we describe virtual reality through Sommerhoff’s categories of first- and second-order self-awareness; introduced as necessary conditions for (...)
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  16. P. D. Magnus (2000). Reality, Sex, and Cyberspace. MacHack.
    Typical discussions of virtual reality (VR) fixate on technology for providing sensory stimulation of a certain kind. They thus fail to understand reality as the place wherein we live and work, misunderstanding it instead as merely a sort of presentation. The first half of the paper examines popular conceptions of VR. The most common conception is a shallow one according to which VR is a matter of simulating appearances. Yet there is, even in popular depictions, a second, more subtle conception (...)
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  17. Andy Miah, Virtually Nothing: Re-Evaluating the Significance of Cyberspace.
    This paper provides a critical analysis of virtual environments made in recent leisure and cultural studies discussions, which claim virtual reality to be the technotopia of post-modern society. Such positions describe virtual realities as worlds of in nite freedom, which transcend human subjectivity and where identity becomes no longer burdened by the prejudices of persons. Arguing that cyberspace offers little more than a token gesture towards such liberation, the paper suggests a shift in focus from the power relations that might (...)
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  18. Norman Mooradian (2006). Virtual Reality, Ontology, and Value. Metaphilosophy 37 (5):673-690.
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  19. Alain Morin, Use of Virtual Reality in an fMRI Study of Mentalizing.
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  20. Nicholas John Munn (2012). The Reality of Friendship Within Immersive Virtual Worlds. Ethics and Information Technology 14 (1):1-10.
    In this article I examine a recent development in online communication, the immersive virtual worlds of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs). I argue that these environments provide a distinct form of online experience from the experience available through earlier generation forms of online communication such as newsgroups, chat rooms, email and instant messaging. The experience available to participants in MMORPGs is founded on shared activity, while the experience of earlier generation online communication is largely if not wholly dependent on (...)
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  21. Craig D. Murray & Michael S. Gordon (2001). Changes in Bodily Awareness Induced by Immersive Virtual Reality. CyberPsychology and Behavior 4 (3):365-371.
  22. María G. Navarro (2009). Los Nuevos Entornos Educativos. Desafíos Cognitivos Para Una Inteligencia Colectiva. Comunicar 33 (XVII):141-148.
    Comprender las tecnologías de la comunicación a la luz de las redes con que se comunican y entran en cooperación las personas ha sido una constante en autores que no han disociado su visión acerca del significado de las tecnologías respecto a los nuevos movimientos sociales. Este artículo sostiene que las TIC no son sólo una red a la que se suman los individuos, sino que actúan como tecnologías sociales cuyo perfeccionamiento depende tanto de la diversidad de sus funciones (socio-políticas, (...)
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  23. Robert E. Ornstein (2008). Mindreal: How the Mind Creates its Own Virtual Reality. Malor Books.
    The world we touch, see and hear is not the "real" world -- How the mind transforms the world : the life of the mind -- The time to create the mind's reality -- Priming consciousness -- Mixing and remixing the elements of experience -- The mind plays its little shell games -- A change of pace for a change of mind.
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  24. Alekseeva Olga Pavlovna (2008). Virtual Aspects of the Fairy Tale. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 26:77-79.
    Virtual elements can be found not only in information and computer technologies but in such cultural phenomenon as fairy tale. "Virtual" as a philosophical concept has no any categorical and generally shared definition nowadays. The main properties of a virtual reality are geniture, actuality, autonomy and interactivity. In the fairy tale context we treat virtual as a transformed form, a feature of being artificial and created with the help of imagination, built-on a day-to-day existence, having self-entirety and determinancy and crossing (...)
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  25. Philip Pettit (1995). The Virtual Reality of Homo Economicus. The Monist 78 (3):308-329.
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  26. Maria V. Sanchez-Vives & Mel Slater (2005). From Presence to Consciousness Through Virtual Reality. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 6 (4):332-339.
  27. William Seager (1995). Ground Truth and Virtual Reality: Hacking Vs. Van Fraassen. Philosophy of Science 62 (3):459-478.
    Hacking argues against van Fraassen's constructive empiricism by appeal to features of microscopic imaging. Hacking relies on both our practices involving imaging instruments and the structure of the images produced by these micropractices. Van Fraassen's reply is formally correct yet fundamentally unsatisfying. I aim to strengthen van Fraassen's reply, but must then extend constructive empiricism, specifically the central notion of "theoretical immersion." I argue that immersion is more analogous to entering a virtual reality than to learning a language. This metaphor (...)
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  28. Robert Francis John Seddon (2013). Getting 'Virtual' Wrongs Right. Ethics and Information Technology 15 (1):1-11.
    Whilst some philosophical progress has been made on the ethical evaluation of playing video games, the exact subject matter of this enquiry remains surprisingly opaque. ‘Virtual murder’, simulation, representation and more are found in a literature yet to settle into a tested and cohesive terminology. Querying the language of the virtual in particular, I suggest that it is at once inexplicit and laden with presuppositions potentially liable to hinder anyone aiming to construct general philosophical claims about an ethics of gameplay, (...)
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  29. Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012). Virtual Worlds and Their Challenge to Philosophy: Understanding the “Intravirtual” and the “Extravirtual”. Metaphilosophy 43 (4):499-512.
    The Web, in particular real-time interactions in three-dimensional virtual environments (virtual worlds), comes with a set of unique characteristics that leave our traditional frameworks inapplicable. The present article illustrates this by arguing that the notion of “technology relations,” as put forward by Ihde and Verbeek, becomes inapplicable when it comes to the Internet, and this inapplicability shows why these phenomena require new philosophical frameworks. Against this background, and more constructively, the article proposes a fundamental distinction between “intravirtual” and “extravirtual” consequences—a (...)
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  30. Jonathan A. Waskan (forthcoming). A Virtual Solution to the Frame Problem. Proceedings of the First IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots.
    We humans often respond effectively when faced with novel circumstances. This is because we are able to predict how particular alterations to the world will play out. Philosophers, psychologists, and computational modelers have long favored an account of this process that takes its inspiration from the truth-preserving powers of formal deduction techniques. There is, however, an alternative hypothesis that is better able to account for the human capacity to predict the consequences worldly alterations. This alternative takes its inspiration from the (...)
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