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Siblings:History/traditions: Virtues and Vices
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  1. Elisa Aaltola (2007). The Moral Value of Animals. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:219-225.
    Altruism has often been thought to be the reason we treat animals with a certain moral respect. Animals are not moral agents who could reciprocally honour our well being, and because of this duties toward them are considered to be based on other-directed motivations. Altruism is a vague notion, and in the context of animals can be divided into at least three different alternatives. The first one equates altruism with benevolence or "kindness"; the second one argues altruism is based on (...)
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  2. Ruth Abbey (1999). The Roots of Ressentiment. New Nietzsche Studies 3 (3-4):47-61.
    Despite its centrality for an understanding of Nietzsche's thought, the term ressentiment does not appear in his writings before Beyond Good and Evil. This article argues that the roots of the idea of ressentiment appear in his middle period writings when he discusses vanity [die Eitelkeit].
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  3. Fritz Allhoff (2009). What Is Modesty? International Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2):165-187.
    This paper examines the virtue of modesty and provides an account of what it means to be modest. A good account should not only delimit the proper application of the concept, but should also capture why it is that we think that modesty is a virtue. Recent work has yielded several interesting, but flawed, accounts of modesty. Julia Driver has argued that it consists in underestimating one’s self-worth, while Owen Flanagan has argued that modesty must entail an accurate—as opposed to (...)
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  4. Sharon Anderson-Gold (2011). Privacy, Respect and the Virtues of Reticence in Kant. Kantian Review 15 (2):28-42.
  5. Judith Andre (2008). Burdened Virtues Virtue Ethics for Liberatory Struggles (Review). Hypatia 23 (2):pp. 193-196.
  6. Audrey L. Anton (2006). Breaking the Habit. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 13 (2):58-66.
  7. Aristotle, Virtues and Vices (Greek and English).
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  8. Aristotle, Virtues and Vices.
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  9. Nafsika Athanassoulis, Virtue Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  10. Robert Audi & Patrick E. Murphy (2006). The Many Faces of Integrity. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1):3-21.
    Integrity is a central topic in business ethics, and in the world of business it is quite possibly the most commonly cited morally desirable trait. But integrity is conceived in widely differing ways, and as often as it is discussed in the literature and given a central place in corporate ethics statements, the notion is used so variously that its value in guiding everyday conduct may be more limited than is generally supposed. Two central questions for this paper are what (...)
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  11. Antony Aumann (2013). Self-Love and Neighbor-Love in Kierkegaard's Ethics. Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2013 (1):197–216.
    Kierkegaard faces an apparent dilemma. On the one hand, he concurs with the biblical injunction: we are to love our neighbors as ourselves. He takes this to imply that self-love and neighbor-love should be roughly symmetrical, similar in kind as well as degree. On the other hand, he recommends relating to others and to ourselves in disparate ways. We should be lenient, charitable, and forgiving when interacting with neighbors; the opposite when dealing with ourselves. The goal of my paper is (...)
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  12. Alexander Bain (1861). On the Study of Character; Including an Estimate of Phrenology. Parker, Son and Bourn; Adamant Media.
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  13. Sherry Baker (2008). The Model of the Principled Advocate and the Pathological Partisan: A Virtue Ethics Construct of Opposing Archetypes of Public Relations and Advertising Practitioners. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (3):235 – 253.
    Drawing upon contemporary virtue ethics theory, The Model of The Principled Advocate and The Pathological Partisan is introduced. Profiles are developed of diametrically opposed archetypes of public relations and advertising practitioners. The Principled Advocate represents the advocacy virtues of humility, truth, transparency, respect, care, authenticity, equity, and social responsibility. The Pathological Partisan represents the opposing vices of arrogance, deceit, secrecy, manipulation, disregard, artifice, injustice, and raw self-interest. One becomes either a Principled Advocate or a Pathological Partisan by habitually enacting or (...)
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  14. Y. Michael Barilan (forthcoming). From Hope in Palliative Care to Hope as a Virtue and a Life Skill. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (3):165-181.
    For centuries, it has been held that communication of an ominous prognosis has the power to kill patients and that the cultivation of hope, even when deceitful, may expedite recovery (Faden, Beauchamp, and King 1986, 63). Today, truth is considered a higher value than the pleasantness of no-worry. Research shows that patients want to be told the truth and that informed patients do not die prematurely; rather, they fare better psychologically than those kept behind a veil of silence. We also (...)
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  15. Y. Michael Barilan (forthcoming). Hope and Friendship: Being and Having. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (3):191-195.
    In its first part, the paper explores the challenge of conceptualizing the Thomist theological virtue of hope in Aristotelian terms that are compatible with non-Thomist and even atheist metaphysics as well. I argue that the key concept in this endeavor is friendship—as an Aristotelian virtue, as relational value in Thomist theology, as a recognized value in supportive care and as a kind of ‘personal hope.’ Then, the paper proceeds to examine the possible differences between hope as a virtue and hope (...)
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  16. Brian Barry (2010). David Hume as a Social Theorist. Utilitas 22 (4):369-392.
    This article examines Russell Hardin's interpretation of Hume's argument that great social order depends on coordination convention. The main argument shows that despite an apparent move in that direction Hume's main argument is that justice and the other convention-based virtues rest on a cooperative convention which solves a prisoner's dilemma problem and that states are required when a society exceeds some small size because only states can solve the large number prisoner's dilemma problems that constitute the . In this Hume's (...)
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  17. Per Bauhn (2007). Two Concepts of Courage. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1:65-68.
    In this paper I intend to present two concepts of courage, with the purpose of introducing two different ways in which the classical virtue of courage may serve goals of personal achievement and goals of collective flourishing respectively. The two forms of courage that I will distinguish are the courage of creativity and the courage of conviction, respectively. The courage of creativity is the ability to confront the fear of failure, this ability being directed by the agent's will to achieve, (...)
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  18. Lawrence C. Becker, Virtue, Health, and Eudaimonistic Psychology.
    This unpublished paper from 2004 argues that the agenda for positive psychology laid out by Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman in their massive work Character Strengths and Virtues: a Handbook and Classification (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004) might be improved by making several conceptual changes: 1) by developing general concepts of virtue (singular), and of positive health to clarify the relationships between specific virtues and competing conceptions of positive health; 2) by aligning the project more firmly with eudaimonistic accounts (...)
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  19. Macalester Bell (2006). Review of Lisa Tessman, Burdened Virtues: Virtue Ethics for Liberatory Struggles. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (6).
  20. Patricia Benner (1997). A Dialogue Between Virtue Ethics and Care Ethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 18 (1-2).
    A dialogue between virtue and care ethics is formed as a step towards meeting Pellegrino's challenge to create a more comprehensive moral philosophy. It is also a dialogue between nursing and medicine since each practice draws on the Greek Virtue Tradition and the Judeo-Christian Tradition of care differently. In the Greek Virtue Tradition, the point of scrutiny lies in the inner character of the actor, whereas in the Judeo-Christian Tradition the focus is relational, i.e. how virtues are lived out in (...)
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  21. Nicolas Bommarito (2014). Patience and Perspective. Philosophy East and West 64 (2):269-286.
    I offer a Buddhist-inspired account of how patience can count as a moral virtue, arguing that virtuous patience involves having a perspective on the place of our own desires and values among others and a sense of their relative importance.
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  22. Nicolas Bommarito (2013). Modesty as a Virtue of Attention. Philosophical Review 122 (1):93-117.
    The contemporary discussion of modesty has focused on whether or not modest people are accurate about their own good qualities. This essay argues that this way of framing the debate is unhelpful and offers examples to show that neither ignorance nor accuracy about the good qualities related to oneself is necessary for modesty. It then offers an attention-based account, claiming that what is necessary for modesty is to direct one’s attention in certain ways. By analyzing modesty in this way, we (...)
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  23. Richard Bosley (1989). Virtues and Vices East and West. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16 (3-4):387-409.
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  24. Jason Brennan (2007). Modesty Without Illusion. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (1):111–128.
    The common image of the fully virtuous person is of someone with perfect self-command and self-perception, who always makes correct evaluations. However, modesty appears to be areal virtue, and it seems contradictory for someone to believe that she is modest. Accordingly, traditional defenders of phronesis (the view that virtue involves practical wisdom) deny that modesty is a virtue, while defenders of modesty such as Julia Driver deny that phronesis is required for virtue. I offer a new theory of modesty-the two (...)
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  25. Kimberley Brownlee (2012). Conscience and Conviction: The Case for Civil Disobedience. Oxford University Press.
    This book shows that civil disobedience is generally more defensible than private conscientious objection. -/- Part I explores the morality of conviction and conscience. Each of these concepts informs a distinct argument for civil disobedience. The conviction argument begins with the communicative principle of conscientiousness. According to this principle, having a conscientious moral conviction means not just acting consistently with our beliefs and judging ourselves and others by a common moral standard. It also means not seeking to evade the consequences (...)
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  26. T. Ryan Byerly (2013). Wisdom and Appropriate Risk-Taking. Philosophy and Theology 25 (1):109-127.
    In this paper, I argue for an account of wisdom according to which wisdom is a disposition to take appropriate risks. I show why this account should be attractive generally, and also why it should be especially attractive for someone from within the Christian Aristotelian tradition. Finally, I show why the account has certain advantages over an account of wisdom from within the Christian Platonist tradition defended recently by C. Stephen Evans.
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  27. Philip Cafaro (2001). Dirty Virtues: Emergence of Ecological Virtue Ethics. Environmental Ethics 23 (2):211-214.
  28. Philip Cafaro (2001). Thoreau, Leopold, and Carson: Toward an Environmental Virtue Ethics. Environmental Ethics 23 (1):3-17.
    I argue for an environmental virtue ethics which specifies human excellence and flourishing in relation to nature. I consider Henry David Thoreau, Aldo Leopold, and Rachel Carson as environmental virtue ethicists, and show that these writers share certain ethical positions that any environmental virtue ethics worthy of the name must embrace. These positions include putting economic life in its proper,subordinate place within human life as a whole; cultivating scientific knowledge, while appreciating its limits; extending moral considerability to the nonhuman world; (...)
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  29. Philip Cafaro & Ronald L. Sandler (eds.) (2004). Environmental Virtue Ethics. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
  30. Randy Cagle (2005). Becoming a Virtuous Agent: Kant and the Cultivation of Feelings and Emotions. Kant-Studien 96 (4):452-467.
  31. A. V. Campbell (2003). The Virtues (and Vices) of the Four Principles. Journal of Medical Ethics 29 (5):292-296.
    Despite tendencies to compete for a prime place in moral theory, neither virtue ethics nor the four principles approach should claim to be superior to, or logically prior to, the other. Together they provide a more adequate account of the moral life than either can offer on its own. The virtues of principlism are clarity, simplicity and (to some extent) universality. These are well illustrated by Ranaan Gillon’s masterly analysis of the cases he has provided. But the vices of this (...)
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  32. Vanessa Carbonell (2009). What Moral Saints Look Like. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (3):pp. 371-398.
    Susan Wolf famously claimed that the life of the moral saint is unattractive from the “point of view of individual perfection.” I argue, however, that the unattractive moral saints in Wolf’s account are self-defeating on two levels, are motivated in the wrong way, and are called into question by real-life counter-examples. By appealing to a real-life case study, I argue that the best life from the moral point of view is not necessarily unattractive from the individual point of view.
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  33. David Carr (2007). Review of Rebecca L. Walker, Philip J. Ivanhoe (Eds.), Working Virtue: Virtue Ethics and Contemporary Moral Problems. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (10).
  34. David Carr (2003). Character and Moral Choice in the Cultivation of Virtue. Philosophy 78 (2):219-232.
    It is central to virtue ethics both that morally sound action follows from virtuous character, and that virtuous character is itself the product of habitual right judgement and choice: that, in short, we choose our moral characters. However, any such view may appear to encounter difficulty in those cases of moral conflict where an agent cannot simultaneously act (say) both honestly and sympathetically, and in which the choices of agents seem to favour the construction of different moral characters. This paper (...)
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  35. Richard Yetter Chappell (2014). The Limits of Kindness. By Caspar Hare. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 201403.
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  36. Richard Yetter Chappell & Helen Yetter-Chappell, Virtue and Salience.
    This paper explores two ways that evaluations of an agent’s character as virtuous or vicious are properly influenced by what the agent finds salient or attention-grabbing. First, we argue that ignoring salient needs reveals a greater deficit of benevolent motivation in the agent, and hence renders them more blameworthy. We use this fact to help explain our ordinary intuition that failing to give to famine relief (for example) is in some sense less bad than failing to help a drowning child (...)
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  37. Lai Chen (2010). Virtue Ethics and Confucian Ethics. Dao: A Journal of Comparative Philosophy 9 (3):275-287.
    This essay focuses on the unity of several virtues in pre-Qin Confucians. Confucius maintains the proper application and coherence of such virtues as benevolence, wisdom, trustworthiness, straightforwardness, courage, and firmness. Further, Confucius takes benevolence and nobility as characteristic of human being. Particular attention is paid to the distinction and relationship between virtuous characters and virtuous actions.
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  38. Shaoming Chen (2008). Endurance and Non-Endurance: From the Perspective of Virtue Ethics. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 3 (3):335-351.
    By analysing the two relevant psychological phenomena of “endurance” and “non-endurance,” this essay aims to reveal the ethical implications of a Confucian approach, namely regarding non-endurance as an impulse of primary virtue. Based on this case study, the author then explores the significance of moral cultivation or psychological training in establishing moral personality and the complexities of such a process. Meanwhile, “love” in Confucian ethics means sympathy for the inferior rather than affection for the revered. Hopefully, this study may deepen (...)
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  39. W. Scott Cleveland (forthcoming). The Distinctiveness of Intellectual Virtues: A Response to Roberts and Wood. Proceedings of the American Catholic Philosophical Association.
  40. Christopher Miles Coope (2006). Modern Virtue Ethics. In T. D. J. Chappell (ed.), Values and Virtues: Aristotelianism in Contemporary Ethics. Oxford University Press.
  41. Roger Crisp & Michael A. Slote (eds.) (1997). Virtue Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    This volume brings together much of the most influential work undertaken in the field of virtue ethics over the last four decades. The ethics of virtue predominated in the ancient world, and recent moral philosophy has seen a revival of interest in virtue ethics as a rival to Kantian and utilitarian approaches to morality. Divided into four sections, the collection includes articles critical of other traditions; early attempts to offer a positive vision of virtue ethics; some later criticisms of the (...)
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  42. Paul Crittenden (2002). On Virtue Ethics. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (1):114 – 116.
    Book Information On Virtue Ethics. On Virtue Ethics Rosalind Hursthouse Oxford Oxford University Press 1999 ix + 275 Hardback 25 By Rosalind Hursthouse. Oxford University Press. Oxford. Pp. ix + 275. Hardback: 25.
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  43. Stanley B. Cunningham (1982). Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy Philippa Foot Oxford: Blackwell; Berkeley and Los Angeles, University of California Press, 1978. Pp. Xiv, 207Virtues and Vices James D. Wallace Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1978. Pp. 170. [REVIEW] Dialogue 21 (01):133-137.
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  44. Christine Daigle (2003). Character, Virtue Theories, and the Vices Christine McKinnon Peterborough, ON, Broadview Press, 1999, Viii, 261 P. Dialogue 42 (01):196-.
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  45. Stephen Darwall (1998). Under Moore's Spell. Utilitas 10 (03):286-.
    As David Wiggins points out, although Ross is best known for opposing Moore's consequentialism, Ross comes very close to capitulation to Moore when he accepts, as required by beneficence, a prima facie duty to maximize the good. I argue that what lies behind this is Ross's acceptance of Moore's doctrine of agent-neutral intrinsic value, a notion that is not required by, but is indeed is in tension with, beneficence as doing good to or for others.
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  46. Stephen L. Darwall (ed.) (2003). Virtue Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell.
    "Virtue Ethics" is a major approach to normative ethical theory that takes the consideration of character as fundamental to ethical reflection.
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  47. Richard Davis, The Ins and Outs of Virtue and Vice.
    According to the nineteenth century English philosopher John Stuart Mill, all human beings desire to live lives pregnant with happiness; we all long to be the recipients of liberal amounts of varied, high quality pleasures with pain making as brief an appearance in our conscious experience as possible. Happiness is the one and only thing we desire for its own sake; everything else is desirable simply as a means to securing happiness. Perhaps this is so. Mill, however, went on to (...)
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  48. Dan Demetriou, Honor for Intro.
    I wrote the first draft of this Freshman-level introduction to honor ethics in May of 2014 (so please look for updates if you use it). This piece is written somewhat in the style of Russ Shafer-Landau’s Fundamentals of Ethics, which I use as a textbook. Like many contemporary introductory ethics texts, this essay focuses on ideas, principles, and intuitions and ignores scholarly figures and intellectual history. Readers should note this is an “opinionated” introduction, as it reflects the agonistic conception of (...)
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  49. Lara Denis (2006). Kant's Conception of Virtue. In Paul Guyer (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Kant and Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    In this paper, I explicate Kant’s theory of virtue and situate it within the context of theories of virtue before Kant (such as Aristotle, Hobbes, and Hume) and after Kant (such as Schiller and Schopenhauer). I explore Kant’s notions of virtue as a disposition to do one’s duty out of respect for the moral law, as moral strength in non-holy wills, as the moral disposition in conflict, and as moral self-constraint based on inner freedom. I distinguish between Kant’s notions of (...)
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  50. Lara Denis (2006). Sex and the Virtuous Kantian Agent. In Raja Halwani (ed.), Sex and Ethics: Essays in Sexuality, Virtue, and the Good Life. Palgrave Macmillan.
    This paper explores how a virtuous Kantian agent would regard and express her sexuality. I argue both that Kant has a rich account of virtue, and that a virtuous Kantian agent should view her sexuality as a good thing–as an important aspect of her animal nature. On my view, the virtuous agent does not seek to suppress her sexuality, but rather to find modes and contexts for its expression that allow the agent to maintain her self-respect and to avoid degrading (...)
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