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Siblings:History/traditions: Virtues and Vices
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  1. Elisa Aaltola (2007). The Moral Value of Animals. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 3:219-225.
    Altruism has often been thought to be the reason we treat animals with a certain moral respect. Animals are not moral agents who could reciprocally honour our well being, and because of this duties toward them are considered to be based on other-directed motivations. Altruism is a vague notion, and in the context of animals can be divided into at least three different alternatives. The first one equates altruism with benevolence or "kindness"; the second one argues altruism is based on (...)
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  2. Ruth Abbey (1999). The Roots of Ressentiment. New Nietzsche Studies 3 (3-4):47-61.
    Despite its centrality for an understanding of Nietzsche's thought, the term ressentiment does not appear in his writings before Beyond Good and Evil. This article argues that the roots of the idea of ressentiment appear in his middle period writings when he discusses vanity [die Eitelkeit].
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  3. Andrew Aberdein (forthcoming). The Vices of Argument. Topoi.
    What should a virtue theory of argumentation say about fallacious reasoning? If good arguments are virtuous, then fallacies are vicious. Yet fallacies cannot just be identified with vices, since vices are dispositional properties of agents whereas fallacies are types of argument. Rather, if the normativity of good argumentation is explicable in terms of virtues, we should expect the wrongness of bad argumentation to be explicable in terms of vices. This approach is defended through analysis of several fallacies, with particular emphasis (...)
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  4. Andrew Aberdein & Daniel H. Cohen (2016). Introduction: Virtues and Arguments. Topoi 35 (2):339-343.
    It has been a decade since the phrase virtue argumentation was introduced, and while it would be an exaggeration to say that it burst onto the scene, it would be just as much of an understatement to say that it has gone unnoticed. Trying to strike the virtuous mean between the extremes of hyperbole and litotes, then, we can fairly characterize it as a way of thinking about arguments and argumentation that has steadily attracted more and more attention from argumentation (...)
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  5. Maria Magoula Adamos (2011). Is Forgiveness a Good Thing? Forgiveness: Promise, Possibility and Failure.
    While most scholars focus on the advantages of forgiveness, the negative effects of hasty forgiveness have been largely neglected in the literature. In this essay I shall argue that in certain contexts granting forgiveness to a wrongdoer could be morally questionable, and sometimes it could even be morally wrong. Following Aristotle’s view of emotion, and, in particular, his notion of virtuous anger, I shall claim that appropriate, righteous anger is instrumental for justice, and, as a result, inappropriate, or imprudent forgiveness (...)
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  6. Robert Merrihew Adams (2006). A Theory of Virtue: Excellence in Being for the Good. Clarendon Press.
    The distinguished philosopher Robert M. Adams presents a major work on virtue, which is once again a central topic in ethical thought. A Theory of Virtue is a systematic, comprehensive framework for thinking about the moral evaluation of character, proposing that virtue is chiefly a matter of being for what is good, and that virtues must be intrinsically excellent and not just beneficial or useful.
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  7. Mark Alfano (forthcoming). Moral Thinking, More and Less Quickly. Journal of Moral Education.
    Cushman, Young, & Greene (2010) urge the consolidation of moral psychology around a dual-system consensus. On this view, a slow, often-overstretched rational system tends to produce consequentialist intuitions and action-tendencies, while a fast, affective system produces virtuous (or vicious) intuitions and action-tendencies that perform well in their habituated ecological niche but sometimes disastrously outside of it. This perspective suggests a habit-corrected-by-reason picture of moral behavior. Recent research, however, has raised questions about the adequacy of dual-process theories of cognition and behavior, (...)
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  8. Mark Alfano, Andrew Higgins, Jacob Levernier & Veronica Alfano (forthcoming). Visualizing Values. In David Rheams, Tai Neilson & Lewis Levenberg (eds.), Handbook of Methods in the Digital Humanities. Rowman & Littlefield
    Digital humanities research has developed haphazardly, with substantive contributions in some disciplines and only superficial uses in others. It has made almost no inroads in philosophy; for example, of the nearly two million articles, chapters, and books housed at philpapers.org, only sixteen pop up when one searches for ‘digital humanities’. In order to make progress in this field, we demonstrate that a hypothesis-driven method, applied by experts in data-collection, -aggregation, -analysis, and -visualization, yields philosophical fruits. “Call no one happy until (...)
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  9. Mark Alfano & Brian Robinson (forthcoming). Gossip as a Burdened Virtue. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice.
    Gossip is often serious business, not idle chitchat. Gossip allows those oppressed to privately name their oppressors as a warning to others. Of course, gossip can be in error. The speaker may be lying or merely have lacked sufficient evidence. Bias can also make those who hear the gossip more or less likely to believe the gossip. By examining the social functions of gossip and considering the differences in power dynamics in which gossip can occur, we contend that gossip may (...)
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  10. Mark Alfano & Gus Skorburg (forthcoming). The Embedded and Extended Character Hypotheses. In Julian Kiverstein (ed.), Philosophy of the Social Mind. Routledge
    This paper brings together two erstwhile distinct strands of philosophical inquiry: the extended mind hypothesis and the situationist challenge to virtue theory. According to proponents of the extended mind hypothesis, the vehicles of at least some mental states (beliefs, desires, emotions) are not located solely within the confines of the nervous system (central or peripheral) or even the skin of the agent whose states they are. When external props, tools, and other systems are suitably integrated into the functional apparatus of (...)
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  11. R. T. Allen (1989). When Loyalty No Harm Meant. Review of Metaphysics 43 (2):281 - 294.
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  12. Fritz Allhoff (2009). What Is Modesty? International Journal of Applied Philosophy 23 (2):165-187.
    This paper examines the virtue of modesty and provides an account of what it means to be modest. A good account should not only delimit the proper application of the concept, but should also capture why it is that we think that modesty is a virtue. Recent work has yielded several interesting, but flawed, accounts of modesty. Julia Driver has argued that it consists in underestimating one’s self-worth, while Owen Flanagan has argued that modesty must entail an accurate—as opposed to (...)
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  13. Sharon Anderson-Gold (2011). Privacy, Respect and the Virtues of Reticence in Kant. Kantian Review 15 (2):28-42.
    At a time when the public is increasingly exposed to public scandals, moral defences of privacy are hard to come by. Privacy, it is argued, is merely a cloak for deception and vice. Since the virtuous have nothing to hide, full disclosure of ourselves to others must be a moral obligation. Given the rigour with which Kant defends the prohibition on lying, many have inferred that Kantian ethics must be equally strict on the necessity of truth telling. Do we in (...)
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  14. Judith Andre (2008). Burdened Virtues Virtue Ethics for Liberatory Struggles (Review). Hypatia 23 (2):pp. 193-196.
  15. Audrey L. Anton (2006). Breaking the Habit. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 13 (2):58-66.
    Aristotle’s virtue ethics can teach us about the relationship between our habits and our actions. Throughout his works, Aristotle explains much about how one may develop a virtuous character, and little about how one might change from one character type to another. In recent years criminal law has been concerned with the issue of recidivism and how our system might reform the criminals we return to society more effectively. This paper considers how Aristotle might say a vicious person could change (...)
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  16. Aristotle, Virtues and Vices.
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  17. Aristotle, Virtues and Vices (Greek and English).
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  18. H. Aristotle & Rackham (1935). The Athenian Constitution ; the Eudemian Ethics ; on Virtues and Vices. Harvard University Press W. Heinemann, Ltd.
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  19. Nomy Arpaly (2014). Duty, Desire and the Good Person: Towards a Non‐Aristotelian Account of Virtue. Philosophical Perspectives 28 (1):59-74.
    This paper presents an account of the virtuous person, which I take to be the same as the good person. I argue that goodness in a person is based on her desires. Contra Aristotelians, I argue that one does not need wisdom to be good. There can be a perfectly good person with mental retardation or autism. Contra Kantians, I argue that the sense of duty - which does exist! - is compatible with a desire-based moral psychology.
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  20. Nafsika Athanassoulis (2004). Virtue Ethics. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  21. E. M. Atkins & Thomas Williams (eds.) (2005). Thomas Aquinas: Disputed Questions on the Virtues. Cambridge University Press.
    The great medieval philosopher Thomas Aquinas was Dominican regent master in theology at the University of Paris, where he presided over a series of questions - academic debates - on ethical topics. This volume offers translations of disputed questions on the nature of virtues in general, the fundamental or 'cardinal' virtues of practical wisdom, justice, courage, and temperateness, the divinely bestowed virtues of hope and charity, and the practical question of how, when and why one should rebuke a 'brother' for (...)
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  22. Robert Audi (2011). Faith, Faithfulness, and Virtue. Faith and Philosophy 28 (3):294-309.
    The concept of faith is central in the philosophy of religion, and the concept of virtue is central in ethics. Both can be clarified by exploring their relationshipswith each other and their connection with conduct, reasons for action, and the good. One important question is whether faith is a virtue. Answering this requires at least a partial account of what constitutes faith and of what makes a characteristic a virtue. The answer also depends on whether we are speaking of religious (...)
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  23. Robert Audi & Patrick E. Murphy (2006). The Many Faces of Integrity. Business Ethics Quarterly 16 (1):3-21.
    Integrity is a central topic in business ethics, and in the world of business it is quite possibly the most commonly cited morally desirable trait. But integrity is conceived in widely differing ways, and as often as it is discussed in the literature and given a central place in corporate ethics statements, the notion is used so variously that its value in guiding everyday conduct may be more limited than is generally supposed. Two central questions for this paper are what (...)
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  24. Antony Aumann (2013). Self-Love and Neighbor-Love in Kierkegaard's Ethics. Kierkegaard Studies Yearbook 2013 (1):197–216.
    Kierkegaard faces an apparent dilemma. On the one hand, he concurs with the biblical injunction: we are to love our neighbors as ourselves. He takes this to imply that self-love and neighbor-love should be roughly symmetrical, similar in kind as well as degree. On the other hand, he recommends relating to others and to ourselves in disparate ways. We should be lenient, charitable, and forgiving when interacting with neighbors; the opposite when dealing with ourselves. The goal of my paper is (...)
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  25. Guy Axtell & Philip Olson (2012). Recent Work in Applied Virtue Ethics. American Philosophical Quarterly 49 (3):183-204.
    The use of the term "applied ethics" to denote a particular field of moral inquiry (distinct from but related to both normative ethics and meta-ethics) is a relatively new phenomenon. The individuation of applied ethics as a special division of moral investigation gathered momentum in the 1970s and 1980s, largely as a response to early twentieth- century moral philosophy's overwhelming concentration on moral semantics and its apparent inattention to practical moral problems that arose in the wake of significant social and (...)
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  26. Neera K. Badhwar (1996). The Limited Unity of Virtue. Noûs 30 (3):306-329.
  27. Alexander Bain (1861). On the Study of Character; Including an Estimate of Phrenology. Parker, Son and Bourn; Adamant Media.
  28. Sherry Baker (2008). The Model of the Principled Advocate and the Pathological Partisan: A Virtue Ethics Construct of Opposing Archetypes of Public Relations and Advertising Practitioners. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 23 (3):235 – 253.
    Drawing upon contemporary virtue ethics theory, The Model of The Principled Advocate and The Pathological Partisan is introduced. Profiles are developed of diametrically opposed archetypes of public relations and advertising practitioners. The Principled Advocate represents the advocacy virtues of humility, truth, transparency, respect, care, authenticity, equity, and social responsibility. The Pathological Partisan represents the opposing vices of arrogance, deceit, secrecy, manipulation, disregard, artifice, injustice, and raw self-interest. One becomes either a Principled Advocate or a Pathological Partisan by habitually enacting or (...)
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  29. John D. Baldari (2012). Examining Loyalty: The Folk & The Philosopher. Dissertation, University of Nevada, Reno
    Loyalty has been charged with being an outdated, conservative virtue. I argue that loyalty as a virtue is not only allowable, but important to the way we view the world. Furthermore, to define any virtue without first bracketing the virtue within common understanding, is to redefine the language of the virtue and render the conversation a failure.
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  30. Y. Michael Barilan (forthcoming). Hope and Friendship: Being and Having. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (3):191-195.
    In its first part, the paper explores the challenge of conceptualizing the Thomist theological virtue of hope in Aristotelian terms that are compatible with non-Thomist and even atheist metaphysics as well. I argue that the key concept in this endeavor is friendship—as an Aristotelian virtue, as relational value in Thomist theology, as a recognized value in supportive care and as a kind of ‘personal hope.’ Then, the paper proceeds to examine the possible differences between hope as a virtue and hope (...)
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  31. Y. Michael Barilan (forthcoming). From Hope in Palliative Care to Hope as a Virtue and a Life Skill. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 19 (3):165-181.
    For centuries, it has been held that communication of an ominous prognosis has the power to kill patients and that the cultivation of hope, even when deceitful, may expedite recovery (Faden, Beauchamp, and King 1986, 63). Today, truth is considered a higher value than the pleasantness of no-worry. Research shows that patients want to be told the truth and that informed patients do not die prematurely; rather, they fare better psychologically than those kept behind a veil of silence. We also (...)
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  32. Brian Barry (2010). David Hume as a Social Theorist. Utilitas 22 (4):369-392.
    This article examines Russell Hardin's interpretation of Hume's argument that great social order depends on coordination convention. The main argument shows that despite an apparent move in that direction Hume's main argument is that justice and the other convention-based virtues rest on a cooperative convention which solves a prisoner's dilemma problem and that states are required when a society exceeds some small size because only states can solve the large number prisoner's dilemma problems that constitute the 'problem of social order'. (...)
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  33. Heather Battaly (2010). Introduction: Virtue and Vice. Metaphilosophy 41 (1):1-21.
    Abstract: This introduction to the collection Virtue and Vice, Moral and Epistemic addresses three main questions: (1) What is a virtue theory in ethics or epistemology? (2) What is a virtue? and (3) What is a vice? (1) It suggests that a virtue theory takes the virtues and vices of agents to be more fundamental than evaluations of acts or beliefs, and defines right acts or justified beliefs in terms of the virtues. (2) It argues that there are two important (...)
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  34. Per Bauhn (2007). Two Concepts of Courage. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 1:65-68.
    In this paper I intend to present two concepts of courage, with the purpose of introducing two different ways in which the classical virtue of courage may serve goals of personal achievement and goals of collective flourishing respectively. The two forms of courage that I will distinguish are the courage of creativity and the courage of conviction, respectively. The courage of creativity is the ability to confront the fear of failure, this ability being directed by the agent's will to achieve, (...)
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  35. Elias Baumgarten (2001). Curiosity as a Moral Virtue. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 15 (2):169-184.
    I argue that curiosity about the world deserves attention as a moral virtue, even apart from the role it may play in (the more generally praised) love of wisdom. First, close relationships and caring are reasonably considered part of a well-lived life, and curiosity is important for caring both about people and about things in the world. Second, curiosity helps us to define an appropriate way for persons to be affected by certain situations. Perhaps most important, curiosity can help one (...)
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  36. Lawrence C. Becker, Virtue, Health, and Eudaimonistic Psychology.
    This unpublished paper from 2004 argues that the agenda for positive psychology laid out by Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman in their massive work Character Strengths and Virtues: a Handbook and Classification (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004) might be improved by making several conceptual changes: 1) by developing general concepts of virtue (singular), and of positive health to clarify the relationships between specific virtues and competing conceptions of positive health; 2) by aligning the project more firmly with eudaimonistic accounts (...)
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  37. Rodger Beehler (1983). Virtues and Vices and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 13 (2):255-276.
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  38. Macalester Bell (2006). Review of Lisa Tessman, Burdened Virtues: Virtue Ethics for Liberatory Struggles. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2006 (6).
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  39. Jeremy Bendik-Keymer (2010). Species Extinction and the Vice of Thoughtlessness: The Importance of Spiritual Exercises for Learning Virtue. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 23 (1-2):61-83.
    In this paper, I present a sample spiritual exercise—a contemporary form of the written practice that ancient philosophers used to shape their characters. The exercise, which develops the ancient practice of the examination of conscience, is on the sixth mass extinction and seeks to understand why the extinction appears as a moral wrong. It concludes by finding a vice in the moral character of the author and the author’s society. From a methodological standpoint, the purpose of spiritual exercises is to (...)
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  40. Patricia Benner (1997). A Dialogue Between Virtue Ethics and Care Ethics. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 18 (1-2).
    A dialogue between virtue and care ethics is formed as a step towards meeting Pellegrino's challenge to create a more comprehensive moral philosophy. It is also a dialogue between nursing and medicine since each practice draws on the Greek Virtue Tradition and the Judeo-Christian Tradition of care differently. In the Greek Virtue Tradition, the point of scrutiny lies in the inner character of the actor, whereas in the Judeo-Christian Tradition the focus is relational, i.e. how virtues are lived out in (...)
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  41. Sandrine Berges (2009). Plato on Virtue and the Law. Continuum.
    This important monograph examines Plato's contribution to virtue ethics and shows how his dialogues contain interesting and plausible insights into current philosophical concerns.
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  42. Andrew Blom (2016). Grotius and Aristotle: The Justice of Taking Too Little. History of Political Thought 36 (1):84-112.
    The theory of justice that Hugo Grotius developed in De Jure Belli ac Pacis (The Law of War and Peace, 1625) set itself against a certain reading of Aristotle, according to which justice is conceived of as a mean between taking too much and taking too little. I argue that we can best understand the implications of Grotius' mature conception by considering the ends to which he had deployed this Aristotelian notion in his earlier work. Grotius came to perceive that (...)
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  43. Nicolas Bommarito (2016). Private Solidarity. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 19 (2):445-455.
    It’s natural to think of acts of solidarity as being public acts that aim at good outcomes, particularly at social change. I argue that not all acts of solidarity fit this mold - acts of what I call ‘private solidarity’ are not public and do not aim at producing social change. After describing paradigmatic cases of private solidarity, I defend an account of why such acts are themselves morally virtuous and what role they can have in moral development.
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  44. Nicolas Bommarito (2014). Patience and Perspective. Philosophy East and West 64 (2):269-286.
    I offer a Buddhist-inspired account of how patience can count as a moral virtue, arguing that virtuous patience involves having a perspective on the place of our own desires and values among others and a sense of their relative importance.
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  45. Nicolas Bommarito (2013). Modesty as a Virtue of Attention. Philosophical Review 122 (1):93-117.
    The contemporary discussion of modesty has focused on whether or not modest people are accurate about their own good qualities. This essay argues that this way of framing the debate is unhelpful and offers examples to show that neither ignorance nor accuracy about the good qualities related to oneself is necessary for modesty. It then offers an attention-based account, claiming that what is necessary for modesty is to direct one’s attention in certain ways. By analyzing modesty in this way, we (...)
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  46. Richard Bosley (1989). Virtues and Vices East and West. Journal of Chinese Philosophy 16 (3-4):387-409.
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  47. Jason Brennan (2007). Modesty Without Illusion. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (1):111–128.
    The common image of the fully virtuous person is of someone with perfect self-command and self-perception, who always makes correct evaluations. However, modesty appears to be areal virtue, and it seems contradictory for someone to believe that she is modest. Accordingly, traditional defenders of phronesis (the view that virtue involves practical wisdom) deny that modesty is a virtue, while defenders of modesty such as Julia Driver deny that phronesis is required for virtue. I offer a new theory of modesty-the two (...)
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  48. Jason Brennan (2007). Modesty Without Illusion. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (3):111-128.
    The common image of the fully virtuous person is of someone with perfect self- command and self-perception, who always makes correct evaluations. However, modesty appears to be a real virtue, and it seems contradictory for someone to believe that she is modest. Accordingly, traditional defenders of phronesis (the view that virtue involves practical wisdom) deny that modesty is a virtue, while defenders of modesty such as Julia Driver deny that phronesis is required for vir- tue. I offer a new theory (...)
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  49. Warren S. Brown & Kevin S. Reimer (2013). Embodied Cognition, Character Formation, and Virtue. Zygon 48 (3):832-845.
    The theory of embodied cognition makes the claim that our cognitive processes are, at their core, sensorimotor, situated, and action-relevant. Our mental system is built primarily to control action, and so mind is formed by the nature of the body and its interactions with the world. In this paper we will explore the nature of virtue and its formation from the perspective of embodied cognition. We specifically describe exemplars of the virtue of compassion (caregivers of individuals with developmental disabilities in (...)
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  50. Kimberley Brownlee (2012). Conscience and Conviction: The Case for Civil Disobedience. Oxford University Press.
    This book shows that civil disobedience is generally more defensible than private conscientious objection. -/- Part I explores the morality of conviction and conscience. Each of these concepts informs a distinct argument for civil disobedience. The conviction argument begins with the communicative principle of conscientiousness. According to this principle, having a conscientious moral conviction means not just acting consistently with our beliefs and judging ourselves and others by a common moral standard. It also means not seeking to evade the consequences (...)
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