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Vision

Edited by Casey O'Callaghan (Washington University in St. Louis)
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  1. Emmanuel Alloa (2007). The Madness of Sight. In Karin Leonhard & Silke Horstkotte (eds.), Seeing Perception. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: 40-59
    Viewing Vermeer with Merleau-Ponty's eyes.
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  2. Joseph Anderson & Barbara Anderson (1993). The Myth of Persistence of Vision Revisited. Journal of Film and Video 45:3--12.
  3. R. B. Angell (1974). The Geometry of Visibles. Noûs 8 (2):87-117.
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  4. Enrique Aramendia Muneta (2013). La visión en Marr y Berkeley. El problema de perderse el principio de la película. Daimon: Revista de Filosofia 59:125-144.
    Se comparan las teorías de Marr y Berkeley sobre la visión a partir de las cualidades de Descartes. La descripción de tres niveles de Marr, donde la conciencia está ausente, contrasta con el nivel único de Berkeley construido sobre la conciencia y la experiencia carece de importancia en los momentos esquemáticos y cobra protagonismo en el último paso del proceso de la visión de Marr mediante la noción de marcación. Bajo la premisa de que las descripciones puramente sincrónicas han de (...)
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  5. István Aranyosi, Through a Shadow, Darkly.
    The dictionary tells you that a shadow is a dark area or volume caused by an opaque object blocking some light. The definition is correct, but we need to clarify a couple of its elements: darkness and blocking. The clarification leads to the view that to see a shadow is a degree of failing to see a surface. I will also argue that seeing a silhouette (i.e. a backlit object) is a particular way of failing to see an object. Thus (...)
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  6. Jussi Backman (2015). Towards a Genealogy of the Metaphysics of Sight: Seeing, Hearing, and Thinking in Heraclitus and Parmenides. In Antonio Cimino & Pavlos Kontos (eds.), Phenomenology and the Metaphysics of Sight. Brill 11-34.
    The paper outlines a tentative genealogy of the Platonic metaphysics of sight by thematizing pre-Platonic thought, particularly Heraclitus and Parmenides. By “metaphysics of sight” it understands the features of Platonic-Aristotelian metaphysics expressed with the help of visual metaphors. It is argued that the Platonic metaphysics of sight can be regarded as the result of a synthesis of the Heraclitean and Parmenidean approaches. In pre-Platonic thought, the visual paradigm is still marginal. For Heraclitus, the basic structure of being is its discursive (...)
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  7. Douglas Baynton, Jack R. Gannon & Jean Lindquist Bergey (2007). Through Deaf Eyes: A Photographic History of an American Community. Gallaudet University Press.
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  8. David J. Bennett (2011). How the World Is Measured Up in Size Experience. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 83 (2):345-365.
    I develop a Russellian representationalist account of size experience that draws importantly from contemporary vision science research on size perception. The core view is that size is experienced in ‘body-scaled’ units. So, an object might, say, be experienced as two eye-level units high. The view is sharpened in response to Thompson’s (forthcoming) Doubled Earth example. This example is presented by Thompson as part of an argument for a Fregean view of size experience. But I argue that the Russellian view I (...)
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  9. Suzannah Biernoff (2002). Sight and Embodiment in the Middle Ages. Palgrave Macmillan.
    Sight and Embodiment in the Middle Ages breaks new ground by bringing postmodern writings on vision and embodiment into dialogue with medieval texts and images: an interdisciplinary strategy that illuminates and complicates both cultures. This is an invaluable reference work for anyone interested in the history and theory of visuality, and it is essential reading or scholars of art, science, or spirituality in the medieval period.
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  10. David Blinder (1986). A New Look at Vision. Topoi 5 (September):137-148.
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  11. Robert Briscoe (forthcoming). Bodily Action and Distal Attribution in Sensory Substitution. In Fiona Macpherson (ed.), Sensory Substitution and Augmentation. Proceedings of the British Academy
    According to proponents of the sensorimotor contingency theory of perception (Hurley & Noë 2003, Noë 2004, O’Regan 2011), active control of camera movement is necessary for the emergence of distal attribution in tactile-visual sensory substitution (TVSS) because it enables the subject to acquire knowledge of the way stimulation in the substituting modality varies as a function of self-initiated, bodily action. This chapter, by contrast, approaches distal attribution as a solution to a causal inference problem faced by the subject’s perceptual systems. (...)
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  12. Robert Briscoe (forthcoming). Depiction, Pictorial Experience, and Vision Science. Philosophical Topics 44 (2).
    Pictures are 2D surfaces designed to elicit 3D-scene-representing experiences from their viewers. In this essay, I argue that philosophers have tended to underestimate the relevance of research in vision science to understanding the nature of pictorial experience. Both the deeply entrenched methodology of virtual psychophysics as well as empirical studies of pictorial space perception provide compelling support for the view that pictorial experience and seeing face-to-face are experiences of the same psychological, explanatory kind. I also show that an empirically informed (...)
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  13. Robert Briscoe (2010). Perceiving the Present: Systematization of Illusions or Illusion of Systematization? Cognitive Science 34 (8):1530-1542.
    Mark Changizi et al. (2008) claim that it is possible systematically to organize more than 50 kinds of illusions in a 7 × 4 matrix of 28 classes. This systematization, they further maintain, can be explained by the operation of a single visual processing latency correction mechanism that they call “perceiving the present” (PTP). This brief report raises some concerns about the way a number of illusions are classified by the proposed systematization. It also poses two general problems—one empirical and (...)
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  14. Robert Briscoe (2009). Egocentric Spatial Representation in Action and Perception. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (2):423-460.
    Neuropsychological findings used to motivate the "two visual systems" hypothesis have been taken to endanger a pair of widely accepted claims about spatial representation in conscious visual experience. The first is the claim that visual experience represents 3-D space around the perceiver using an egocentric frame of reference. The second is the claim that there is a constitutive link between the spatial contents of visual experience and the perceiver's bodily actions. In this paper, I review and assess three main sources (...)
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  15. Robert Briscoe (2008). Vision, Action, and Make‐Perceive. Mind and Language 23 (4):457-497.
    In this paper, I critically assess the enactive account of visual perception recently defended by Alva Noë (2004). I argue inter alia that the enactive account falsely identifies an object’s apparent shape with its 2D perspectival shape; that it mistakenly assimilates visual shape perception and volumetric object recognition; and that it seriously misrepresents the constitutive role of bodily action in visual awareness. I argue further that noticing an object’s perspectival shape involves a hybrid experience combining both perceptual and imaginative elements (...)
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  16. Margaret S. Brown & George M. Stratton (1925). The Spatial Threshold of Touch in Blind and in Seeing Children. Journal of Experimental Psychology 8 (6):434.
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  17. Vicki Bruce & Patrick Green (1985). Visual Perception: Physiology, Psychology, and Ecology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  18. Tyler Burge (1989). Marr's Theory of Vision. In Modularity in Knowledge Representation and Natural-Language Understanding. Cambridge: MIT Press
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  19. F. Thomas Burke (2011). Inverse Gnomonic Projection of Plane Regions. Wolfram Demonstrations Project.
    This demonstration shows inverse gnomonic projections of flat surface areas lying in a horizontal plane tangent to the projection sphere. It shows how optical surface area varies regularly as the distance of the respective surface area from the eye varies, decreasing as the latter increases. According to ecological psychology, this kind of regularity or "invariant" is what sensory systems are designed to detect. Attunement to such invariants in the interactions of eyes and terrains make possible the perception of distance and (...)
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  20. Dan Cavedon-Taylor (2013). Seeing and Retinal Stability: On a Sensorimotor Argument for the Necessity of Eye Movement for Sight. Philosophical Psychology 26 (2):263 - 266.
    Sensorimotor theorists of perception have argued that eye movement is a necessary condition for seeing on the basis that subjects whose retinal images do not move undergo a form of blindness. I show that the argument does not work.
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  21. Paul M. Churchland (1995). Android Epistemology. Cambridge: MIT Press.
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  22. Paul M. Churchland (1995). Machine Stereopsis: A Feedforward Network for Fast Stereo Vision with Movable Fusion Plane. In Android Epistemology. Cambridge: MIT Press
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  23. Austen Clark (1996). Three Varieties of Visual Field. Philosophical Psychology 9 (4):477-95.
    The goal of this paper is to challenge the rather insouciant attitude that many investigators seem to adopt when they go about describing the items and events in their " visual fields". There are at least three distinct categories of interpretation of what these reports might mean, and only under one of those categories do those reports have anything resembling an observational character. The others demand substantive revisions in one's beliefs about what one sees. The ur-concept of a " visual (...)
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  24. Sam Clarke (2016). Investigating What Felt Shapes Look Like. I-Perception 7 (1).
    A recent empirical study claims to show that the answer to Molyneux’s question is negative, but, as John Schwenkler points out, its findings are inconclusive: Subjects tested in this study probably lacked the visual acuity required for a fair assessment of the question. Schwenkler is undeterred. He argues that the study could be improved by lowering the visual demands placed on subjects, a suggestion later endorsed and developed by Kevin Connolly. I suggest that Connolly and Schwenkler both underestimate the difficulties (...)
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  25. Phillip D. Cummins (1987). On the Status of Visuals in Berkeley's 'New Theory of Vision'. In Ernest Sosa (ed.), Essays on the Philosophy of George Berkeley. D. Reidel
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  26. James E. Cutting (2003). Reconceiving Perceptual Space. In Heiko Hecht, Robert Schwartz & Margaret Atherton (eds.), Looking Into Pictures. The MIT Press
  27. John Dilworth (2002). Varieties of Visual Representation. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 32 (2):183-206.
    Pictorial representation is one species of visual representation--but not the only one, I argue. There are three additional varieties or species of visual representation--namely 'structural', 'aspect' and 'integrative' representation--which together comprise a category of 'delineative' rather than depictive visual representation. I arrive at this result via consideration of previously neglected orientational factors that serve to distinguish the two categories. I conclude by arguing that pictures (unlike 'delineations') are not physical objects, and that their multiplicity and modal narrowness motivates a view (...)
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  28. B. A. Farrell (1977). On the Psychological Explanation of Visual Perception. Synthese 35 (3):353 - 379.
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  29. Luis H. Favela (2014). Walking Through Apertures: Assessing Judgments Obtained From Multiple Modalities. Dissertation, University of Cincinnati
    According to Gibson's ecological theory of perception-action, the proper objects of perception are affordances. Affordances are directly perceivable, environmental opportunities for behavior. The current study assessed affordance judgments, and the confidence ratings corresponding to those judgments, of aperture pass-through-ability based on three modes of perceiving. The modes were vision and two blindfolded conditions involving haptic perception via technological aids: A cane and the Enactive Torch (ET). The first hypothesis, that vision would provide judgments of the critical boundary most similar to (...)
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  30. Veronique M. Foti (2003). Vision's Invisibles: Philosophical Explorations. State University of New York Press.
    Examines the construction of vision in the works of Heraclitus, Plato, Descartes, Heidegger, Merleau-Ponty, Foucault, Nancy, and Derrida.
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  31. Bryan Frances (forthcoming). The Ontology of Some Afterimages. In Manuel Curado & Steven Gouvei (eds.), Untitled Philosophy of Mind Book.
    A good portion of the work in the ontology of color focuses on color properties, trying to figure out how they are related to more straightforwardly physical properties. Another focus is realism: are ordinary material objects such as pumpkins really colored? A third emphasis is the nature of what is referred to by the terms ‘what it’s like’ or ‘phenomenal character’, as applied to color. In contrast, this essay is exclusively about select color tokens. I will be arguing that whether (...)
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  32. Bryan Frances (forthcoming). Why Afterimages Are Metaphysically Mysterious. Think.
    A short essay for a popular audience on why afterimages are difficult to fit into any ontology.
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  33. Vadim D. Glezer (1989). Vision and Mind. In Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, VIII. New York: Elsevier Science
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  34. Giovanni B. Grandi (2014). The Extension of Color Sensations: Reid, Stewart, and Fearn. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (Supplement 1):51-79.
    It seems to be a consequence of Reid’s views on sensations that colour sensations are not extended nor are they arranged in figured patterns. Reid further claimed that ‘there is no sensation appropriated to visible figure.’ As I show, Reid tried to justify these controversial claims by appeal to Cheselden’s report of the experiences of a young man affected by severe cataracts, and by appeal to cases of perception of visible figure without colour. While holding fast to the principle that (...)
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  35. Giovanni B. Grandi (2010). Reid and Wells on Single and Double Vision. Journal of Scottish Thought 3:143-163.
    In a recent article on Reid’s theory of single and double vision, James Van Cleve considers an argument against direct realism presented by Hume. Hume argues for the mind-dependent nature of the objects of our perception from the phenomenon of double vision. Reid does not address this particular argument, but Van Cleve considers possible answers Reid might have given to Hume. He finds fault with all these answers. Against Van Cleve, I argue that both appearances in double vision could be (...)
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  36. Dominic Gregory (2015). Visual Content, Expectations, and the Outside World. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 115 (2pt2):109-130.
    Some philosophers—for example, Husserl, Alva Noë and Susanna Siegel—have claimed that the contents of visual sensations standardly include references to the later visual episodes that one would have under certain conditions. The current paper claims that there are no good reasons for accepting that view. Instead, it is argued that the conscious phenomena which have been cited as manifesting the presence within visual contents of references to ways that things would look in the course of later visual sensations are better (...)
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  37. Mirko D. Grmek (1985). Un Débat Scientifique Exemplaire: Mariotte, Pecquet Et Perrault À la Recherche du Siège de la Perception Visuelle. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 7 (2):217 - 255.
    Mariotte's discovery of the blind spot is often quoted, but his contribution to the physiology of vision is generally underestimated. Surprised by the result of his fundamental experiment, Mariotte abandoned his starting hypothesis on the physiological role of the retina and came to the conclusion that the site of vision is the 'choroid'. This was the name not only for the choroid layer in the modern sense but also for the pigmentated part of the retina, where Mariotte localized the seat (...)
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  38. David W. Hamlyn (1957). The Visual Field and Perception, Part I. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 107:107-124.
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  39. Gary Hatfield (2015). Natural Geometry in Descartes and Kepler. Res Philosophica 92 (1):117-148.
    According to Kepler and Descartes, the geometry of the triangle formed by the two eyes when focused on a single point affords perception of the distance to that point. Kepler characterized the processes involved as associative learning. Descartes described the processes as a “ natural geometry.” Many interpreters have Descartes holding that perceivers calculate the distance to the focal point using angle-side-angle, calculations that are reduced to unnoticed mental habits in adult vision. This article offers a purely psychophysiological interpretation of (...)
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  40. Gary Hatfield (2015). On Natural Geometry and Seeing Distance Directly in Descartes. In Vincenzo De Risi (ed.), Mathematizing Space: The Objects of Geometry from Antiquity to the Early Modern Age. Birkhäuser 157-91.
    As the word “optics” was understood from antiquity into and beyond the early modern period, it did not mean simply the physics and geometry of light, but meant the “theory of vision” and included what we should now call physiological and psychological aspects. From antiquity, these aspects were subject to geometrical analysis. Accordingly, the geometry of visual experience has long been an object of investigation. This chapter examines accounts of size and distance perception in antiquity (Euclid and Ptolemy) and the (...)
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  41. Gary Hatfield (2011). Philosophy of Perception and the Phenomenology of Visual Space. Philosophic Exchange 42:31-66.
    In the philosophy of perception, direct realism has come into vogue. Philosophical authors assert and assume that what their readers want, and what anyone should want, is some form of direct realism. There are disagreements over precisely what form this direct realism should take. The majority of positions in favor now offer a direct realism in which objects and their material or physical properties constitute the contents of perception, either because we have an immediate or intuitive acquaintance with those objects (...)
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  42. Gary Hatfield (2011). Good Gestalt: Metzger on Seeing. [REVIEW] Metascience 20 (1):81-85.
    Review of Wolfgang Metzger, Laws of Seeing, trans. Lothar Spillman, Steven Lehar, Mimsey Stromeyer, and Michael Wertheimer. MIT Press, 2006; paperback, 2009. Pp. xxv+203. £18.95 PB. Original German edition published in 1936.
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  43. Gary Hatfield (2009). Perception and Cognition: Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology. OUP Oxford.
    Gary Hatfield draws together his work on the science and philosophy of visual perception and cognition, including spatial perception, colour perception and qualia, object perception, the structure of conscious experience, physiological reduction and the role of neuroscience, the history of theories of vision, and the status of introspective methods.
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  44. Gary C. Hatfield (2009). Perception and Cognition: Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology. Oxford University Press.
    Representation and content in some (actual) theories of perception -- Representation in perception and cognition : task analysis, psychological functions, and rule instantiation -- Perception as unconscious inference -- Representation and constraints : the inverse problem and the structure of visual space -- On perceptual constancy -- Getting objects for free (or not) : the philosophy and psychology of object perception -- Color perception and neural encoding : does metameric matching entail a loss of information? -- Objectivity and subjectivity revisited (...)
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  45. Heiko Hecht, Robert Schwartz & Margaret Atherton (eds.) (2003). Looking Into Pictures. The MIT Press.
    Interdisciplinary explorations of the implications of recent developments in vision theory for our understanding of the nature of pictorial representation and ...
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  46. Christopher S. Hill, Visual Awareness and Visual Qualia.
    Department of Philosophy Brown University Providence, RI 02915.
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  47. Christopher S. Hill (2008). Review of Zenon W. Pylyshyn, Things and Places: How the Mind Connects with the World. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (7).
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  48. Robert Hopkins (2000). Touching Pictures. British Journal of Aesthetics 40 (1):149-167.
    Congenitally blind people can make and understand ‘tactile pictures’ – representations form of raised ridges on flat surfaces. If made visible, these representations can serve as pictures for the sighted. Does it follow that we should take at face value the idea that they are pictures made for touch? I explore this question, and the related issue of the aesthetics of ‘tactile pictures’ by considering the role in both depiction and pictorial aesthetics of experience, and by asking how far the (...)
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  49. Mariann Hudak, Zoltan Jakab & Ilona Kovacs (2013). Phenomenal Qualities and the Development of Perceptual Integration. In Liliana Albertazzi (ed.), The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Experimental Phenomenology; Visual Perception of Shape, Space and Appearance. Wiley-Blackwell
    In this chapter, data concerning the development of principal aspects of vision is reviewed. First, the development of colour vision and luminance perception is discussed. Relevant data accumulated so far indicates that perception of colour and luminance is present by 6-9 months of age. The presence of typical color illusions at this age suggests that the phenomenal character of color experience is comparable to that of adults well before the first birthday. Thus it seems plausible that color perception develops on (...)
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  50. John Hyman (1986). The Cartesian Theory of Vision. Ratio 28 (December):149-167.
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