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  1. Matthew Adler, Justice, Claims and Prioritarianism: Room for Desert?
    Does individual desert matter for distributive justice? Is it relevant, for purposes of justice, that the pattern of distribution of justice’s “currency” (be it well-being, resources, preference-satisfaction, capabilities, or something else) is aligned in one or another way with the pattern of individual desert? -/- This paper examines the nexus between desert and distributive justice through the lens of individual claims. The concept of claims (specifically “claims across outcomes”) is a fruitful way to flesh out the content of distributive justice (...)
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  2. Joseph Agassi, The Theory and Practice of the Welfare State.
    Criticism of the welfare state is mostly economic and administrative, relating to the resultant national debt and state bureaucracy. Budget cuts and privatization may help but not eliminate the difficulty. Yet, the primary concern of the welfare system is neither economic nor administrative; so, the force of this criticism is limited. To restrict the discussion to the defunct free-markets and centralized economies is to distort and to obstruct clear thinking on national priorities. Criticism of any welfare system should not aim (...)
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  3. Kelly H. Ball (2009). Producing Populations: Biopolitics, The Family, and Experiences of Queer Foster Youth. Journal of Family Life.
  4. Zbigniew Bańkowski & John H. Bryant (eds.) (1995). Poverty, Vulnerability, the Value of Human Life, and the Emergence of Bioethics: Highlights and Papers of the Xxviiith Cioms Conference, Ixtapa, Guerrero State, Mexico, 17-20 April 1994. [REVIEW] Cioms.
  5. Zbigniew Bańkowski, John H. Bryant & J. Gallagher (eds.) (1997). Ethics, Equity, and the Renewal of Who's Health-for-All Strategy: Proceedings of the Xxixth Cioms Conference, Geneva, Switzerland 12-14 March 1997. [REVIEW] Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (Cioms).
  6. Sarah Banks (2008). Ethics and Social Welfare: The State of Play. Ethics and Social Welfare 2 (1):1-9.
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  7. Colin Barnes (2007). Direct Payments and Their Future: An Ethical Concern? Ethics and Social Welfare 1 (3):348-354.
    Recent policy developments in the general area of disability have presented a whole range of ethical dilemmas for everyone involved in the development and delivery of services for disabled people at the national and local levels. This is almost certainly due to government acceptance of the principles of independent living and the social model of disability, and greater user involvement and control of support services, in particular ?direct payments?. This paper will centre on the ethical concerns that arise from recent (...)
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  8. Norman P. Barry (1990). The Philosophy of the Welfare State. Critical Review 4 (4):545-568.
    A critical survey of the major philosophical arguments that have been used to justify the institutions and policies of contemporary welfare states considers the claims of rights theory, egalitarianism, and citizenship and communitarian doctrines. It finds that these arguments are both internally confused and inconsistent with conventional welfare policies. It is argued that the welfare state itself has serious ambiguities: it claims to cater for the needy, as part of its ?public good?; obligations, yet in practice it delivers a range (...)
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  9. Lawrence C. Becker (2012). Habilitation, Health, and Agency: A Framework for Basic Justice. Oxford University Press.
    This book argues for adopting a new account of the circumstances of justice ("the habilitation framework") for philosophical theories of basic justice. It proposes a concept of basic health as a metric for such theories, and healthy agency as a target for them. It does not, however, propose a specific distributive rule or set of distributive principles. Nor does it propose a specific type of theory to pursue (e.g., utilitarian, contractarian, etc.). The book is thus meant to be largely theory-independent (...)
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  10. Lawrence C. Becker (1986). Reciprocity. Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    In one form or another, social norms governing reciprocal behavior between individuals exist in all human societies of record. Such norms are institutionalized in social, political, and legal practices; they are internalized as expectations and behavioral dispositions in individuals. But the content of those norms differs widely from society to society, individual to individual. This book gives a normative argument for a particular content for the norms of reciprocity – a particular account of the meaning of making a fitting and (...)
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  11. David T. Beito (1990). Mutual Aid for Social Welfare: The Case of American Fraternal Societies. Critical Review 4 (4):709-736.
    With the possible exception of churches, fraternal societies were the leading providers of social welfare in the United States before the Great Depression. Their membership reached an estimated 50 percent of the adult male population and they were especially strong among immigrants and African Americans. Unlike the adversarial relationships engendered by governmental welfare programs and private charity, fraternal social welfare rested on a foundation of reciprocity between donor and recipient. By the 1920s, fraternal societies and other mutual aid institutions had (...)
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  12. Thomas Bender (1996). Clients or Citizens? Critical Review 10 (1):123-134.
    Abstract John McKnight's The Careless Society tellingly exposes the ways the professionalized welfare state creates dependency. But McKnight is too quick to condemn this result as the product of professional self?interest, and to posit as the alternative a selfless, republican model of community. He overlooks the more realistic possibility that the pursuit of their interests by social groups empowered to take care of themselves would better serve those interests, and would simultaneously create a feeling of interdependence and civic responsibility.
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  13. Brian Berkey (forthcoming). Obligations of Productive Justice: Individual or Institutional? Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy:1-28.
    If it is a requirement of justice that everyone has access to basic goods and services, then justice requires that the work that is necessary to produce the relevant goods and provide the relevant services is performed. Two widely accepted views, however, together rule out requirements of justice to perform such work. These are, roughly, that the state cannot force people to perform it, and that individuals are not obligated to perform it voluntarily. Lucas Stanczyk argues that we should resolve (...)
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  14. Simon Birnbaum (2010). Radical Liberalism, Rawls and the Welfare State: Justifying the Politics of Basic Income. Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy 13 (4):495-516.
  15. Gisela Bock & Pat Thane (1991). Maternity and Gender Policies Women and the Rise of the European Welfare States, 1880-1950s.
  16. Patrick Boleyn‐Fitzgerald (1999). Misfortune, Welfare Reform, and Right‐Wing Egalitarianism. Critical Review 13 (1-2):141-163.
    Abstract A close look at the rhetoric in America's recent welfare?reform debate has both surprising and important implications for political philosophy. Political philosophers typically presume that opponents of redistribution are motivated by considerations other than equality. Recent arguments for welfare reform, however, have been formulated in a manner consistent with most contemporary egalitarian theories. This result should make us question either the political relevance of egalitarian ideals or the adequacy of those theories of equality.
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  17. Jens Borchert (1996). Welfare‐State Retrenchment: Playing the National Card. Critical Review 10 (1):63-94.
    Abstract An analysis of welfare?state restructuring under conservative governments during the 1980s undermines the notion that the nation?state is being rendered obsolete by economic globalization. The nation?state is still the principal site of political conflict. Yet this conflict has to be analyzed in light of global economic and cultural pressures. Conservative attempts to restructure the welfare state were parallel events within a larger transition in the world economy, but they had decisively distinct national trajectories.
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  18. Kerry Brace (1992). Nonrelativist Ethical Standards for Goal Setting in Psychotherapy. Ethics and Behavior 2 (1):15 – 38.
    In this article, I discuss two principles that can be viewed as universally applicable in psychotherapy and counseling: respect for clients' welfare and respect for their self-determination. Consideration of the practical application of these principles leads to the formulation of a set of guidelines to aid therapists and counselors in making choices about instrumental and end goals. These guidelines are intended to be applicable regardless of the particular personal and cultural values of the therapist and client.
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  19. Eric Brandstedt & Maria Emmelin (2016). The Concept of Sustainable Welfare. In Max Koch & Oksana Mont (eds.), Sustainability and the Political Economy of Welfare. Routledge 15-28.
    The meaning of welfare and the conditions for making it sustainable seemingly are related. This is at least a common idea in current discussions with the implicit assumption that conditions conducive to general welfare improvements also will secure certain sustainability objectives. In this chapter, we challenge this by way of a conceptual analysis of welfare, focused on its descriptive adequacy. Although there are different substantial theories about welfare, they all have to account for its subject-relative nature: individual welfare is whatever (...)
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  20. John Broome (1994). Discounting the Future. Philosophy and Public Affairs 23 (2):128-156.
  21. Samuel Allen Chambers & Terrell Carver (eds.) (2011). Carole Pateman: Democracy, Feminism, Welfare. Routledge.
  22. Donald Coggan (1977). On Dying and Dying Well. Royal Society of Medicine.
    The idea of a happy death is one that startles and disgusts modern man. However, although that phrase is not often used today, that is what the Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Donald Coggan, is to some extent considering in his Edwin Stevens lecture given to the Royal Society of Medicine. We are publishing extracts from that lecture by kind permission of the President of the Royal Society of Medicine. We have chosen those passages in the lecture which discuss the limits (...)
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  23. Hongying Dai, Michael J. Deem & Jianqiang Hao (forthcoming). Geographic Variations in Electronic Cigarette Advertisements on Twitter in the United States. International Journal of Public Health.
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  24. Stephen L. Darwall (2002). Welfare and Rational Care. Princeton University Press.
    "This book proposes a new view on a central topic in contemporary ethics.
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  25. Steve Daskal (2010). Libertarianism Left and Right, the Lockean Proviso, and the Reformed Welfare State. Social Theory and Practice 36 (1):21-43.
    This paper explores the implications of libertarianism for welfare policy. There are two central arguments. First, the paper argues that if one adopts a libertarian framework, it makes most sense to be a Lockean right-libertarian. Second, the paper argues that this form of libertarianism leads to the endorsement of a fairly extensive set of redistributive welfare programs. Specifically, the paper argues that Lockean right-libertarians are committed to endorsing welfare programs under which the receipt of benefits is conditional on meeting a (...)
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  26. Myfanwy Davies (2014). Changing Directions of the British Welfare State. Ethics and Social Welfare 8 (1):93-95.
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  27. Hartley Dean (2011). The Ethics of Migrant Welfare. Ethics and Social Welfare 5 (1):18-35.
    International migration poses a dilemma for capitalist welfare states. This paper considers the ethical dimensions of that dilemma. It begins by addressing two questions associated with the provision of social rights for migrants: first, the extent to which differential forms of social citizenship may be associated with processes of civic stratification; second, the ambiguous nature of the economic, social and cultural rights components of the international human rights framework. It then proceeds to discuss, on the one hand, existing attempts to (...)
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  28. Frank Dietrich (1999). Die 'Sozialdemokratische' Und Die 'Liberale' Variante der Neoaristotelischen Sozialphilosophie. Analyse & Kritik 21 (2):192-212.
    This article examines the neoaristotelian theories of Martha Nussbaum and Douglas Rasmussen/Douglas Den Uyl. Both sides give a similar account of good human living, which emphasizes the significance of individual autonomy. But they disagree sharply on the political institutions necessary to promote human flourishing; Nussbaum formulates a 'social democratic, position; Rasmussen/Den Uyl hold a 'liberal' standpoint. The article explores both lines of reasoning. It is shown that neither Nussbaum nor Rasmussen/Den Uyl present conclusive arguments for their political position.
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  29. Maria Dimova-Cookson (2012). Liberty as Welfare The Basecamp Counterpart of Positive Freedom. Collingwood and British Idealism Studies 18 (2):133-165.
    L.T.Hobhouse's concept of liberty--the concept at the heart of new liberalism--is based on T.H. Green's positive freedom. However, this paper demonstrates that the former has its own distinct nature and can be usefully defined as 'liberty as welfare'. In a context of renewed interest in the link between liberty and ability/personal development, scholars have looked back to Green's positive liberty. But the complex nature of latter has led to scholarly disagreement about its definitive features. The paper argues that Hobhouse's liberty (...)
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  30. Peter H. Ditto (2008). What Would Terri Want? : Advance Directive and the Psychological Challenges of Surrogate Decision Making. In James L. Werth & Dean Blevins (eds.), Decision Making Near the End of Life: Issues, Development, and Future Directions. Brunner-Routledge
  31. Dale Dorsey (2008). Toward a Theory of the Basic Minimum. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (4):423-445.
    Many have thought that an important feature of any just society is the establishment and maintenance of a suitable basic minimum: some set of welfare achievements, resources, capabilities, and so on that are guaranteed to all. However, if a basic minimum is a plausible requirement of justice, we must have a theory — a theory of what, precisely, the state owes in terms of these basic needs or achievements and what, precisely, is the proper structure of the obligation to provide (...)
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  32. Norbert Elias (1985). The Loneliness of the Dying. Continuum.
    Originally published in 1985, this is a short meditation by a great old man on people relating to other people who are dying, and the need for all of us to open ...
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  33. ElizabethAnderson (2004). Welfare, Work Requirements, and Dependant-Care. Journal of Applied Philosophy 21 (3):243–256.
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  34. David Ellerman (2014). On a Fallacy in the Kaldor-Hicks Efficiency-Equity Analysis. Constitutional Political Economy 25 (2):125-136.
    This paper shows that implicit assumptions about the numeraire good in the Kaldor-Hicks efficiency-equity analysis involve a "same-yardstick" fallacy (a fallacy pointed out by Paul Samuelson in another context). These results have negative implications for cost-benefit analysis, the wealth-maximization approach to law and economics, and other parts of applied welfare economics--as well as for the whole vision of economics based on the "production and distribution of social wealth.".
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  35. L. Erikkson (2008). Review Essay: Issues in Democratic Theory: Reflexive Democracy: Political Equality and the Welfare State, by Kevin Olson. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006. 261 Pp. $35.00 . Radical Democracy: Politics Between Abundance and Lack, Edited by Lars Tonder and Lasse Thomassen. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 2005. 288 Pp. $74.95. [REVIEW] Political Theory 36 (4):641-646.
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  36. T. J. Everett & B. M. Everett (2015). Justice and Gini Coefficients. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 14 (2):187-208.
    Gini coefficients, which measure gross inequalities rather than their unfair components, are often used as proxy measures of absolute or relative distributive injustice in Western societies. This presupposes that the fair inequalities in these societies are small and stable enough to be ignored. This article presents a model for a series of ideal, perfectly just societies, where comfortable lives are equally available to everyone, and calculates the Gini coefficients for each. According to this model, inequalities produced by age and other (...)
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  37. David Fagelson (1999). Rights And Duties. Law And Inequality 17 (1):171.
  38. Antony Flew (2003). Social Life and Moral Judgment. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  39. N. Frazer (1987). Women, Welfare and Politics of Needs. Hypatia 3.
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  40. Danny Frederick, Why the UK National Health Service Should Be Privatised.
    It is an article of almost religious faith in the United Kingdom that the National Health Service is far superior to a competitive market in health care services. In this brief and informal paper I show that the opposite is true. In contrast to market provision, the existence of the National Health Service entails the following. First, consumer sovereignty is virtually destroyed, since what services the consumer receives and how much he pays (through taxation) are determined by the government of (...)
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  41. Helmut P. Gaisbauer, Gottfried Schweiger & Clemens Sedmak (2013). Ethical Obligations of Wealthy People: Progressive Taxation and the Financial Crisis. Ethics and Social Welfare 7 (2):141--154.
    The Financial Crisis in Europe puts pressure on welfare states and its tax systems as well as on considerations of social justice. In this paper, we would like to explore the status of the idea of progressive taxation and its justification (especially the ‘ability-to-pay’ principle) in times of a financial crisis. We will discuss it within a social justice framework following David Miller—using the principles of (i) need, (ii) merit, and (iii) equality. We will conclude that progressive taxation can be (...)
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  42. Anca Gheaus (2008). Gender Justice and the Welfare State in Post-Communism. Feminist Theory 9 (2):185-206.
    Some Romanian feminist scholars argue that welfare policies of post-communist states are deeply unjust to women and preclude them from reaching economic autonomy. The upshot of this argument is that liberal economic policy would advance feminist goals better than the welfare state. How should we read this dissonance between Western and some Eastern feminist scholarship concerning distributive justice? I identify the problem of dependency at the core of a possible debate about feminism and welfare. Worries about how decades of communism (...)
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  43. Anca Gheaus & Lisa Herzog (2016). The Goods of Work (Other Than Money!). Journal of Social Philosophy 47 (1):70-89.
    The evaluation of labour markets and of particular jobs ought to be sensitive to a plurality of benefits and burdens of work. We use the term 'the goods of work' to refer to those benefits of work that cannot be obtained in exchange for money and that can be enjoyed mostly or exclusively in the context of work. Drawing on empirical research and various philosophical traditions of thinking about work we identify four goods of work: 1) attaining various types of (...)
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  44. Azam Golam (2010). Distribution of Health Care Resources in LIC: A Utilitarian Approach. VDM Verlag Dr. Müller.
    Distribution of sufficient health care resources to the maximum number of people in LIC is the central theme of the book. Bangladesh is taken as a representative of low income countries (LIe. In LIC, there is scarcity of health care resources like other resources but the deserving persons are numerous. Therefore, it requires an efficient distribution of resources. Considering 'Inequality to get access to health care' as the basic problem in LIC, John Rawls' principle of fair equality of opportunity is (...)
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  45. Azam Golam (2008). Moral Obligation of Pharmaceutical Companies Towards HIV Victims in Developing Countries. The Dhaka University Studies 64 (1):197-212.
    The objective of the paper is to analyze whether that the pharmaceutical companies producing HIV drugs have moral obligation(s) towards the HIV victims in developing countries who don‟t have access to get drug to reduce their risks. The primary assessment is that the pharmaceutical companies have minimum moral obligation(s) to the HIV patients especially in developing countries. It is because they are human beings and hence they are the subject of moral considerations. The paper argues that from the sense of (...)
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  46. Azam Golam (2008). Rawls’ Theory of Distributive Justice and the Role of Informal Institutions in Giving People Access to Health Care in Bangladesh. Philosophy and Progress 41 (2):151-167.
    The objective of the paper is to explore the issue that despite the absence of adequate formal and systematic ways for the poor and disadvantaged people to get access to health benefit like in a rich liberal society, there are active social customs, feelings and individual and collective responsibilities among the people that help the disadvantaged and poor people to have access to the minimum health care facility in both liberal and non-liberal poor countries. In order to explain the importance (...)
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  47. David G. Green (1993). Medical Care in Britain Before the Welfare State. Critical Review 7 (4):479-495.
    In Britain before 1911, the vast majority of the population provided medical care for themselves and had evolved a variety of schemes that checked the power of organized medicine and encouraged a steady improvement in standards. The evidence is that at the end of the nineteenth century about 5?6 percent of the population relied on the poor law, 10?15 percent on free care from charitable institutions, 75 percent on mutual aid, and the remainder paid fees to private doctors.
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  48. Bent Greve (2003). Ways Forward for the Welfare State in the Twenty-First Century. The European Legacy 8 (5):611-630.
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  49. Lena Halldenius (1998). Non-Domination and Egalitarian Welfare Politics. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 1 (3):335-353.
    In this article I will do three things: I will argue that solidarity is not necessary for political legitimacy, that non-domination is a strong candidate for legitimacy criterion, and, finally, that non-domination can legitimate the egalitarian welfare state.
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  50. John Harris (2000). The Welfare of the Child. Health Care Analysis 8 (1):27-34.
    The interests or welfare of the child are rightly central to anydiscussion of the ethics of reproduction. The problematic nature of thislegitimate concern is seldom, if ever, noticed or if it is, it ismisunderstood. A prominent example of this sort of misunderstandingoccurs in the Department of Health's recent and important `SurrogacyReview' chaired by Margaret Brazier (The Brazier Report) and thesame misunderstanding makes nonsense of at least one provision of theHuman Fertilization and Embryology Act 1990. (The HFE Act).This paper explores and (...)
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