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  1. Rebecca Aanerud (2007). The Legacy of White Supremacy and the Challenge of White Antiracist Mothering. Hypatia 22 (2):20-38.
    : Aanerud's project is to develop an account of white antiracist mothering, using a model of maternal duty to raise antiracist white children. The author sets this project in the context of historic constructions of white mothering in the twentieth century and then contrasts the need for an exploration of white mothers raising white children against the literature of white mothers' raising children of color and mothers of color raising their own children, Once this distinction is made, Aanerud uses Collins's (...)
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  2. Linda Martín Alcoff (1998). What Should White People Do? Hypatia 13 (3):6 - 26.
    In this paper I explore white attempts to move toward a proactive position against racism that will amount to more than self-criticism in the following three ways: by assessing the debate within feminism over white women's relation to whiteness; by exploring "white awareness training" methods developed by Judith Katz and the "race traitor" politics developed by Ignatiev and Garvey, and; a case study of white revisionism being currently attempted at the University of Mississippi.
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  3. Ricky Lee Allen (2004). Whiteness and Critical Pedagogy. Educational Philosophy and Theory 36 (2):121–136.
  4. Jami L. Anderson (2002). The White Closet. Social Philosophy Today 18:97-107.
    Whiteness theorists argue that whiteness has two essential features. First, whiteness colonizes, appropriates and controls the Other. Whiteness is, then, racist.Second, whiteness is constructed unwittingly. Whites are, it is claimed, unaware of the harms they inflict on a genocidal scale because whiteness, like the air we breathe, is “invisible” to those who construct it and are constructed by it. Whiteness is, then, innocent. I think defining whiteness as innocent racism is troubling for two reasons. First, it leaves whites unaccountable for (...)
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  5. Karen Anijar (2003). Into the Heart of Whiteness. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):29 – 31.
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  6. Barbara Applebaum (2005). In the Name of Morality: Moral Responsibility, Whiteness and Social Justice Education. Journal of Moral Education 34 (3):277-290.
    This paper argues that the ?traditional conception of moral responsibility? authorizes and supports denials of white complicity. First, what is meant by the ?traditional conception of moral responsibility? is delineated and the enabling and disenabling characteristics of this view are highlighted. Then, three seemingly good, antiracist discourses that white students often engage in are discussed ? the discourse of colour?blindness, the discourse of meritocracy and the discourse of individual choice ? and analysed to show how they are all grounded in (...)
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  7. Swathi Arekapudi & Mathew K. Wynia (2003). The Unbearable Whiteness of the Mainstream: Should We Eliminate, or Celebrate, Bias in Bioethics? American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):18 – 19.
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  8. Alison Bailey (forthcoming). 'White Talk' as a Barrier to Understanding Whiteness. In George Yancy (ed.), What's It Like to Be a White Problem? Lexington Books.
    My project is to explain why the question ‘How does it feel to be a white problem?’ cannot be answered in the fluttering grammar of white talk. The whiteness of white talk lies not only in its having emerged from white mouths, but also in its evasiveness—in its attempt to suppress fear and anxiety, and its consequential [if unintended] reinscription and legitimation of racist oppression. I White talk is designed, indeed scripted, for the purposes of evading, rejecting, and remaining ignorant (...)
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  9. Alison Bailey (2011). On White Shame and Vulnerabiltiy. South African Journal of Philosophy 30 (3):472-483.
    In this paper I address a tension in Samantha Vice’s claim that humility and silence offer effective moral responses to white shame in the wake of South African apartheid. Vice describes these twin virtues using inward-turning language of moral self-repair, but she also acknowledges that this ‘personal, inward directed project’ has relational dimensions. Her failure to explore the relational strand, however, leaves her description of white shame sounding solitary and penitent. -/- My response develops the missing relational dimensions of white (...)
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  10. Alison Bailey (2010). On Intersectionality and the Whiteness of Feminist Philosophy. In George Yancy (ed.), THE CENTER MUST NOT HOLD: WHITE WOMEN PHILOSOPHERS ON THE WHITENESS OF PHILOSOPHY. Lexington Books.
    In this paper I explore some possible reasons why white feminists philosophers have failed to engage the radical work being done by non-Western women, U.S. women of color and scholars of color outside of the discipline. -/- Feminism and academic philosophy have had lots to say to one another. Yet part of what marks feminist philosophy as philosophy is our engagement with the intellectual traditions of the white forefathers. I’m not uncomfortable with these projects: Aristotle, Foucault, Sartre, Wittgenstein, Quine, Austin, (...)
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  11. Alison Bailey (1999). Despising an Identity They Taught Me to Claim. In Chris J. Cuomo & Kim Q. Hall (eds.), WHITENESS: FEMINIST PHILOSOPHICAL NARRATIVES.
    This essay is a personal philosophical reflection on particular dilemma privilege-cognizant white feminists face in thinking through how to use privilege in liberatory ways. Privilege takes on a new dimension for whites who resist common defensive or guilt-ridden responses to privilege and struggle to understand the connections between ill-gotten advantages and the genuine injustices that deny humanity to peoples of color. The temptation to despise whiteness and its accompanying privilege is a common response to white privilege awareness and it is (...)
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  12. Alison Bailey (1998). Locating Traitorous Identities: Toward a View of Privilege-Cognizant White Character. Hypatia 13 (3):27 - 42.
    I address the problem of how to locate "traitorous" subjects, or those who belong to dominant groups yet resist the usual assumptions and practices of those groups. I argue that Sandra Harding's description of traitors as insiders, who "become marginal" is misleading. Crafting a distinction between "privilege-cognizant" and "privilege-evasive" white scripts, I offer an alternative account of race traitors as privilege-cognizant whites who refuse to animate expected whitely scripts, and who are unfaithful to worldviews whites are expected to hold.
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  13. Alison Bailey (1998). Privilege: Expanding on Marilyn Frye's Oppression. Journal of Social Philosophy 29 (3):104-119.
    This essay serves as both a response and embellishment of Marilyn Frye's now classic essay "Oppression." It is meant to pick up where this essay left off and to make connections between oppression, as Frye defines it, and the privileges that result from institutional structures. This essay tries to clarify one meaning of privilege that is lost in philosophical discussions of injustice. I develop a distinction between unearned privileges and earned advantages. Clarifying the meaning of privilege as unearned structural advantage (...)
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  14. Alison Bailey & Jacquelyn N. Zita (2007). The Reproduction of Whiteness: Race and the Regulation of the Gendered Body. Hypatia 22 (2).
    Historically critical reflection on whiteness in the United States has been a long-standing practice in slave folklore and in Mexican resistance to colonialism, Asian American struggles against exploitation and containment, and Native American stories of contact with European colonizers. Drawing from this legacy and from the disturbing silence on "whiteness" in postsecondary institutions, critical whiteness scholarship has emerged in the past two decades in U.S. academies in a variety of disciplines. A small number of philosophers, critical race theorists, postcolonial theorists, (...)
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  15. Jennifer Benson (2014). Freedom as Going Off Script. Hypatia 29 (2):355-370.
    In this manuscript I explore an example of an over-privileged white woman who encounters two young Black men in a parking garage stairwell. Two related axioms are central to the oppressive script that lies before these subjects: the hetero-patriarchal axiom that women are not safe alone at night and the racist axiom that Black men, especially young ones, are dangerous. These axioms are intended to ensure a practical conclusion—white women and Black men are supposed to avoid each other—thereby conferring legitimacy (...)
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  16. Robert E. Birt (2004). The Bad Faith of Whiteness. In George Yancy (ed.), What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question. Routledge.
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  17. Bernard Boxill (1997). Populism and Elitism in African-American Political Thought. Journal of Ethics 1 (3):209-238.
    African-American political thought finds its premises in European philosophical traditions. But these traditions often challenge African-American humanity which African-American political thought defends. African-American political thought is therefore an extended commentary on the consistency of European philosophical traditions.
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  18. Berit Brogaard (2009). Color in the Theory of Colors? Or: Are Philosophers' Colors All White? In George Yancy (ed.), he Center Must Not Hold: White Women on The Whiteness of Philosophy.
    Let’s say that a philosophical theory is white just in case it treats the perspective of the white (perhaps Western male) as objective.1 The potential dangers of proposing or defending white theories are two-fold. First, if not all of reality is objective, a fact which I take to be established beyond doubt,2 then white theories could well turn out to be false.3 A white theory is unwarranted (and indeed false) when it treats nonobjective reality as objective. Second, by proposing or (...)
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  19. Tommy J. Curry (2006). Revealing Whiteness. Newsletter of the Society for the Advancement of American Philosophy 34 (105):43-47.
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  20. Lewis R. Gordon (2004). Critical Reflections on Three Popular Tropes in the Study of Whiteness. In George Yancy (ed.), What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question. Routledge.
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  21. Trudier Harris-Lopez (2003). Lynching and Burning Rituals in African American Literature. In Tommy Lee Lott & John P. Pittman (eds.), A Companion to African-American Philosophy. Blackwell Pub..
  22. Jennifer Harvey (2011). White Protestants and Black Christians: The Absence and Presence of Whiteness in the Face of the Black Manifesto. Journal of Religious Ethics 39 (1):125-150.
    This essay brings Critical Whiteness Studies into liberationist Christian ethics in order to analyze white Protestant responses to the 1969 Black Manifesto, which demanded reparations from white churches. The essay's primary argument is that the absence of a sense of white moral agency among white Protestants manifested itself in behaviors and rhetoric that ensured whiteness went unacknowledged, which caused Protestant responses to the Manifesto to fail. A related argument is that white behavior and rhetoric were particularly dramatic because of the (...)
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  23. David Ingram (2005). Toward a Cleaner White(Ness): New Racial Identities. Philosophical Forum 36 (3):243–277.
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  24. Robin James (2009). In but Not of, of but Not In: On Taste, Hipness, and White Embodiment. Contemporary Aesthetics 2 (Aesthetics and Race).
    The status of the body figures paradoxically in the interrelated discourses of whiteness, aesthetic taste, and hipness. While Richard Dyer’s analysis of whiteness argues that white identity is “in but not of the body,” Carolyn Korsmeyer’s and Julia Kristeva’s feminist analyses of aesthetic “taste” demonstrate that this faculty is traditionally conceived as something “of” but not “in” the body. While taste directly distances whiteness from embodiment, hipness negatively affirms this same distance: the hipster proves his elite status within white culture (...)
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  25. Vincent Jungkunz (2011). Dismantling Whiteness: Silent Yielding and the Potentiality of Political Suicide. Contemporary Political Theory 10 (1):3.
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  26. Cynthia Kaufman (2001). A User's Guide to White Privilege. Radical Philosophy Review 4 (1/2):30-38.
    Picking up where Peggy McKintosh’s “White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack” left off, this essay looks further into the ways that racial privilege manifests itself in the lives of white Americans. It explores some of the reasons that white privilege is hard for whites to see and it explores the question of how white people can act responsibly given the unavoidable realities of racial privilege.
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  27. Julia Eklund Koza (2008). Listening for Whiteness: Hearing Racial Politics in Undergraduate School Music. Philosophy of Music Education Review 16 (2):145-155.
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  28. Zeus Leonardo (2004). The Color of Supremacy: Beyond the Discourse of 'White Privilege'. Educational Philosophy and Theory 36 (2):137–152.
  29. Amanda E. Lewis (2004). What Group?" Studying Whites and Whiteness in the Era of "Color-Blindness. Sociological Theory 22 (4):623-646.
    In this article I argue that despite the claims of some, all whites in racialized societies "have race." But because of the current context of race in our society, I argue that scholars of "whiteness" face several difficult theoretical and methodological challenges. First is the problem of how to avoid essentializing race when talking about whites as a social collective. That is, scholars must contend with the challenge of how to write about what is shared by those racialized as white (...)
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  30. Terrance MacMullan (2005). Beyond the Pale: A Pragmatist Approach to Whiteness Studies. Philosophy and Social Criticism 31 (3):267-292.
    The recent growth of whiteness studies has brought whiteness under increasing scrutiny as a racial category that is both constructed and morally problematic. Two approaches dominate this relatively new discourse on the proper approach to whiteness. The first approach is eliminativism , which starts from the insight that the discursive categories of race, including whiteness, lack the biological ground that Enlightenment era theorists thought they had, and therefore calls for the elimination of the idea of race. The other, more heterogeneous, (...)
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  31. Carol Mason (2007). Reproducing the Souls of White Folk. Hypatia 22 (2):98-121.
    : Focusing on a textbook controversy that emerged in Kanawha County, West Virginia, in 1974, Mason explores the discursive production of white ethnicity in the rhetorical, visual, and political strategies used during an organized protest against the new multicultural curriculum adopted by the local school board. What the author finds puzzling is the ways in which these productions of "soul" and "nation" enabled unlikely political alliances between national conservative elites and the local, historically left-leaning working class protesters. The author argues (...)
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  32. Peggy McIntosh (2008). White Privilege : Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. In Alexandra Miletta & Maureen McCann Miletta (eds.), Classroom Conversations: A Collection of Classics for Parents and Teachers. The New Press.
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  33. Ellen Miller (2007). Sylvia Plath and White Ignorance: Race and Gender in "The Arrival of the Bee Box&Quot;. Janus Head 10 (1):137-156.
  34. Charles Mills (2007). White Ignorance. In Shannon Sullivan Nancy Tuana (ed.), Race and Epistemologies of Ignorance. State Univ of New York Pr. 11--38.
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  35. Charles W. Mills (2007). Comments on Shannon Sullivan's Revealing Whiteness. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 21 (3):pp. 218-230.
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  36. Charles W. Mills (2004). Racial Exploitation and the Wages of Whiteness. In George Yancy (ed.), What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question. Routledge.
  37. Michael J. Monahan (2014). The Concept of Privilege. South African Journal of Philosophy 33 (1):73-83.
    In this essay, I examine the use of the concept of privilege within the critical theoretical discourse on oppression and liberation (with a particular focus on white privilege and antiracism in the USA). In order to fulfill the rhetorical aims of liberation, concepts for privilege must meet what I term the ‘boundary condition’, which demarcates the boundary between a privileged elite and the rest of society, and the ‘ignorance condition’, which establishes that the elite status and the advantages it confers (...)
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  38. Catherine Myser (2003). Differences From Somewhere: The Normativity of Whiteness in Bioethics in the United States. American Journal of Bioethics 3 (2):1 – 11.
    I argue that there has been inadequate attention to and questioning of the dominance and <span class='Hi'>normativity</span> of whiteness in the cultural construction of bioethics in the United States. Therefore we risk reproducing white privilege and white supremacy in its theory, method, and practices. To make my argument, I define whiteness and trace its broader social and legal history in the United States. I then begin to mark whiteness in U.S. bioethics, recasting Renee Fox's sociological marking of its American-ness as (...)
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  39. Lucius T. Outlaw Jr (2004). Rehabilitate Racial Whiteness? In George Yancy (ed.), What White Looks Like: African-American Philosophers on the Whiteness Question. Routledge.
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  40. David S. Owen (2007). Towards a Critical Theory of Whiteness. Philosophy and Social Criticism 33 (2):203-222.
    In this article I argue that a critical theory of whiteness is necessary, though not sufficient, to the formulation of an adequate explanatory account of the mechanisms of racial oppression in the modern world. In order to explain how whiteness underwrites systems of racial oppression and how it is reproduced, the central functional properties of whiteness are identified. I propose that understanding whiteness as a structuring property of racialized social systems best explains these functional properties. Given the variety of conceptions (...)
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  41. White Privilege (2008). Peggy McIntosh. In Alexandra Miletta & Maureen McCann Miletta (eds.), Classroom Conversations: A Collection of Classics for Parents and Teachers. The New Press. 169.
  42. Jamie P. Ross (2008). “White Privilege and the Color of Fear.” Chapter in Lessons From The Color of Fear. In Victor Lee Lewis & Hugh Vasquez (eds.), Lessons from The Color of Fear Field Reports. Using the Color of Fear in the Classroom. Speak Out - The Institute for Democratic Education and Cultural.
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  43. Aimee Carrillo Rowe (2007). Feeling in the Dark: Empathy, Whiteness, and Miscege-Nation in Monster's Ball. Hypatia 22 (2):122 - 142.
    Carrillo Rowe provides an analysis of Monster's Ball as a cultural narrative of white masculinity's redemption from the atrocities of racism through an interracial love story that erases white masculinity's national history and implication in a racist past while it displaces the black female body from that history and identification with the struggle for reparation. The nexus of sex, race, and desire is used to produce a new whiteness consistent with the emerging national multicultural logics of color blindness by undermining (...)
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  44. Aimee Marie Carrillo Rowe (2007). Feeling in the Dark: Empathy, Whiteness, and Miscege-Nation In. Hypatia 22 (2).
    : Carrillo Rowe provides an analysis of Monster's Ball as a cultural narrative of white masculinity's redemption from the atrocities of racism through an interracial love story that erases white masculinity's national history and implication in a racist past while it displaces the black female body from that history and identification with the struggle for reparation. The nexus of sex, race, and desire is used to produce a new whiteness consistent with the emerging national multicultural logics of color blindness by (...)
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  45. Kalpana Seshadri-Crooks (2000). Desiring Whiteness: A Lacanian Analysis of Race. Routledge.
    Desiring Whiteness provides a compelling new interpretation of how we understand race. Race is often presumed to be a social construction and we continue to deploy race thinking in our everyday life as a way of telling people apart visually. Desiring Whiteness explores this visual discrimination by asking questions in specifically psychoanalytic terms: how do subjects become raced? Is it common sense to read bodies as racially marked? Employing Lacan's theories of the subject and sexual difference, Seshadri-Crooks explores how the (...)
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  46. Anna Stubblefield (2008). Revealing Whiteness: The Unconscious Habits of Racial Privilege by Shannon Sullivan. Hypatia 23 (2):190-193.
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  47. Anna Stubblefield (2007). “Beyond the Pale”: Tainted Whiteness, Cognitive Disability, and Eugenic Sterilization. Hypatia 22 (2):162-181.
    : The aim of the eugenics movement in the United States during the first half of the twentieth century was to prevent the degeneration of the white race. A central tactic of the movement was the involuntary sterilization of people labeled as feebleminded. An analysis of the practice of eugenic sterilization provides insight into how the concepts of gender, race, class, and dis/ability are fundamentally intertwined. I argue that in the early twentieth century, the concept of feeblemindedness came to operate (...)
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  48. Shannon Sullivan (2008). Whiteness as Wise Provincialism: Royce and the Rehabilitation of a Racial Category. Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 44 (2):pp. 236-262.
    Against the backdrop of eliminitivist versus critical conservationist approaches to the racial category of whiteness, this article asks whether a rehabilitated version of whiteness can be worked out concretely. What might a non-oppressive, anti-racist whiteness look like? Turning to Josiah Royce’s “Provincialism” for help answering this question, I show that even though the essay never explicitly discusses race, it can help explain the ongoing need for the category of whiteness and implicitly offers a wealth of useful suggestions for how to (...)
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  49. Shannon Sullivan (2007). On Revealing Whiteness: A Reply to Critics. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 21 (3):pp. 231-242.
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  50. Seline Szkupinski Quiroga (2007). Blood is Thicker Than Water: Policing Donor Insemination and the Reproduction of Whiteness. Hypatia 22 (2):143-161.
    : On the most general level, this essay addresses the ways race is deployed in biomedical solutions to infertility. Szkupinski Quiroga begins with general assertions about fertility technology. She then explores how fertility technology reinforces biological links between parents and children and argues that most options reflect and privilege white kinship patterns and fears about race mixing. She illustrates these observations with interviews she has collected.
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