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  1. Robin Attfield (1984). Value in the Wilderness. Metaphilosophy 15 (3-4):289-304.
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  2. Thomas H. Birch (1990). The Incarceration of Wildness: Wilderness Areas as Prisons. Environmental Ethics 12 (1):3-26.
    Even with the very best intentions , Western culture’s approach to wilderness and wildness, the otherness of nature, tends to be one of imperialistic domination and appropriation. Nevertheless, in spite of Western culture’s attempt to gain total control over nature by imprisoning wildness in wilderness areas, which are meant to be merely controlled “simulations” of wildness, a real wildness, a real otherness, can still be found in wilderness reserves . This wildness can serve as the literal ground for the subversion (...)
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  3. Susan Power Bratton (1988). The Original Desert Solitaire: Early Christian Monasticism and Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 10 (1):31-53.
    Roderick Nash’s conc1usion in Wilderness and the American Mind that St. Francis “stood alone in a posture of humility and respect before the natural world” is not supported by thorough analysis of monastic literature. Rather St. Francis stands at the end of a thousand-year monastic tradition. Investigation of the “histories” and sayings of the desert fathers produces frequent references to the environment, particularly to wildlife. In stories about lions, wolves, antelopes, and other animals, the monks sometimes exercise spiritual powers over (...)
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  4. Richard S. Briggs (2007). Wilderness: Essays in Honour of Frances Young. Edited by R. S. Sugirtharajah. Heythrop Journal 48 (2):280–281.
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  5. G. W. Burnett & Kamuyu Wa Kang’Ethe (1994). Wilderness and the Bantu Mind. Environmental Ethics 16 (2):145-160.
    In the West, it is widely believed that, since Africans lack an emotional experience with romanticism and transcendentalism, they do not possess the philosophical prerequisites necessary to protect wilderness. However, the West’s disdain for African systems of thought has precluded examination of customary African views of wilderness. Examination of ethnographic reports on Kenya’s Highland Bantu reveals a complex view of phenomena that the West generally associates with wilderness. For the Bantu, wilderness is an extension of human living space, and through (...)
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  6. Philip Cafaro (2001). For a Grounded Conception of Wilderness and More Wilderness on the Ground. Ethics and the Environment 6 (1):1-17.
    : Recently a number of influential academic environmentalists have spoken out against wilderness, most prominently William Cronon and J. Baird Callicott. This is odd, given that these writers seem to support two cornerstone positions of environmentalism as it has developed over the past twenty years: first, the view articulated within environmental ethics that wild, nonhuman nature, or at least some parts of it, has intrinsic or inherent value; second, the understanding developed within conservation biology that we have entered a period (...)
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  7. Baird Callicott & Robert Frodeman (eds.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Macmillan Reference.
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  8. J. Baird Callicott (2008). ¿Cuál Wilderness en los Ecosistemas de Frontera? Environmental Ethics 30 (Supplement):17-33.
    Para los puritanos del siglo XVII, la costa este de América del Norte, las áreas silvestres o wilderness eran abominables y lacerantes. En el siglo XVIII, el predicador y teólogo puritano Jonathan Edwards inició el proceso de transformación de las áreas silvestres estadounidenses en un recurso estético y espiritual, un proceso que completó en el siglo XIX Ralph Waldo Emerson. Henry David Thoreau fue el primer estadounidense en recomendar la preservación de las áreas silvestres (wilderness) para propósitos de recreación trascendental (...)
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  9. J. Baird Callicott (2008). What “Wilderness” in Frontier Ecosystems? Environmental Ethics 30 (3):235-249.
    Wilderness, for seventeenth-century Puritan colonists in America, was hideous and howling. In the eighteenth century, Puritan preacher and theologian, Jonathan Edwards, began the process of transforming the American wilderness into an aesthetic and spiritual resource, a process completed in the nineteenth century by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Henry David. Thoreau was the first American to recommend wilderness preservation for purposes of transcendental recreation (solitude, and aesthetic and spiritual experience). In the twentieth century, Theodore Roosevelt and Aldo Leopold advocated wilderness preservation for (...)
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  10. W. S. K. Cameron (2006). Wilderness in the City. Environmental Philosophy 3 (2):28-33.
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  11. Daniel W. Conway (2003). The Wilderness of Henry Bugbee. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 17 (4):259-269.
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  12. Eileen Crist (2004). Against the Social Construction of Nature and Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 26 (1):5-24.
    The application of constructivism to “nature” and “wilderness” is intellectually and politically objectionable. Despite a proclivity for examining the social underpinnings of representations, constructivists do not deconstruct their own rhetoric and assumptions; nor do they consider what socio-historical conditions support their perspective. Constructivists employ skewed metaphors to describe knowledge production about nature as though the loaded language use of constructivism is straightforward and neutral. They also implicitly rely on a humanist perspective about knowledge creation that privileges the cognitive sovereignty of (...)
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  13. William P. Cunningham (2000). Listening to the Wilderness: The Life and Work of Sigurd F. Olson. Ethics, Place and Environment 3 (3):323 – 329.
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  14. Glenn Deliège (2007). Toward a Richer Account of Restorative Practices. Environmental Philosophy 4 (1/2):135-147.
    In this paper, I investigate the possibility of a rich account of ecological restoration. Starting from the apparent one-sided focus on science and technology within the nature conservation community in Flanders, Belgium, I first present an intuitive case against a restorative practice solely based on science and technology. I then argue that what constitutes good restorative practice must be informed by the historical Arcadian tradition in which nature appreciation and subsequent conservation in the West have taken shape. However, the way (...)
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  15. Martin Drenthen (2007). New Wilderness Landscapes as Moral Criticism. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):371-403.
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  16. Joseph P. Fell (1996). Out of the Wilderness: Douglas Clyde Macintosh's Journeys Through the Grounds and Claims of Modern Thought Preston Warren New York, Bern and Frankfurt-Am-Main: Peter Lang, 1989, Xvi + 284 Pp. $39.50. [REVIEW] Dialogue 35 (03):628-.
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  17. James Fieser (1993). Callicott and the Metaphysical Basis of Ecocentric Morality. Environmental Ethics 15 (2):171-180.
    According to the theory of ecocentric morality, the environment and its many ecosystems are entitled to a direct moral standing, and not simply a standing derivative from human interests. J. Baird Callicott has offered two possible metaphysical foundations for ecocentrism that attempt to show that inherent goodness can apply to environmental collections and not just to individual agents. I argue that Callicott’s first theory fails because it relies on a problematic theory of moral sentiments and that his second theory fails (...)
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  18. Scott Friskics (2010). The Wilderness Debate Rages On. Environmental Ethics 32 (1):85-90.
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  19. Scott Friskics (2008). The Twofold Myth of Pristine Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 30 (4):381-399.
    In recent years, the notion of wilderness has been roundly criticized by several prominent environmental philosophers and historians. They argue that the “received wilderness idea” is dualistic, ethnocentric, and static. According to these critics, this idea of wilderness finds clear expression in the Wilderness Act of 1964. However, the idea of wilderness so ably deconstructed by its critics bears little resemblance to the understanding of wilderness presented in the Wilderness Act. The critics assume a backward-looking, purity-based definition of wilderness that (...)
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  20. Greta Gaard (1997). Ecofeminism and Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 19 (1):5-24.
    I argue that ecofeminism must be concerned with the preservation and expansion of wilderness on the grounds that wilderness is an Other to the Self of Western culture and the master identity and that ecofeminism is concerned with the liberation of all subordinated Others. I suggest replacing the master identity with an ecofeminist ecological self, an identity defined through interdependence with Others, and I argue for the necessity of restoring and valuing human relationships with the Other of wilderness as integral (...)
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  21. Greta Gaard (1997). Ecofeminism and Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 19 (1):5-24.
    I argue that ecofeminism must be concerned with the preservation and expansion of wilderness on the grounds that wilderness is an Other to the Self of Western culture and the master identity and that ecofeminism is concerned with the liberation of all subordinated Others. I suggest replacing the master identity with an ecofeminist ecological self, an identity defined through interdependence with Others, and I argue for the necessity of restoring and valuing human relationships with the Other of wilderness as integral (...)
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  22. Hannah Gay (1994). Wilderness Philosophy. Dialogue 33 (04):661-.
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  23. William Godfrey-Smith (1979). The Value of Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 1 (4):309-319.
    In this paper I explore various grounds on which wilderness can be regarded as something which we should value, and I draw attention to the problems of resolving conftict which are generated by these diverse grounds. I conclude that our attitudes toward nature are partially determined by a background of metaphysical assumptions which derive in particular from the philosophy of Descartes. Thesemetaphysical preconceptions lead to the misconception that various alternative views about the natural environment are mystical or occult. Thus, an (...)
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  24. Ramachandra Guha (2010). Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation : A Third World Critique. In Craig Hanks (ed.), Technology and Values: Essential Readings. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  25. Ramachandra Guha (1989). Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Perservation: A Third World Critique. Environmental Ethics 11 (1):71-83.
    I present a Third World critique of the trend in American environmentalism known as deep ecology, analyzing each of deep ecology’s central tenets: the distinction between anthropocentrism and biocentrism, the focus on wildemess preservation, the invocation of Eastem traditions, and the belief that it represents the most radical trend within environmentalism. I argue that the anthropocentrism/biocentrism distinction is of little use in understanding the dynamics of environmental degredation, that the implementation of the wildemess agenda is causing serious deprivation in the (...)
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  26. Benjamin Hale (2008). Takings. In Baird Callicott & Robert Frodeman (eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Macmillan Reference.
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  27. John L. Hammond (1985). Wilderness and Heritage Values. Environmental Ethics 7 (2):165-170.
    Some proponents of the preservation of American wildemess-for example, Aldo Leopold-have argued in terms of the role of wildemess in forming and maintaining a set of distinctive national character traits. l examine and defend the value judgment implicit in Leopold’s argument. The value of one's cultural heritage is, I contend, as important and valid as other familiar goods appealed to in defense of social policy.
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  28. Peter H. Hare (1985). The Wilderness and the City. American Classical Philosophy as a Moral Quest. Journal of the History of Philosophy 23 (4):601-602.
    inquiry that ultimately concerns the nature of knowing. The traditional name for it is epistemology. Dihhey wanted to pursue it without jumping beyond the historical reflection of historically situated inquirers to a static, trans-historical standpoint. Rorty apparently does not want to pursue it on any basis. Yet his position is born of extensive, and often insightful, historical interpretation, which seems to be more than a "way of coping" (or refusing to cope) with the history of modern philosophy, His interpretations make (...)
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  29. David Havlick (2006). Reconsidering Wilderness: Prospective Ethics for Nature, Technology, and Society. Ethics, Place and Environment 9 (1):47 – 62.
    In this paper I seek to reconsider wilderness against recent critiques that portray it as necessarily contributing to a separation between nature and society. By examining the historical and contemporary contexts for designating wilderness areas in the United States, I propose that these wilderness lands and their particular constraints on the use of certain technologies may in fact present integrative, open spaces for considering how to live ethical, technological lives in contemporary society. An examination of actual wilderness practices illustrates how (...)
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  30. Marvin Henberg (1993). The Wilderness Condition. Environmental Ethics 15 (4):355-358.
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  31. Marvin Henberg (1984). Wilderness as Playground. Environmental Ethics 6 (3):251-263.
    Play requires security from sober concems, and only recently have non-native North Americans feIt secure enough in wildemess lands to view them as potential playgrounds. Employing a pretend quality of play illusion, many kinds of play are derivatives from normally sober activities. I argue that the most genuine sorts of wildemess play derive from the activities of the original geographical explorers. It is thus possible to distinguish types of play for which wildemess is especially suited from types that merely happen (...)
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  32. David Graham Henderson (2009). The Possibility of Managing for Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 31 (4):413-429.
    Wilderness is often understood as land untouched by people. On this reading, wilderness management seems to be a simple contradiction, but it is in fact a thriving and functional practice. Wilderness is not simply an absence of human influence, but the presence of something else. Wilderness is land characterized by the flourishing of natural purpose. When this is understood, wilderness management becomes intelligible and several recent criticisms of wilderness preservation are defused.
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  33. David Graham Henderson (2009). The Possibility of Managing for Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 31 (4):413-429.
    Wilderness is often understood as land untouched by people. On this reading, wilderness management seems to be a simple contradiction, but it is in fact a thriving and functional practice. Wilderness is not simply an absence of human influence, but the presence of something else. Wilderness is land characterized by the flourishing of natural purpose. When this is understood, wilderness management becomes intelligible and several recent criticisms of wilderness preservation are defused.
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  34. Thom Heyd (1999). Crazy Mountain: Learning From Wilderness to Weigh Technology. Environmental Ethics 21 (3):321-324.
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  35. A. Holland, & J. O'neill, Conservation: Out of the Wilderness.
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  36. Susan Howe (1995). Book Review: The Birth-Mark: Unsettling the Wilderness in American Literary History. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Literature 19 (1).
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  37. Linda Jarchow Jones (1994). Wildflowers and Wonder: A Pastor's Wanderings in the Religion-Science Wilderness. Zygon 29 (1):115-125.
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  38. Christopher McGrory Klyza (1993). Wilderness on the Rocks. Environmental Ethics 15 (1):91-92.
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  39. Nathan Kowalsky (2007). Wilderness, Wasteland, and Homeland. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):457-478.
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  40. Andy Lamey (forthcoming). Ecosystems as Spontaneous Orders. Critical Review.
    The notion of a spontaneous order has a long history in the philosophy of economics, where it has been used to advance a view of markets as complex networks of information that no single mind can apprehend. Traditionally, the impossibility of grasping all of the information present in the spontaneous order of the market has been invoked as grounds for not subjecting markets to central planning. A less noted feature of the spontaneous order concept is that when it is applied (...)
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  41. Paul Lauritzen (2011). Thinking Like a Mountain : Nature, Wilderness, and the Virtue of Humility. In Gregory E. Kaebnick (ed.), The Ideal of Nature: Debates About Biotechnology and the Environment. Johns Hopkins University Press. 114.
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  42. Jeffrey A. Lockwood (2009). Michael P. Nelson and J. Baird Callicott (Eds): The Wilderness Debate Rages On: Continuing the Great New Wilderness Debate. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (5):493-500.
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  43. Robert W. Loftin (1986). Psychical Distance and the Aesthetic Appreciation of Wilderness. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 3 (1):15-19.
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  44. Bruce Martin (2004). Wilderness and the Sacred. Environmental Philosophy 1 (1):79-83.
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  45. Mark A. Michael (1995). International Justice and Wilderness Preservation. Social Theory and Practice 21 (2):149-176.
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  46. Ben A. Minteer (2001). Wilderness and the Wise Province: Benton Mackaye's Pragmatic Vision. Philosophy and Geography 4 (2):185 – 202.
    Benton MacKaye's name is rarely evoked in the fields of environmental history and philosophy. The author of the Appalachian Trail in the early 1920s and a co-founder of the Wilderness Society with Aldo Leopold and Bob Marshall in the 1930s, MacKaye's unique contribution to American environmental thought is seldom recognized. This neglect is particularly egregious in the current debate over the intellectual foundations of the American wilderness idea, a discussion to which I believe MacKaye has much to contribute. Specifically, I (...)
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  47. Jan Narveson (1998). Wrongness, Wisdom and Wilderness. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 11 (1):58-61.
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  48. Michael P. Nelson (2004). The World and the Wild: Expanding Wilderness Conservation Beyond its American Roots. Environmental Ethics 26 (1):107-110.
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  49. Michael P. Nelson (1996). Rethinking Wilderness. Philosophy in the Contemporary World 3 (2):6-9.
    The “received” concept of wilderness as a place apart from and untouched by humans is five-times flawed: it is not universalizable, it is ethnocentric, it is ecologically naive, it separates humans from nature, and its referent is nonexistent. The received view of wilderness leads to dilemmas and unpalatable consequences, including the loss of designated wilderness areas by political and legislative authorities. What is needed is a more flexible notion of wilderness. Suggestions are made for a revised concept of wilderness.
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  50. J. O'Neill, Value, Justice and the Wilderness Ideal.
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