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  1. C. P. A. (1957). Errand Into the Wilderness. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 10 (3):543-543.
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  2. David Abram (2010). Becoming Animal: An Essay on Wonder. Pantheon Books.
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  3. Robin Attfield (1984). Value in the Wilderness. Metaphilosophy 15 (3-4):289-304.
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  4. Robert L. J. Axberg, Empathy as a Factor of the Sublime and Beautiful in a Wilderness Environment [Electronic Resource].
    Contemporary views on the aesthetics of nature fall into two opposing schools of thought; the cognitive school where philosophers such as Allen Carlson believe that science can explain everything about the aesthetics of nature, and the non-cognitive where, for example, Arnold Berleant maintains that science is a sufficient though not a necessary condition for the aesthetic appreciation of nature. Berleant and others of his kind contend that an engaged multi-sensuous relationship with nature will manifest the required experience. Empathy with nature, (...)
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  5. Edward G. Belaga & Maurice Mignotte (2006). Walking Cautiously Into the Collatz Wilderness: Algorithmically, Number Theoretically, Randomly. Discrete Mathematics and Theoretical Computer Science.
    Building on theoretical insights and rich experimental data of our preprints, we present here new theoretical and experimental results in three interrelated approaches to the Collatz problem and its generalizations: algorithmic decidability, random behavior, and Diophantine representation of related discrete dynamical systems, and their cyclic and divergent properties.
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  6. Thomas H. Birch (1990). The Incarceration of Wildness: Wilderness Areas as Prisons. Environmental Ethics 12 (1):3-26.
    Even with the very best intentions , Western culture’s approach to wilderness and wildness, the otherness of nature, tends to be one of imperialistic domination and appropriation. Nevertheless, in spite of Western culture’s attempt to gain total control over nature by imprisoning wildness in wilderness areas, which are meant to be merely controlled “simulations” of wildness, a real wildness, a real otherness, can still be found in wilderness reserves . This wildness can serve as the literal ground for the subversion (...)
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  7. Susan Power Bratton (1988). The Original Desert Solitaire: Early Christian Monasticism and Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 10 (1):31-53.
    Roderick Nash’s conc1usion in Wilderness and the American Mind that St. Francis “stood alone in a posture of humility and respect before the natural world” is not supported by thorough analysis of monastic literature. Rather St. Francis stands at the end of a thousand-year monastic tradition. Investigation of the “histories” and sayings of the desert fathers produces frequent references to the environment, particularly to wildlife. In stories about lions, wolves, antelopes, and other animals, the monks sometimes exercise spiritual powers over (...)
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  8. Richard S. Briggs (2007). Wilderness: Essays in Honour of Frances Young. Edited by R. S. Sugirtharajah. Heythrop Journal 48 (2):280–281.
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  9. G. W. Burnett & Kamuyu Wa Kang’Ethe (1994). Wilderness and the Bantu Mind. Environmental Ethics 16 (2):145-160.
    In the West, it is widely believed that, since Africans lack an emotional experience with romanticism and transcendentalism, they do not possess the philosophical prerequisites necessary to protect wilderness. However, the West’s disdain for African systems of thought has precluded examination of customary African views of wilderness. Examination of ethnographic reports on Kenya’s Highland Bantu reveals a complex view of phenomena that the West generally associates with wilderness. For the Bantu, wilderness is an extension of human living space, and through (...)
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  10. Philip Cafaro (2001). For a Grounded Conception of Wilderness and More Wilderness on the Ground. Ethics and the Environment 6 (1):1-17.
    : Recently a number of influential academic environmentalists have spoken out against wilderness, most prominently William Cronon and J. Baird Callicott. This is odd, given that these writers seem to support two cornerstone positions of environmentalism as it has developed over the past twenty years: first, the view articulated within environmental ethics that wild, nonhuman nature, or at least some parts of it, has intrinsic or inherent value; second, the understanding developed within conservation biology that we have entered a period (...)
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  11. Baird Callicott & Robert Frodeman (eds.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Macmillan Reference.
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  12. J. Baird Callicott (2008). ¿Cuál Wilderness en los Ecosistemas de Frontera? Environmental Ethics 30 (Supplement):17-33.
    Para los puritanos del siglo XVII, la costa este de América del Norte, las áreas silvestres o wilderness eran abominables y lacerantes. En el siglo XVIII, el predicador y teólogo puritano Jonathan Edwards inició el proceso de transformación de las áreas silvestres estadounidenses en un recurso estético y espiritual, un proceso que completó en el siglo XIX Ralph Waldo Emerson. Henry David Thoreau fue el primer estadounidense en recomendar la preservación de las áreas silvestres (wilderness) para propósitos de recreación trascendental (...)
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  13. J. Baird Callicott (2008). What “Wilderness” in Frontier Ecosystems? Environmental Ethics 30 (3):235-249.
    Wilderness, for seventeenth-century Puritan colonists in America, was hideous and howling. In the eighteenth century, Puritan preacher and theologian, Jonathan Edwards, began the process of transforming the American wilderness into an aesthetic and spiritual resource, a process completed in the nineteenth century by Ralph Waldo Emerson. Henry David. Thoreau was the first American to recommend wilderness preservation for purposes of transcendental recreation (solitude, and aesthetic and spiritual experience). In the twentieth century, Theodore Roosevelt and Aldo Leopold advocated wilderness preservation for (...)
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  14. W. S. K. Cameron (2006). Wilderness in the City. Environmental Philosophy 3 (2):28-33.
    Over the last few years, the concept of “wilderness” has come under attack by environmentalists deeply committed to sustaining the natural world. Their criticisms are pointed and undeniably strong; moreover as I will argue, very similar critiques could be made of its putative counter-concept, “the city.” Yet in both cases, we need not simply reject the concepts themselves as incoherent; our challenge is rather to develop resources rich enough to show that and why they must stand in a constructive tension. (...)
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  15. Peter Coleman (2006). Alice and the Wolf: Exploring Dennis Danvers'Wilderness. Colloquy 12:74-52.
    Dennis Danvers’ Wilderness, 1 published in 1991, is a work of popular North American fiction that centres upon a reworking of the traditional Western idea of the ‘werewolf’. In this novel Danvers transports the werewolf from the conventional role of villain to heroine, and draws attention to ecological issues intrinsically implicated with this mythological figure. More than simply a romantic fantasy and thriller, Wilderness is a novel that ex- plores the dynamism of the human-nature relationship and challenges certain anthropocentric assumptions (...)
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  16. Daniel W. Conway (2003). The Wilderness of Henry Bugbee. Journal of Speculative Philosophy 17 (4):259-269.
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  17. Eileen Crist (2004). Against the Social Construction of Nature and Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 26 (1):5-24.
    The application of constructivism to “nature” and “wilderness” is intellectually and politically objectionable. Despite a proclivity for examining the social underpinnings of representations, constructivists do not deconstruct their own rhetoric and assumptions; nor do they consider what socio-historical conditions support their perspective. Constructivists employ skewed metaphors to describe knowledge production about nature as though the loaded language use of constructivism is straightforward and neutral. They also implicitly rely on a humanist perspective about knowledge creation that privileges the cognitive sovereignty of (...)
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  18. William Cronon (forthcoming). 47 The Trouble With Wilderness. Environmental Ethics: The Big Questions.
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  19. William P. Cunningham (2000). Listening to the Wilderness: The Life and Work of Sigurd F. Olson. Ethics, Place and Environment 3 (3):323 – 329.
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  20. Glenn Deliège (2007). Toward a Richer Account of Restorative Practices. Environmental Philosophy 4 (1/2):135-147.
    In this paper, I investigate the possibility of a rich account of ecological restoration. Starting from the apparent one-sided focus on science and technology within the nature conservation community in Flanders, Belgium, I first present an intuitive case against a restorative practice solely based on science and technology. I then argue that what constitutes good restorative practice must be informed by the historical Arcadian tradition in which nature appreciation and subsequent conservation in the West have taken shape. However, the way (...)
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  21. M. Drenthen & J. Keulartz (eds.) (2014). Old and New World Perspectives on Environmental Philosophy. Transatlantic Conversations. Springer.
    This is the first collection of essays in which European and American philosophers explicitly think out their respective contributions and identities as environmental thinkers in the analytic and continental traditions. The American/European, as well as Analytic/Continental collaboration here bears fruit helpful for further theorizing and research. The essays group around three well-defined areas of questioning all focusing on the amelioration/management of environmentally, historically and traditionally diminished landscapes. The first part deals with differences between New World and the Old World (...)
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  22. Martin Drenthen (2016). The Return of the Wild in the Anthropocene. Wolf Resurgence in the Netherlands. Ethics, Policy and Environment 18 (3):318-337.
    In most rewilding projects, humans are still the agents in control: it is us who decide to no longer want to fully control nature. Spontaneous rewilding changes the nature of this game. Once we are confronted with species that have their own agency, that cannot fully be controlled, and that behave in ways that we do not always like, then it proves hard to co-exist and tolerate nature’s autonomy. Nowhere is this more clearly visible than with the resurging wolf, whose (...)
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  23. Martin Drenthen (2007). New Wilderness Landscapes as Moral Criticism. Ethical Perspectives 14 (4):371-403.
    In moral debates about human’s relationship with nature, one often hears references to nature’s wildness. Apparently, postmodern city dwellers seem to be deeply fascinated by wild nature; for them, wildness somehow seems to have strong moral significance. How should we interpret this fascination? Moral meanings of nature come into play as soon as we start articulating our relationship with the world.In this process, we transform the neutrality of space into a meaningful place, that is, through interpretation we make mere environment (...)
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  24. Martin Drenthen (2005). Wildness as Critical Border Concept; Nietzsche and the Debate on Wilderness Restoration. Environmental Values 14 (3):317-337.
    How can environmental philosophy benefit from Friedrich Nietzsche's radical critique of morality? In this paper, it is argued that Nietzsche's account of nature provides us with a challenging diagnosis of the modern crisis in our relationship with nature. Moreover, his interpretation of wildness can elucidate our concern with the value of wilderness as a place of value beyond the sphere of human intervention. For Nietzsche, wild nature is a realm where moral valuations are out of order. In his work, however, (...)
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  25. Martin Drenthen (2002). Nietzsche and the Paradox of Environmental Ethics: Nietzsche's View of Nature and Morality. New Nietzsche Studies 5 (1/2):12-25.
    In this paper, I offer a systematic inquiry into the significance of Nietzsche's philosophy to environmental ethics. Nietzsche's philosophy of nature is, I believe, relevant today because it makes explicit a fundamental ambiguity that is also characteristic of our current understanding of nature. I show how the current debate between traditional environmental ethics and postmodern environmental philosophy can be interpreted as a symptom of this ambiguity. I argue that, in light of Nietzsche's critique of morality, environmental ethics is a highly (...)
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  26. R. Elliot (1992). Intrinsic Value, Naturalness and Environmental Obligation. Monist: An International Quarterly of General Philosophical Inquiry 75:138-160.
  27. Joseph P. Fell (1996). Out of the Wilderness: Douglas Clyde Macintosh's Journeys Through the Grounds and Claims of Modern Thought Preston Warren New York, Bern and Frankfurt-Am-Main: Peter Lang, 1989, Xvi + 284 Pp. $39.50. [REVIEW] Dialogue 35 (03):628-.
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  28. James Fieser (1993). Callicott and the Metaphysical Basis of Ecocentric Morality. Environmental Ethics 15 (2):171-180.
    According to the theory of ecocentric morality, the environment and its many ecosystems are entitled to a direct moral standing, and not simply a standing derivative from human interests. J. Baird Callicott has offered two possible metaphysical foundations for ecocentrism that attempt to show that inherent goodness can apply to environmental collections and not just to individual agents. I argue that Callicott’s first theory fails because it relies on a problematic theory of moral sentiments and that his second theory fails (...)
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  29. Scott Friskics (2010). The Wilderness Debate Rages On. Environmental Ethics 32 (1):85-90.
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  30. Scott Friskics (2008). The Twofold Myth of Pristine Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 30 (4):381-399.
    In recent years, the notion of wilderness has been roundly criticized by several prominent environmental philosophers and historians. They argue that the “received wilderness idea” is dualistic, ethnocentric, and static. According to these critics, this idea of wilderness finds clear expression in the Wilderness Act of 1964. However, the idea of wilderness so ably deconstructed by its critics bears little resemblance to the understanding of wilderness presented in the Wilderness Act. The critics assume a backward-looking, purity-based definition of wilderness that (...)
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  31. Greta Gaard (1997). Ecofeminism and Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 19 (1):5-24.
    I argue that ecofeminism must be concerned with the preservation and expansion of wilderness on the grounds that wilderness is an Other to the Self of Western culture and the master identity and that ecofeminism is concerned with the liberation of all subordinated Others. I suggest replacing the master identity with an ecofeminist ecological self, an identity defined through interdependence with Others, and I argue for the necessity of restoring and valuing human relationships with the Other of wilderness as integral (...)
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  32. Greta Gaard (1997). Ecofeminism and Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 19 (1):5-24.
    I argue that ecofeminism must be concerned with the preservation and expansion of wilderness on the grounds that wilderness is an Other to the Self of Western culture and the master identity and that ecofeminism is concerned with the liberation of all subordinated Others. I suggest replacing the master identity with an ecofeminist ecological self, an identity defined through interdependence with Others, and I argue for the necessity of restoring and valuing human relationships with the Other of wilderness as integral (...)
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  33. Hannah Gay (1994). Wilderness Philosophy. Dialogue 33 (04):661-.
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  34. William Godfrey-Smith (1979). The Value of Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 1 (4):309-319.
    In this paper I explore various grounds on which wilderness can be regarded as something which we should value, and I draw attention to the problems of resolving conftict which are generated by these diverse grounds. I conclude that our attitudes toward nature are partially determined by a background of metaphysical assumptions which derive in particular from the philosophy of Descartes. Thesemetaphysical preconceptions lead to the misconception that various alternative views about the natural environment are mystical or occult. Thus, an (...)
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  35. Ramachandra Guha (2010). Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Preservation : A Third World Critique. In Craig Hanks (ed.), Environmental Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell 71-83.
    I present a Third World critique of the trend in American environmentalism known as deep ecology, analyzing each of deep ecology’s central tenets: the distinction between anthropocentrism and biocentrism, the focus on wildemess preservation, the invocation of Eastem traditions, and the belief that it represents the most radical trend within environmentalism. I argue that the anthropocentrism/biocentrism distinction is of little use in understanding the dynamics of environmental degredation, that the implementation of the wildemess agenda is causing serious deprivation in (...)
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  36. Ramachandra Guha (1989). Radical American Environmentalism and Wilderness Perservation: A Third World Critique. Environmental Ethics 11 (1):71-83.
    I present a Third World critique of the trend in American environmentalism known as deep ecology, analyzing each of deep ecology’s central tenets: the distinction between anthropocentrism and biocentrism, the focus on wildemess preservation, the invocation of Eastem traditions, and the belief that it represents the most radical trend within environmentalism. I argue that the anthropocentrism/biocentrism distinction is of little use in understanding the dynamics of environmental degredation, that the implementation of the wildemess agenda is causing serious deprivation in the (...)
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  37. Benjamin Hale (2008). Takings. In Baird Callicott & Robert Frodeman (eds.), Encyclopedia of Environmental Ethics and Philosophy. Macmillan Reference
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  38. John L. Hammond (1985). Wilderness and Heritage Values. Environmental Ethics 7 (2):165-170.
    Some proponents of the preservation of American wildemess-for example, Aldo Leopold-have argued in terms of the role of wildemess in forming and maintaining a set of distinctive national character traits. l examine and defend the value judgment implicit in Leopold’s argument. The value of one's cultural heritage is, I contend, as important and valid as other familiar goods appealed to in defense of social policy.
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  39. Peter H. Hare (1985). The Wilderness and the City. American Classical Philosophy as a Moral Quest. Journal of the History of Philosophy 23 (4):601-602.
    inquiry that ultimately concerns the nature of knowing. The traditional name for it is epistemology. Dihhey wanted to pursue it without jumping beyond the historical reflection of historically situated inquirers to a static, trans-historical standpoint. Rorty apparently does not want to pursue it on any basis. Yet his position is born of extensive, and often insightful, historical interpretation, which seems to be more than a "way of coping" (or refusing to cope) with the history of modern philosophy, His interpretations make (...)
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  40. David Havlick (2006). Reconsidering Wilderness: Prospective Ethics for Nature, Technology, and Society. Ethics, Place and Environment 9 (1):47 – 62.
    In this paper I seek to reconsider wilderness against recent critiques that portray it as necessarily contributing to a separation between nature and society. By examining the historical and contemporary contexts for designating wilderness areas in the United States, I propose that these wilderness lands and their particular constraints on the use of certain technologies may in fact present integrative, open spaces for considering how to live ethical, technological lives in contemporary society. An examination of actual wilderness practices illustrates how (...)
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  41. Marvin Henberg (1993). The Wilderness Condition. Environmental Ethics 15 (4):355-358.
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  42. Marvin Henberg (1984). Wilderness as Playground. Environmental Ethics 6 (3):251-263.
    Play requires security from sober concems, and only recently have non-native North Americans feIt secure enough in wildemess lands to view them as potential playgrounds. Employing a pretend quality of play illusion, many kinds of play are derivatives from normally sober activities. I argue that the most genuine sorts of wildemess play derive from the activities of the original geographical explorers. It is thus possible to distinguish types of play for which wildemess is especially suited from types that merely happen (...)
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  43. David Henderson, American Wilderness Philosophy. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    American Wilderness Philosophy Wilderness has been defined in diverse ways, but most famously in the Wilderness Act of 1964, which describes it “in contrast with those areas where man and his own works dominate the landscape … as an area where the earth and its community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is […].
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  44. David Graham Henderson (2009). The Possibility of Managing for Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 31 (4):413-429.
    Wilderness is often understood as land untouched by people. On this reading, wilderness management seems to be a simple contradiction, but it is in fact a thriving and functional practice. Wilderness is not simply an absence of human influence, but the presence of something else. Wilderness is land characterized by the flourishing of natural purpose. When this is understood, wilderness management becomes intelligible and several recent criticisms of wilderness preservation are defused.
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  45. David Graham Henderson (2009). The Possibility of Managing for Wilderness. Environmental Ethics 31 (4):413-429.
    Wilderness is often understood as land untouched by people. On this reading, wilderness management seems to be a simple contradiction, but it is in fact a thriving and functional practice. Wilderness is not simply an absence of human influence, but the presence of something else. Wilderness is land characterized by the flourishing of natural purpose. When this is understood, wilderness management becomes intelligible and several recent criticisms of wilderness preservation are defused.
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  46. Thom Heyd (1999). Crazy Mountain: Learning From Wilderness to Weigh Technology. Environmental Ethics 21 (3):321-324.
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  47. A. Holland, & J. O'neill, Conservation: Out of the Wilderness.
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  48. Susan Howe (1995). Book Review: The Birth-Mark: Unsettling the Wilderness in American Literary History. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Literature 19 (1).
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  49. Linda Jarchow Jones (1994). Wildflowers and Wonder: A Pastor's Wanderings in the Religion-Science Wilderness. Zygon 29 (1):115-125.
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  50. Christopher McGrory Klyza (1993). Wilderness on the Rocks. Environmental Ethics 15 (1):91-92.
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