Peter Vallentyne University of Missouri, Columbia
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  • Faculty, University of Missouri, Columbia
  • PhD, University of Pittsburgh, 1984.

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  1. P. Vallentyne (2013). Well-Being and Fair Distribution: Beyond Cost-Benefit Analysis. Analysis 73 (3):542-548.
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  2. Peter Vallentyne, On Mack on Locke on Property. Liberty Matters.
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  3. Peter Vallentyne (2013). On the Duty of Altruism. Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (2):118-120.
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  4. Peter Vallentyne & Bertil Tungodden (2013). Liberal Resourcism: Problems and Possibilities. Journal of Social Philosophy 44 (4):348-369.
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  5. Peter Vallentyne (2012). Left-Libertarianism. In David Estlund (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Political Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 152.
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  6. Peter Vallentyne (2012). Taxation, Redistribution and Property Rights. In Andrei Marmor (ed.), Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Law. Routledge.
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  7. Peter Vallentyne (2011). Equal Negative Liberty and Welfare Rights. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (2):237-41.
    In Are Equal Liberty and Equality Compatible?, Jan Narveson and James Sterba insightfully debate whether a right to maximum equal negative liberty requires, or at least is compatible with, a right to welfare. Narveson argues that the two rights are incompatible, whereas Sterba argues that the rights are compatible and indeed that the right to maximum equal negative liberty requires a right to welfare. I argue that Sterba is correct that the two rights are conceptually compatible and that Narveson is (...)
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  8. Peter Vallentyne (2011). Enforcement Rights Against Non-Culpable Non-Just Intrusion. Ratio 24 (4):422-442.
    I articulate and defend a principle governing enforcement rights in response to a non-culpable non-just rights-intrusion (e.g., wrongful bodily attack by someone who falsely, but with full epistemic justification, believes that he is acting permissibly). The account requires that the use of force reduce the harm from such intrusions and is sensitive to the extent to which the intruder is agent-responsible for imposing intrusion-harm.
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  9. Peter Vallentyne (2011). Libertarianism and the Rejection of a Basic Income. Basic Income Studies 6:1-12.
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  10. Peter Vallentyne (2011). Nozick’s Libertarian Theory of Justice. In Ralf Bader & John Meadowcroft (eds.), Anarchy, State, and Utopia--A Reappraisal. Cambridge University Press.
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  11. Peter Vallentyne (2011). Responsibility and False Beliefs. In Carl Knight & Zofia Stemploska (eds.), Justice and Responsibility. Oxford University Press.
    An individual is agent-responsible for an outcome just in case it flows from her autonomous agency in the right kind of way. The topic of agent-responsibility is important because most people believe that agents should be held morally accountable (e.g., liable to punishment or having an obligation to compensate victims) for outcomes for which they are agent-responsible and because many other people (e.g., brute luck egalitarians) hold that agents should not be held accountable for outcomes for which they are not (...)
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  12. P. Vallentyne (2010). The Idea of Justice * by Amartya Sen. Analysis 71 (1):204-207.
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  13. Marc Fleurbaey, Bertil Tungodden & Peter Vallentyne (2009). On the Possibility of Nonaggregative Priority for the Worst Off. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (1):258-285.
    We shall focus on moral theories that are solely concerned with promoting the benefits (e.g., wellbeing) of individuals and explore the possibility of such theories ascribing some priority to benefits to those who are worse off—without this priority being absolute. Utilitarianism (which evaluates alternatives on the basis of total or average benefits) ascribes no priority to the worse off, and leximin (which evaluates alternatives by giving lexical priority to the worst off, and then the second worst off, and so on) (...)
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  14. Hillel Steiner & Peter Vallentyne (2009). Libertarian Theories of Intergenerational Justice. In Axel Gosseries & Lucas Meyer (eds.), Justice Between Generations. Oxford University Press.
    Justice and Libertarianism The term ‘justice’ is commonly used in several different ways. Sometimes it designates the moral permissibility of political structures (such as legal systems). Sometimes it designates moral fairness (as opposed to efficiency or other considerations that are relevant to moral permissibility). Sometimes it designates legitimacy in the sense of it being morally impermissible for others to interfere forcibly with the act or omission (e.g., my failing to go to dinner with my mother may be wrong but nonetheless (...)
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  15. Hillel Steiner & Peter Vallentyne (2009). Of Intergenerational Justice. In Gosseries Axel & Meyers L. (eds.), Intergenerational Justice. Oxford University Press. 50.
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  16. Peter Vallentyne (2009). Broome on Moral Goodness and Population Ethics. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 78 (3):739 - 746.
    and Overview In an earlier book, Weighing Goods1, John Broome gave a sophisticated defense of utilitarianism for the cases involving a fixed population. In the present book, Weighing Lives, he extends this defense to variable population cases, where different individuals exist depending on which choice is made. Broome defends a version of utilitarianism according to which there is a vague positive level of individual wellbeing such that adding a life with more than that level of wellbeing makes things morally better (...)
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  17. Peter Vallentyne (2009). Infinite Utility and Temporal Neutrality. Utilitas 6 (02):193-.
    Suppose that time is infinitely long towards the future, and that each feasible action produces a finite amount of utility at each time. Then, under appropriate conditions, each action produces an infinite amount of utility. Does this mean that utilitarianism lacks the resources to discriminate among such actions? Since each action produces the same infinite amount of utility, it seems that utilitarianism must judge all actions permissible, judge all actions impermissible, or remain completely silent. If the future is infinite, that (...)
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  18. Peter Vallentyne (2009). Jonathan Wolff and Avner de-Shalit, Disadvantage (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), Pp. IX + 231. Utilitas 21 (4):532-535.
  19. Peter Vallentyne (2009). Left-Libertarianism as a Promising Form of Liberal Egalitarianism. Philosophical Exchange:56-71.
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  20. Peter Vallentyne (2009). Left-Libertarianism and Liberty. In Thomas Christiano & John Christman (eds.), Debates in Political Philosophy. Blackwell Publishers. 17--137.
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  21. Peter Vallentyne (2009). On the Possibility of Non-Aggregative Priority for the Worst Off. Social Philosophy and Policy 26 (1):258-285.
    We address the question of whether there is a prioritarian moral theory that both (1) avoids giving absolute priority to the worst off (as leximin does) but (2) does not allow arbitrarily small benefits to enough extremely affluent people to take priority over a significant benefit to a worst off person in abject poverty. We argue that this is possible only if one rejects some seemingly plausible conditions.
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  22. Peter Vallentyne (2009). Responsibility and Compensation Rights. In Stephen De Wijze, Matthew H. Kramer & Ian Carter (eds.), Hillel Steiner and the Anatomy of Justice: Themes and Challenges. Routledge.
    I address an issue that arises for rights theories that recognize rights to compensation for rightsintrusions. Do individuals who never pose any risk of harm to others have a right, against a rightsintruder, to full compensation for any resulting intrusion-harm, or is the right limited in some way by the extent to which the intruder was agent-responsible for the intrusion-harm (e.g., the extent to which the harm was a foreseeable result of her autonomous choices)? Although this general issue of strict (...)
     
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  23. Peter Vallentyne (2009). Sen on Sufficiency, Priority, and Equality. In Christopher W. Morris (ed.), Amartya Sen. Cambridge University Press.
  24. Peter Vallentyne & Hillel Steiner (2009). Libertarian Theories of Intergenerational Justice. In Axel Gosseries & Lukas Meyer (eds.), Justice Between Generations. Oxford University Press.
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  25. Peter Vallentyne, Hillel Steiner & Michael Otsuka (2009). Left-Libertarianism and Liberty Forthcoming in Debates in Political Philosophy. In Thomas Christiano & John Christman (eds.), Debates in Political Philosophy. Blackwell Publishers.
    I shall formulate and motivate a left-libertarian theory of justice. Like the more familiar rightlibertarianism, it holds that agents initially fully own themselves. Unlike right-libertarianism, it holds that natural resources belong to everyone in some egalitarian manner. Left-libertarianism is, I claim, a plausible version of liberal egalitarianism because it is suitably sensitive to considerations of liberty, security, and equality.
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  26. G. Bonanno, C. List, B. Tungodden & P. Vallentyne (2008). Special Issue on “Neuroeconomics”. Economics and Philosophy 24.
     
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  27. Giacomo Bonanno, Christian List, Bertil Tungodden & Peter Vallentyne (2008). Introduction to the Special Issue of Economics and Philosophy on Neuroeconomics. Economics and Philosophy 24 (3):301-302.
    ABSTRACT The past fifteen years or so have witnessed considerable progress in our understanding of how the human brain works. One of the objectives of the fast-growing field of neuroscience is to deepen our knowledge of how the brain perceives and interacts with the external world. Advances in this direction have been made possible by progress in brain imaging techniques and by clinical data obtained from patients with localized brain lesions. A relatively new field within neuroscience is neuroeconomics, which focuses (...)
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  28. Peter Vallentyne (2008). Brute Luck and Responsibility. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 7 (1):57-80.
    The concept of agent-responsibility for an outcome (that is, of the outcome reflecting the autonomous choice of the agent) is central to both ethics and political philosophy. The concept, however, remains radically under-explored. In particular, the issue of partial responsibility for an outcome needs further development. I propose an account of partial responsibility based on partial causal contribution. Agents who choose autonomously in full knowledge of the consequences are agent-responsible, I claim, for the shift in the objective probability of the (...)
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  29. Peter Vallentyne (2008). Enforcement Rights and Rights to Reparation. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 50:813-820.
    I shall develop and defend a view of the reparation (e.g., rights to compensation) and enforcement rights (i.e., rights to use force) that individuals have in response to rights-transgressions. The general nature of the account is intermediate to two well-developed alternatives. Pure responsibility accounts hold that reparation and enforcement rights hold only to the extent that the transgressor is culpable, or in some way responsible, for the transgression or resulting harm. Strict liability accounts hold that reparation and enforcement rights hold (...)
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  30. Peter Vallentyne, Libertarianism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Libertarianism holds that agents initially fully own themselves and have moral powers to acquire property rights in external things under certain conditions. It is normally advocated as a theory of justice in the sense of the duties that we owe each other. So understood, it is silent about any impersonal duties (i.e., duties owed to no one) that we may have.
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  31. Bertil Tungodden & Peter Vallentyne (2007). Person-Affecting Paretian Egalitarianism with Variable Population Size. In John Roemer & Kotaro Suzumura (eds.), Intergenerational Equity and Sustainability. Palgrave Publishers Ltd..
    Where there is a fixed population (i.e., who exists does not depend on what choice an agent makes), the deontic version of anonymous Paretian egalitarianism holds that an option is just if and only if (1) it is anonymously Pareto optimal (i.e., no feasible alternative has a permutation that is Pareto superior), and (2) it is no less equal than any other anonymously Pareto optimal option. We shall develop and discuss a version of this approach for the variable population case (...)
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  32. Peter Vallentyne (2007). “Answers to Five Questions on Normative Ethics”. In Jesper Ryberg & Thomas S. Peterson (eds.), Normative Ethics: Five Questions. Automatic Press/VIP.
    I came late to philosophy and even later to normative ethics. When I started my undergraduate studies at the University of Toronto in 1970, I was interested in mathematics and languages. I soon discovered, however, that my mathematical talents were rather meager compared to the truly talented. I therefore decided to study actuarial science (the applied mathematics of risk assessment for insurance and pension plans) rather than abstract math. After two years, however, I dropped out of university, went to work (...)
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  33. Peter Vallentyne (2007). Consequentialism. In Hugh La Follette (ed.), Ethics in Practice 3rd edition. Blackwell Publishers.
    Ethics in Practice, 3rd edition, edited by Hugh La Follette (Blackwell Publishers, forthcoming 2007).
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  34. Peter Vallentyne (2007). Distributive Justice. In Robert Goodin, Philip Pettit & Thomas Pogge (eds.), Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy. Blackwell Publishers.
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  35. Peter Vallentyne (2007). Libertarianism and the State. Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (1):187-205.
    Although Robert Nozick has argued that libertarianism is compatible with the justice of a minimal state—even if does not arise from mutual consent—few have been persuaded. I will outline a different way of establishing that a non-consensual libertarian state can be just. I will show that a state can—with a few important qualifications—justly enforce the rights of citizens, extract payments to cover the costs of such enforcement, redistribute resources to the poor, and invest in infrastructure to overcome market failures. Footnotesa (...)
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  36. Peter Vallentyne (2007). On Original Appropriation. In Malcolm Murray (ed.), Liberty, Games, and Contracts: Jan Narveson and the Defence of Libertarianism. Aldershot: Ashgate Press.
    Libertarianism holds that agents initially fully own themselves. Lockean libertarianism further holds that agents have the moral power to acquire private property in external things as long as a Lockean Proviso—requiring that “enough and as good” be left for others—is satisfied. Radical right-libertarianism, on the other hand, holds that satisfaction of a Lockean Proviso is not necessary for the appropriation of unowned things. This is sometimes defended on the ground that the initial status of external resources as unowned precludes any (...)
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  37. Peter Vallentyne (2007). Review of Dale F. Murray, Nozick, Autonomy and Compensation. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2007 (12).
    In this nicely written book, Dale Murray critically discusses the moral rights posited by Robert Nozick in Anarchy, State, and Utopia. His focus is on these rights and not on Nozick's arguments about the justness of the state. He argues that Nozick's rights to compensation give rise to rights to government-financed health care and that Nozick should recognize a natural right to enough goods to ensure a reasonable chance of living a decent and meaningful life (if feasible for all). Murray (...)
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  38. Peter Vallentyne (2007). Distributive Justice. In Robert Goodin, Philip Pettit & Thomas Pogge (eds.), Companion to Contemporary Political Philosophy. Blackwell Publishers.
    The word “justice” is used in several different ways. First, justice is sometimes understood as moral permissibility applied to distributions of benefits and burdens (e.g., income distributions) or social structures (e.g., legal systems). In this sense, justice is distinguished by the kind of entity to which it is applied, rather than a specific kind of moral concern.
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  39. Peter Vallentyne & Bertil Tungodden (2007). Paretian Egalitarianism with Variable Population Size. In John Roemer & Kotaro Suzumura (eds.), Intergenerational Equity and Sustainability. Palgrave Publishers Ltd.
    in Intergenerational Equity and Sustainability, edited by John Roemer and Kotaro Suzumura, (Palgrave Publishers Ltd., forthcoming 2007), ch.11.
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  40. Peter Vallentyne & Bertil Tungodden (2007). Paretian Egalitarianism with Variable Population Size. In John Roemer & Kotaro Suzumura (eds.), Intergenerational Equity and Sustainability. Palgrave Publishers Ltd.
    Where there is a fixed population (i.e., who exists does not depend on what choice an agent makes), the deontic version of anonymous Paretian egalitarianism holds that an option is just if and only if (1) it is anonymously Pareto optimal (i.e., no feasible alternative has a permutation that is Pareto superior), and (2) it is no less equal than any other anonymously Pareto optimal option. We shall develop and discuss a version of this approach for the variable population case (...)
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  41. Peter Vallentyne (2006). Hurley on Justice and Responsibility. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (2):433 - 438.
    In Justice, Luck, and Knowledge, Susan Hurley defends a reason-responsive account of responsibility, argues that appeals to responsibility cannot provide a justification or non-trivial specification of brute luck egalitarian theories of justice, and sketches her own cognitive-bias-neutralizing theory of justice. Throughout, Hurley is concerned with normative (as opposed to causal) responsibility, where this is understood as that which licenses (moral or prudential) praise, blame, and other reactive attitudes and which implies at least partial (substantive) moral accountability in principle for choices (...)
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  42. Peter Vallentyne (2006). Against Maximizing Act-Consequentialism (June 30, 2008). In James Dreier (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theories. Blackwell Publishers. 6--21.
    Maximizing act consequentialism holds that actions are morally permissible if and only if they maximize the value of consequences—if and only if, that is, no alternative action in the given choice situation has more valuable consequences.[i] It is subject to two main objections. One is that it fails to recognize that morality imposes certain constraints on how we may promote value. Maximizing act consequentialism fails to recognize, I shall argue, that the ends do not always justify the means. Actions with (...)
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  43. Peter Vallentyne (2006). Against Maximizing Act-Consequentialism (December 2, 2010) in Moral Theories Edited by Jamie Dreier (Blackwell Publishers, 2006), Pp. 21-37. [REVIEW] In Dreier Jamie (ed.), Contemporary Debates in Moral Theories. Blackwell Publishers.
    Maximizing act consequentialism holds that actions are morally permissible if and only if they maximize the value of consequences—if and only if, that is, no alternative action in the given choice situation has more valuable consequences.1 It is subject to two main objections. One is that it fails to recognize that morality imposes certain constraints on how we may promote value. Maximizing act consequentialism fails to recognize, I shall argue, that the ends do not always justify the means. Actions with (...)
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  44. Peter Vallentyne (2006). Left-Libertarianism and Private Discrimination. San Diego Law Review 43:981-994.
    Left-libertarianism, like the more familiar right-libertarianism, holds that agents initially fully own themselves. Unlike right-libertarianism, however, it views natural resources as belonging to everyone in some egalitarian manner. Left-libertarianism is thus a form of liberal egalitarianism. In this article, I shall lay out the reasons why (1) left-libertarianism holds that (a) private discrimination is not intrinsically unjust and (b) it is intrinsically unjust for the state to prohibit private discrimination, and (2) that, nonetheless, a plausible version of left-libertarianism holds that (...)
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  45. Peter Vallentyne (2006). “Natural Rights and Two Conceptions of Promising”. Chicago-Kent Law Review 81 (9):9-19.
    Does one have an obligation to keep one’s promises? I answer this question by distinguishing between two broad conceptions of promising. On the normativized conception of promising, a promise is made when an agent validly offers to undertake an obligation to the promisee to perform some act (i.e., give up a liberty-right in relation to her) and the promisee validly accepts the offer. Keeping such promises is morally obligatory by definition. On the non- normativized conception, the nature of promising does (...)
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  46. Peter Vallentyne & Bertil Tungodden (2006). Who Are the Least Advantaged? In Nils Holtug & Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen (eds.), Egalitarianism: New Essays on the Nature and Value of Equality. Oxford University Press.
    The difference principle, introduced by Rawls (1971, 1993), is generally interpreted as leximin, but this is not how he intended it. Rawls explicitly states that the difference principle requires that aggregate benefits (e.g., average or total) to those in the least advantaged group be given lexical priority over benefits to others, where the least advantaged group includes more than the strictly worst off individuals. We study the implications of adopting different approaches to the definition of the least advantaged group and (...)
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  47. Michael Otsuka, Peter Vallentyne & Hillel Steiner (2005). Why Left-Libertarianism Is Not Incoherent, Indeterminate, or Irrelevant: A Reply to Fried. Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 (2):201-215.
    In a recent review essay of a two volume anthology on left-libertarianism (edited by two of us), Barbara Fried has insightfully laid out most of the core issues that confront left-libertarianism. We are each left-libertarians, and we would like to take this opportunity to address some of the general issues that she raises. We shall focus, as Fried does much of the time, on the question of whether left-libertarianism is a well-defined and distinct alternative to existing forms of liberal egalitarianism. (...)
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  48. Peter Vallentyne (2005). Capabilities Vs. Opportunities for Well-Being. Journal of Political Philosophy 13:359-371.
    Amartya Sen and Martha Nussbaum have argued that justice is concerned, at least in part, with the distribution of capabilities (opportunities to function). Richard Arneson, G.A. Cohen, and John Roemer have argued that justice is concerned with something like the distribution of opportunities for well-being. I argue that, although some versions of the capability view are incompatible with some versions of the opportunity for well-being view, the most plausible version of the capability view is identical to a slight generalization of (...)
     
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  49. Peter Vallentyne (2005). Debate: Capabilities Versus Opportunities for Well-Being. Journal of Political Philosophy 13 (3):359–371.
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  50. Peter Vallentyne (2005). Of Mice and Men: Equality and Animals. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 9 (3-4):403 - 433.
    Can material Egalitarianism (requiring, for example, the significant promotion of fortune) include animals in the domain of the equality requirement? The problem can be illustrated as follows: If equality of wellbeing is what matters, and normal mice are included in this egalitarian requirement, then normal mice have a much stronger claim to resources than almost any human. This is because normal mice have a much stronger claim to resources than almost any human. This is because their wellbeing is much lower (...)
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  51. Peter Vallentyne (2005). On the Possibility of Paretian Egalitarianism. Journal of Philosophy 102 (3):126-154.
    We here address the question of how, for a theory of justice, a concern for the promotion of equality can be combined with a concern for making people as well off as possible. Leximin, which requires making the worst off position as well off as possible, is one way of combining a concern for making people’s lives go well with a special concern for those who are especially poorly off. Many egalitarians, however, reject its near-monomaniacal focus on the worst off (...)
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  52. Peter Vallentyne (2005). On the Possibility of Paretian Egalitarianism. Journal of Philosophy 102 (3):126 - 154.
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  53. Peter Vallentyne, Hillel Steiner & And Michael Otsuka (2005). Why Left-Libertarianism is Not Incoherent, Indeterminate, or Irrelevant: A Reply to Fried. Philosophy and Public Affairs 33 (2):201–215.
    Over the past few decades, there has been increasing interest in left-libertarianism, which holds (roughly) that agents fully own themselves and that natural resources (land, minerals, air, etc.) belong to everyone in some egalitarian sense. Left-libertarianism agrees with the more familiar right-libertarianism about self-ownership, but radically disagrees with it about the power to acquire ownership of natural resources. Merely being the first person to claim, discover, or mix labor with an unappropriated natural resource does not—left-libertarianism insists—generate a full private property (...)
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  54. Luc Lauwers & Peter Vallentyne (2004). Infinite Utilitarianism: More is Always Better. Economics and Philosophy 20 (2):307-330.
    We address the question of how finitely additive moral value theories (such as utilitarianism) should rank worlds when there are an infinite number of locations of value (people, times, etc.). In the finite case, finitely additive theories satisfy both Weak Pareto and a strong anonymity condition. In the infinite case, however, these two conditions are incompatible, and thus a question arises as to which of these two conditions should be rejected. In a recent contribution, Hamkins and Montero (2000) have argued (...)
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  55. Peter Vallentyne (2004). Infinite Utilitarianism: More Is Always Better. Economics and Philosophy 20 (2):307-330.
    We address the question of how finitely additive moral value theories (such as utilitarianism) should rank worlds when there are an infinite number of locations of value (people, times, etc.). In a recent contribution, Hamkins and Montero have argued that Weak Pareto is implausible in the infinite case and defended alternative principles. We here defend Weak Pareto against their criticisms and argue against an isomorphism principle that they defend. Where locations are the same in both worlds but have no natural (...)
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  56. Peter Vallentyne (2004). Review: Indeterminacy and Society. [REVIEW] Mind 113 (452):753-756.
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  57. P. Vallentyne (2003). Libertarianism, Self-Ownership and Consensual Homicide. Revue Philosophique de Louvain 101 (1):5-25.
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  58. Peter Vallentyne (2003). D. D. Raphaell, Concepts of Justice, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2001, Pp. 256. Utilitas 15 (01):112-.
  59. Peter Vallentyne (2003). Brute Luck Equality and Desert. In Sabrina Olsaretti (ed.), Desert and Justice. Clarendon Press.
    In recent years, interest in desert-based theories of justice has increased, and this seems to represent a challenge to equality-based theories of justice.[i] The best distribution of outcomeadvantage with respect to desert, after all, need not be the most equal distribution of outcomeadvantage. Some individuals may deserve more than others. Outcome egalitarianism is, however, implausible, and so the conflict of outcome desert with outcome equality is of little significance.[ii] Most contemporary versions of egalitarianism are concerned with neutralizing the differential effects (...)
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  60. Peter Vallentyne (2003). Democratic Distributive Justice, Ross Zucker. Cambridge University Press, 2001, X + 336 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 19 (1):156-160.
  61. Peter Vallentyne (ed.) (2003). Equality and Justice. Routledge.
    Bringing together the most influential essays in ethical philosophy throughout the twentieth century, this comprehensive collection examines the issues that form the basis of the modern understanding of a democratic society. The carefully selected articles debate the character of human, legal, institutional, and universal equality and justice. Topics and coverage include contemporary notions of justice and social equality; the conceptual foundation for requiring minimum justice and equality; discussions of who is entitled to justice and equality and who is obliged to (...)
     
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  62. Peter Vallentyne (2003). Justice in General: An Introduction. In , Equality and Justice: Justice in General. Routledge.
    This is the first volume of Equality and Justice, a six-volume collection of the most important articles of the twentieth century on the topic of justice and equality. This volume addresses the following three (only loosely related) issues: (1) What is the concept of justice? (2) Is justice primarily a demand on individuals or on societies? (3) What are the relative merits of conceptions of justice based on equality, based on priority for those who have less, and based on ensuring (...)
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  63. Peter Vallentyne (2003). Libertarisme, Propriété de Soi Et Homicide Consensuel. Revue Philosophique De Louvain 101 (1):5-25.
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  64. Peter Vallentyne (2003). Éthique et mort(s) - Libertarisme, propriété de soi et homicide consensuel. Revue Philosophique de Louvain 101 (1):5-25.
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  65. Peter Vallentyne (2003). The Rights and Duties of Childrearing. William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 11:991-1010.
    What rights and duties do adults have with respect to raising children? Who, for example, has the right to decide how and where a particular child will live, be educated, receive health care, and spend recreational time? I argue that neither biological (gene-provider) nor..
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  66. Peter Vallentyne (2002). Robert H. Myers, Self‐Governance and Cooperation:Self‐Governance and Cooperation. Ethics 112 (2):396-398.
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  67. Peter Vallentyne (2002). T. M. Wilkinson, Freedom, Efficiency and Equality:Freedom, Efficiency and Equality. Ethics 112 (2):417-420.
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  68. Peter Vallentyne (2002). Brute Luck, Option Luck, and Equality of Initial Opportunities. Ethics 112 (3):529-557.
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  69. Peter Vallentyne (2002). Equality, Brute Luck, and Initial Opportunities. Ethics 112:529-557.
    In the old days, material egalitarians tended to favor equality of outcome advantage, on some suitable conception of advantage (happiness, resources, etc.). Under the influence of Dworkin’s seminal articles on equality[i], contemporary material egalitarians have tended to favor equality of brute luck advantage—on the grounds that this permits people to be held appropriately accountable for the benefits and burdens of their choices. I shall argue, however, that a plausible conception of egalitarian justice requires neither that brute luck advantage always be (...)
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  70. Peter Vallentyne (2002). Equality and the Duties of Procreators. In David Archard & Colin Macleod (eds.), Children and Political Theory. Oxford University Press.
    I formulate and defend a theory of special procreative duties in the context of a liberal egalitarian theory of justice. I argue that (1) the only special duty that procreators owe their offspring is that of ensuring that their life prospects are non-negative (worth living), and (2) the only special duty that procreators owe others is that of ensuring that they are not disadvantaged by the procreators’ offspring (a) violating their rights or (b) adversely affecting their equality rights and duties.
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  71. Peter Vallentyne (2002). Libertarianism, Self-Ownership and Consensual Killing. Revue Philosophique de Louvain.
    Under what conditions is it morally permissible to commit suicide, to assist in someone’s suicide, or to kill another person with his/her consent? Under what conditions is it morally permissible to use force to prevent such acts? I shall defend a libertarian answer to these questions. On this view, autonomous agents initially fully own themselves in the same sense that one can fully own an inanimate object such as a car. Just as full owners of cars are morally permitted, under (...)
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  72. R. Jay Wallace, Gerald Dworkin, John Deigh, T. M. Scanlon, Peter Vallentyne & Alan Patten (2002). 10. William A. Edmundson, Ed., The Duty to Obey the Law: Selected Philosophical Readings William A. Edmundson, Ed., The Duty to Obey the Law: Selected Philosophical Readings (Pp. 614-616). [REVIEW] Ethics 112 (3).
     
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  73. Peter Vallentyne (2001). Left-Libertarianism and Global Justice. In Burton M. Leiser & Tom Campbell (eds.), Human Rights in Philosophy & Practice. Ashgate Publishing.
    We defend a version of left-libertarianism, and discuss some of its implications for global justice (and economic justice among nations in particular). Like the better known right-libertarianism, left-libertarianism holds that agents own themselves. Unlike right-libertarianism, left-libertarianism holds that natural resources (land, oil, air, etc.) are owned in some egalitarian sense and can be legitimately appropriated by individuals or groups only when the appropriations are compatible with the specified form of egalitarian ownership. We defend the thesis of self-ownership on the grounds (...)
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  74. Peter Vallentyne (2001). Self-Ownership. In Laurence Becker & Charlotte Becker (eds.), Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd edition. Garland Publishing.
    John Locke (1690), libertarians, and others have held that agents are self-owners in the sense that they have private property rights over themselves in the same way that people can have private property rights over inanimate objects. This private ownership is typically taken to include (1) control rights over (power to grant and deny permission for) the use of their persons (e.g., what things are done to them), (2) rights to transfer the rights they have to others (by sale, rental, (...)
     
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  75. P. Vallentyne (2000). Utilitarianism, Hedonism, and Desert by Fred Feldman. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (3):734-736.
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  76. Peter Vallentyne (2000). Barbara Fried, The Progressive Assault on Laissez Faire: Robert Hale and the First Law and Economics Movement:The Progressive Assault on Laissez Faire: Robert Hale and the First Law and Economics Movement. Ethics 110 (3):612-614.
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  77. Peter Vallentyne (2000). Paul Kelly, Impartiality, Neutrality, and Justice:Impartiality, Neutrality, and Justice. Ethics 110 (4):843-845.
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  78. Peter Vallentyne (2000). Equality, Efficiency, and the Priority of the Worse-Off. Economics and Philosophy 16 (1):1-19.
    Egalitarian theories of justice hold that equality should be promoted. Typically, perfect equality will not be achievable, and it will be necessary to determine which of various unequal distributions is the most equal. All plausible conceptions of equality hold that, where perfect equality does not obtain, (1) any benefit (no matter how small) to a worst-off person that leaves him/her still a worst-off person has priority (with respect to equality promotion) over any benefit (no matter how large) to a best-off (...)
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  79. Peter Vallentyne (2000). Left-Libertarianism: A Primer. In Peter Vallentyne & Hillel Steiner (eds.), Left Libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate. Palgrave Publishers Ltd..
    Left-libertarian theories of justice hold that agents are full self-owners and that natural resources are owned in some egalitarian manner. Unlike most versions of egalitarianism, leftlibertarianism endorses full self-ownership, and thus places specific limits on what others may do to one’s person without one’s permission. Unlike the more familiar right-libertarianism (which also endorses full self-ownership), it holds that natural resources—resources which are not the results of anyone's choices and which are necessary for any form of activity—may be privately appropriated only (...)
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  80. Peter Vallentyne (2000). Critical Notice of Child Versus Childmaker: Future Persons and Present Duties in Ethics and the Law. Noûs 34 (4):634–647.
    In Child versus Childmaker Melinda Roberts provides an enlightening analysis and a cogent defense of a version of the person-affecting restriction in ethics. The rough idea of this restriction is that an action, state of affairs, or world, cannot be wrong, or bad, unless it would wrong, or be bad for, someone. I shall focus solely on Roberts’s core principles, and thus shall not address her interesting chapter-length discussions of wrongful life cases and of human cloning cases. The person-affecting intuition (...)
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  81. Peter Vallentyne (2000). Standard Decision Theory Corrected. Synthese 122 (3):261-290.
    Where there are infinitely many possible basic states of the world, a standard probability function must assign zero probability to each state – since any finite probability would sum to over one. This generates problems for any decision theory that appeals to expected utility or related notions. For it leads to the view that a situation in which one wins a million dollars if any of a thousand of the equally probable states is realized has an expected value of zero (...)
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  82. Peter Vallentyne (2000). Standard Decision Theory Corrected: Assessing Options When Probability is Infinitely and Uniformly Spread. Synthese 122 (3):261-290.
    Where there are infinitely many possible [equiprobable] basic states of the world, a standard probability function must assign zero probability to each state—since any finite probability would sum to over one. This generates problems for any decision theory that appeals to expected utility or related notions. For it leads to the view that a situation in which one wins a million dollars if any of a thousand of the equally probable states is realized has an expected value of zero (since (...)
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  83. Peter Vallentyne (2000). Utilitarianism, Hedonism, and Desert. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (3):734-737.
  84. Peter Vallentyne (2000). What We Owe to Each Other. International Philosophical Quarterly 40 (1):102-103.
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  85. Peter Vallentyne & Hillel Steiner (eds.) (2000). Left Libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate. Palgrave Publishers Ltd..
    This book contains a collection of important recent writing on left-liberalism, a political philosophy that recognizes both strong liberty rights and strong ...
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  86. Peter Vallentyne & Hillel Steiner (2000). Le Règne Social du Christianisme. In Peter Vallentyne & Hillel Steiner (eds.), The Origins of Left Libertarianism: An Anthology of Historical Writings. Palgrave Publishing Ltd..
    François Huet (1814-1869), a French philosopher, sought to reconcile the principles of Christianity with those of socialism. He argues that each person is entitled to the wealth he/she produces and to an equal share of the wealth from natural resources and from artifacts inherited from previous generations. Unlike Colins, Huet holds that agents have the right to give and bequeath wealth that they have created, but no such right with respect to wealth they inherited or received as a gift. (This (...)
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  87. Peter Vallentyne & Hillel Steiner (eds.) (2000). The Origins of Left Libertarianism: An Anthology of Historical Writings. Palgrave Publishing Ltd..
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  88. Peter Vallentyne (1999). David Copp, Morality, Normativity, and Society, Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1995, Pp. 262. Utilitas 11 (01):130-.
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  89. Peter Vallentyne (1999). Paul Weirich, Equilibrium and Rationality: Game Theory Revised by Decision Rules. Ethics 109 (3):684-686.
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  90. Peter Vallentyne (1999). Left-Libertarian Theories of Justice. Revue Economique 50:859-878.
    Libertarian theories of justice hold that agents, at least initially, own themselves fully, and thus owe no service to others, except through voluntary action. The most familiar libertarian theories (e.g., Nozick [1974]) are right-libertarian in that they hold that natural resources are initially unowned and, under a broad range of realistic circumstances, can be privately appropriated without the consent of, or any significant payment to, the other members of society. Leftlibertarian theories, by contrast, hold that natural resources are owned by (...)
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  91. Peter Vallentyne (1999). On Economic Inequality. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 108 (1):85-87.
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  92. P. Vallentyne (1998). Review of Marc Fleurbaey's Theories Economiques de la Justice, Serge-Christophe Kolm's Modern Theories of Justice and John Roemer's Theories of Distributive Justice. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 14:135-142.
     
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  93. Peter Vallentyne (1998). Matthew H. Kramer, John Locke and the Origins of Private Property: Philosophical Explorations of Individualism, Community, and Equality:John Locke and the Origins of Private Property: Philosophical Explorations of Individualism, Community, and Equality. Ethics 109 (1):200-202.
  94. Peter Vallentyne (1998). Critical Notice. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):609-626.
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  95. Peter Vallentyne (1998). Gopal Sreenivasan, The Limits of Lockean Rights in Property Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 18 (1):62-64.
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  96. Peter Vallentyne (1998). Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 28 (4):609-626.
  97. Peter Vallentyne (1998). Critical Notice of G.A. Cohen’s Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality. [REVIEW] Canadian Journal of Philosophy 28:609-626.
    G.A. Cohen’s book brings together and elaborates on articles that he has written on selfownership, on Marx’s theory of exploitation, and on the future of socialism. Although seven of the eleven chapters have been previously published (1977-1992), this is not merely a collection of articles. There is a superb introduction that gives an overview of how the chapters fit together and of their historical relation to each other. Most chapters have a new introduction and often a postscript or addendum that (...)
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  98. Peter Vallentyne (1998). Théories Économiques de la Justice, Marc Fleurbaey. Economica, 1996, I + 250 Pages.Modern Theories of Justice, Serge-Christophe Kolm. MIT Press, 1996, Ix + 525 Pages.Theories of Distributive Justice, John Roemer. Harvard University Press, 1996, Ix + 342 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 14 (01):135-.
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  99. Peter Vallentyne (1998). The Nomic Role Account of Carving Reality at the Joints. Synthese 115 (2):171-198.
    Natural properties are those that carve reality at the joints. The notion of carving reality at the joints, however, is somewhat obscure, and is often understood in terms of making for similarity, conferring causal powers, or figuring in the laws of nature. I develop and assess an account of the third sort according to which carving reality at the joints is understood as having the right level of determinacy relative to nomic roles. The account has the attraction of involving very (...)
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  100. Peter Vallentyne (1998). The Nomic Role Account of Carving Reality at the Joints. Synthese 115 (2):171-198.
    Natural properties are those that carve reality at the joints. The notion of carving reality at the joints, however, is somewhat obscure. It is sometimes understood in terms of making for similarity, sometimes in terms of conferring causal powers, and sometimes in terms of figuring in the laws of nature. I develop and assess an account of the third sort according to which carving reality at the joints is understood as having the right level of determinacy relative to nomic roles. (...)
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  101. Peter Vallentyne & John Accordino (1998). Teaching Non-Philosophy Faculty to Teach Critical Thinking About Ethical Issues. Liberal Education 84 (2):46-51.
    At various universities across the country, philosophers are organizing faculty development workshops for non-philosophy faculty members who want to incorporate critical thinking about ethical and social justice issues into their courses. The demand for such programs is reasonably strong. In part this is due to the increasing pressure from professional associations (e.g., those of nursing and accounting) for the inclusion of ethics in the curriculum. In part, however, it is simply due to the recognition by faculty members across the university (...)
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  102. Peter Vallentyne (1997). Book Review:Fair Division: From Cake-Cutting to Dispute Resolution. Steven J. Brams, Alan D. Taylor. [REVIEW] Ethics 108 (1):213-.
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  103. Peter Vallentyne (1997). Self-Ownership and Equality: Brute Luck, Gifts, Universal Dominance, and Leximin:Real Freedom for All Philippe Van Parijs's. Ethics 107 (2):321-.
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  104. Peter Vallentyne (1997). Welfare, Happiness, and Ethics, LW Sumner. Oxford University Press, 1996, 239+ Xii Pages. Economics and Philosophy 13 (2):330-.
  105. Peter Vallentyne (1997). Intrinsic Properties Defined. Philosophical Studies 88 (2): 209-219.
    Intuitively, a property is intrinsic just in case a thing’s having it (at a time) depends only on what that thing is like (at that time), and not on what any wholly distinct contingent object (or wholly distinct time) is like. A property is extrinsic just in case it is non-intrinsic. Redness and squareness are intrinsic properties. Being next to a red object is extrinsic.
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  106. Peter Vallentyne (1997). Review: Self-Ownership and Equality: Brute Luck, Gifts, Universal Dominance, and Leximin. [REVIEW] Ethics 107 (2):321 - 343.
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  107. Peter Vallentyne & Shelly Kagan (1997). Infinite Value and Finitely Additive Value Theory. Journal of Philosophy 94 (1):5-26.
    000000001. Introduction Call a theory of the good—be it moral or prudential—aggregative just in case (1) it recognizes local (or location-relative) goodness, and (2) the goodness of states of affairs is based on some aggregation of local goodness. The locations for local goodness might be points or regions in time, space, or space-time; or they might be people, or states of nature.1 Any method of aggregation is allowed: totaling, averaging, measuring the equality of the distribution, measuring the minimum, etc.. Call (...)
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  108. Peter Vallentyne (1996). J. Howard Sobel, Taking Chances, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1994, Pp. X + 376. Utilitas 8 (01):130-.
  109. Peter Vallentyne (1996). David Braybrooke, Bryson Brown, and Peter Schotch (with Two Chapters by Laura Byrne), Logic on the Track of Social Change Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 16 (5):315-317.
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  110. Peter Vallentyne (1996). Freedom of Expression, Hate Speech, and Censorship. For Good Reason.
    In a narrow sense, hate speech is symbolic representation that expresses, hatred, contempt, or disregard for another person or group of persons. The use of deeply insulting racial or ethnic epithets is an example of such hate speech. In a broader sense, hate speech also includes the symbolic representation of views are deeply offensive to others. The expression of the view that women are morally inferior to (or less intelligent than) men is example of hate speech in the broader sense. (...)
     
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  111. Peter Vallentyne (1996). Response-Dependence, Rigidification and Objectivity. Erkenntnis 44 (1):101 - 112.
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  112. Peter Vallentyne (1995). Book Review:The Limits of Hobbesian Contractarianism. Jody Kraus. [REVIEW] Ethics 106 (1):193-.
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  113. Peter Vallentyne (1995). Taking Justice Too Seriously. Utilitas 7 (02):207-.
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  114. Peter Vallentyne (1995). Review: The Myth of Property. [REVIEW] Mind 104 (415):622-624.
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  115. Peter Vallentyne (1995). Infinite Utility: Anonymity and Person-Centredness. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 73 (3):413 – 420.
    In 1991 Mark Nelson argued that if time is infinitely long towards the future, then under certain easily met conditions traditional utilitarianism is unable to discriminate among actions. For under these conditions, each action produces the same infinite amount of utility, and thus it seems that utilitarianism must judge all actions permissible, judge all actions impermissible, or remain completely silent. In response to this criticism of utilitarianism, I argued that utilitarianism had the resources for dealing with at least some cases (...)
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  116. Peter Vallentyne (1995). “Response-Dependence, Rigidification, and Objectivity”, Erkenntnis 44 (1995): 101-112. Erkenntnis 44:101-112.
    A fully developed sophisticated response-dependent account would fill in specifications for B (the beings) and C (the conditions), would probably replace the reference to disapproval with a reference to a more complex response, and might involve a more complex scheme.[ii] For simplicity, however, I shall focus my argument on the above simple scheme of moral wrongness, since added complexities will be irrelevant to my argument.
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  117. Peter Vallentyne (1995). Taking Justice Too Seriously. Utilitas 7 (2):207-216.
    000000001. Introduction One of the standard objections to traditional act utilitarianism is that it is insensitive to issues of justice and desert. Traditional act utilitarianism holds, for example, that it is morally obligatory to torture or kill an innocent person, when doing so increases the happiness of others more than it decreases the happiness of the innocent person. Utilitarianism is, of course, sensitive to what people believe about justice (for example, people might riot, if they believe a gross injustice has (...)
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  118. Peter Vallentyne (1994). Book Review:From Morality to Virtue. Michael Slote. [REVIEW] Ethics 104 (4):884-.
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  119. Rex Martin, David Gauthier & Peter Vallentyne (1993). Moral Dealing: Contract, Ethics, and Reason.Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's Morals by Agreement. Philosophical Quarterly 43 (172):373.
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  120. Peter Vallentyne (1993). The Connection Between Prudential and Moral Goodness. Journal of Social Philosophy 24 (2):105-128.
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  121. Peter Vallentyne (1993). “The Connection Between Prudential Goodness and Moral Permissibility”, Journal of Social Philosophy 24 (1993): 105-28. Journal of Social Philosophy 24:105-28.
    The basic idea of the theorem is not very new: it is a slight generalization of a theorem proved by John Harsanyi in the 1950s.[i] The power of the book comes from his interpretation of the theorem, and from his strikingly clear and insightful discussion of the various conditions.
     
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  122. Peter Vallentyne (1993). Utilitarianism and Infinite Utility. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 71 (2):212 – 217.
    Traditional act utilitarianism judges an action permissible just in case it produces as much aggregate utility as any alternative. It is often supposed that utilitarianism faces a serious problem if the future is infinitely long. For in that case, actions may produce an infinite amount of utility. And if that is so for most actions, then utilitarianism, it appears, loses most of its power to discriminate among actions. For, if most actions produce an infinite amount of utility, then few actions (...)
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  123. Morrice Lipson & Peter Vallentyne (1992). Child Liberationism and Legitimate Interference. Journal of Social Philosophy 23 (3):5-15.
    Child liberationism holds that children are entitled to more freedom from interference than we currently acknowledge socially or legally. It holds, for example, that "the law [should] grant and guarantee to the young the freedom that it now grants to adults to make certain kinds of choices, do certain kinds of things, and accept certain kinds of responsibilities. This means in turn that the law [should] take action against anyone who interferes with young people's rights to do such things".1 Call (...)
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  124. Peter Vallentyne (1992). Child Liberationism and Legitimate Interference. Journal of Social Philosophy 23 (3):5-15.
    Child liberationism holds that children are entitled to more freedom from interference than we currently acknowledge socially or legally. It holds, for example, that "the law [should] grant and guarantee to the young the freedom that it now grants to adults to make certain kinds of choices, do certain kinds of things, and accept certain kinds of responsibilities. This means in turn that the law [should] take action against anyone who interferes with young people’s rights to do such things".[i].
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  125. Peter Vallentyne (1992). Moral Dilemmas and Comparative Conceptions of Morality. Southern Journal of Philosophy (1):117-124.
    In recent years the problem of moral dilemmas has received the attention of a number of philosophers. Some authors[i] argue that moral dilemmas are not conceptually possible because they are ruled out by certain valid principles of deontic logic. Other authors[ii] insist that moral dilemmas are conceptually possible, and argue that therefore the principles of deontic logic that rule them out must be rejected.
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  126. Peter Vallentyne (1992). Moral Dilemmas and Comparative Conceptions of Morality. Southern Journal of Philosophy 30 (1):117-124.
    Earl Conee is a well known contemporary defender of the impossibility of moral dilemmas. In his 1982 paper "Against Moral Dilemmas" he argued that moral dilemmas are impossible because the existence of such a dilemma would entail that some obligatory action is forbidden, which is absurd. More recently, in "Why Moral Dilemmas are Impossible" he has defended the impossibility of moral dilemmas by claiming that the moral status of an action depends in part on the moral status of its alternatives. (...)
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  127. Morris Lipson & Peter Vallentyne (1991). Libertarianism, Autonomy, And Children. Public Affairs Quarterly 5 (4):333-352.
    IBERTARIANS hold that we have such duties as: not to directly and significantly harm others or their property, to keep agreements, to refrain from lying and certain other sorts of deception, and to compensate those whom we wrong. They also hold that we have a duty not to interfere with the liberty of others as long as they are fulfilling these duties. This duty of non-interference, they have thought, has protected the privacy of the home, and hence parental autonomy, for (...)
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  128. Peter Vallentyne (ed.) (1991). Contractarianism and Rational Choice: Essays on David Gauthier's Morals by Agreement. Cambridge University Press.
    In this anthology, prominent moral and political philosophers offer a critical assessment of Gauthier's theory.
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  129. Peter Vallentyne (1991). Motivational Ties and Doing What One Most Wats. Journal of Philosophical Research 16:443-445.
    In his paper "Motivational Ties"[i] Al Mele addresses the question of how intentional behavior is possible in "Buridan’s ass" choice situations. This is the question of how an agent could make a choice between two or more (equally) maximally attractive options (such as choosing one, rather than another, of two effectively identical copies of a desired book). For if, as is commonly supposed, choices and intentions are based on the attractiveness of options (roughly, how strongly one is motivated to perform (...)
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  130. Peter Vallentyne (1991). The Problem of Unauthorized Welfare. Noûs 25 (3):295-321.
    I shall address a familiar, yet persistent, problem confronted by welfare-based moral theories. Welfare is often based on suspect attitudes. Many people's pleasure, happiness, or preference satisfaction, for example, are based on racist, sexist, envious, meddlesome, or mali¬cious attitudes. Is welfare derived from such sources relevant to the deter¬mination of what is morally permis¬sible? Almost everyone has at least some "suspect" attitudes, so to ignore welfare based on suspect attitudes is to ignore things that people actually care about. To take (...)
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  131. Peter Vallentyne (1991). The Problem of Unauthorized Welfare. Noûs 25 (3):295-321.
    This problem has already been discussed by a number of authors.[i] Typically, however, authors take one of two extreme positions: they hold that all welfare should be taken at face value, or they hold that "suspect" welfare should be completely ignored. My contribution here is the following: First, I introduce the notion of unauthorized (suspect) welfare, of which welfare from meddlesome preferences, offensive tastes, expensive tastes, etc. are special cases. Second, I formulate four conditions of adequacy, applicable to any welfare-based (...)
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  132. Peter Vallentyne (1989). Contractarianism and the Assumption of Mutual Unconcern. Philosophical Studies 56 (2):187 - 192.
    A contractarian moral theory states that an action (practice, social structure, etc.) is morally permissible if and only if it (or rules to which if conforms) would be agreed to by the members of society under certain circumstances. What people will agree to depends on what their desires are like. Most contractarian theories - for example those of Rawls (1971) and Gauthier (1986) - specify that parties to the agreement are mutually unconcerned (take no interest in each other's interests). Contractarian (...)
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  133. Peter Vallentyne (1989). How to Combine Pareto Optimality with Liberty Considerations. Theory and Decision 27 (3):217-240.
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  134. Peter Vallentyne (1989). John Howie, Ed., Ethical Principles and Practice Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 9 (10):416-417.
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  135. Peter Vallentyne (1989). The Moral Foundation of Rights. Philosophical Books 30 (2):110-113.
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  136. Peter Vallentyne (1989). Two Types of Moral Dilemmas. Erkenntnis 30 (3):301 - 318.
    In recent years the question of whether moral dilemmas are conceptually possible has received a fair amount of attention. In arguing for or against the conceptual possibility of moral dilemmas authors have been almost exclusively concerned with obligation dilemmas, i.e., situations in which more than one action is obligatory. Almost no one has been concerned with prohibition dilemmas, i.e., situations in which no feasible actions is permissible. I argue that the two types of dilemmas are distinct, and that a much (...)
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  137. Peter Vallentyne (1989). “Two Types of Moral Dilemmas”. Erkenntnis 30 (3):301-318.
    die). In recent years the problem of moral dilemmas has received the attention of a number of philosophers. Some authors1 argue that moral dilemmas are not conceptually possible (i.e., that they are incoherent, given the nature of the concepts involved) because they are ruled out by certain valid principles of deontic logic. Other authors2 insist that moral dilemmas are conceptually possible, and argue that therefore the principles of deontic logic that rule them out must be rejected. In arguing for or (...)
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  138. Peter Vallentyne & Morry Lipson (1989). Equal Opportunity and the Family. Public Affairs Quarterly 3 (4):27-45.
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  139. Peter Vallentyne (1988). Gimmicky Representations of Moral Theories. Metaphilosophy 19 (3-4):253-263.
    The teleological/deontological distinction is generally considered to be the fundamental classificatory distinction for ethics. I have argued elsewhere (Vallentyne forthcoming (a), and Ch.2 of Vallentyne 1984) that the distinction is ill understood and not as important as is generally supposed. Some authors have advocated a moral radical thesis. Oldenquist (1966) and Piper (1982) have both argued that the purported distinction is a pseudo distinction in that any theory can be represented both as teleological and as deontological. Smart (1973, p.13, and (...)
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  140. Peter Vallentyne (1988). Explicating Lawhood. Philosophy of Science 55 (4):598-613.
    D. M. Armstrong, Michael Tooley, and Fred Dretske have recently proposed a new realist account of laws of nature, according to which laws of nature are objective relations between universals. After criticizing this account, I develop an alternative realist account, according to which (1) the nomic structure of a world is a relation between initial world-histories and world-histories, and (2) a law of nature is a fact that holds solely in virtue of nomic structure (and not, for example, in virtue (...)
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  141. Peter Vallentyne (1988). Persons and Values. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18 (3):595-607.
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  142. Peter Vallentyne (1988). Rights Based Paretianism. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18 (3):527 - 544.
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  143. Peter Vallentyne (1988). Teleology, Consequentialism, and the Past. Journal of Value Inquiry 22 (2):89-101.
    Act teleological theories are theories that judge an action permissible just in case its outcome is maximally good.[1] It is usually assumed that act teleological theories cannot be @i, i.e., make the permissibility of actions depend on what the past was like (e.g., on what promises were made, what wrong doings were done, and more generally on what actions were performed).[2] I shall argue that this is not so. Although @u act teleological theories, such as classical act utilitarianism, are not (...)
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  144. Peter Vallentyne (1987). Prohibition Dilemmas and Deontic Logic. Logique Et Analyse 18:113-22.
     
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  145. Peter Vallentyne (1987). The Teleological/Deontological Distinction. Journal of Value Inquiry 21 (1):21-32.
    The teleological/deontological distinction was introduced in 1930 by C.D. Broad] and since then it has come to be accepted as the fundamental classificatory distinction for moral philosophy. I shall argue that the presupposition that there is a single fundamental classificatory distinction is false. There are too many features of moral theories that matter for that to be so. I shall argue furthermore that as it is usually drawn the teleological/deontological distinction is not even a fundamental distinction. Another distinction, that between (...)
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  146. Peter Vallentyne (1986). Book Review:What Is a Law of Nature? D. M. Armstrong. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 53 (1):154-.
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  147. Peter Vallentyne (1986). Gauthier on Rationality and Morality. Eidso 5 (1):79-95.
    David Gauthier's book represents the culmination of his work over the last twenty years on the theory of rational choice and on contractarian moral theory. It is the most important book on contractarianisni since Rawls‘ A Theory of Justice' and is mandatory reading for anyone specializing in contemporary moral theory. Gauthier does two distinct, although closely related, things in his book: (l) he defends a theory of rational choice, and (2) he defends a contractarian theory of morality. The two are (...)
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  148. Peter Vallentyne, Infinity in Ethics. Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Puzzles can arise in ethical theory (as well as decision theory) when infinity is involved. The puzzles arise primarily in theories—such as consequentialist theories—that appeal to the value of actions or states of affairs. Section 1 addresses the question of whether one source of value (such as major aesthetic pleasures) can be infinitely more valuable than another (such as minor gustatory pleasures). An affirmative answer is given by appealing to the notion of lexicographic priority. Section 2 address the question of (...)
     
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  149. Peter Vallentyne, Social Contract.
    Social contract theory is a theory about how the moral assessment of actions, practices, institutions, laws, constitutions, or related items is based – directly or indirectly – on the consent – actual or hypothetical – of the members of society. Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, and Kant represent the main historical figures. Rawls, Gauthier, and Scanlon are the main contemporary figures.
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