John Gardner Oxford University
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  • Faculty, Oxford University
  • DPhil, Oxford University, 1994.

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About me
Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Oxford
My works
66 items found.
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  1. John Gardner, Legal Philosophy: Five Questions.
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  2. John Gardner, Prohibiting Immoralities.
    Destined for the Cardozo Law Review. Posted 28 November 2006.
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  3. John Gardner, Reply to Critics.
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  4. John Gardner, Some Types of Law.
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  5. John Gardner & Timothy Macklem, Human Disability.
    Draft, not yet submitted for publication. Posted 12 February 2008.
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  6. John Gardner (forthcoming). I-Egal Positivism: 5 Vi Myths. American Journal of Jurisprudence.
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  7. John Gardner (2013). Finnis on Justice. In John Keown & Robert P. George (eds.), Reason, Morality, and Law: The Philosophy of John Finnis. Oxford University Press. 151.
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  8. John Gardner (2013). Reasons and Abilities: Some Preliminaries. American Journal of Jurisprudence 58 (1):63-74.
    This paper takes some first steps in a study of the thesis that “ought” implies “can.” Considerable attention is given to the proper interpretation of the thesis, including the interpretation of “ought,” the interpretation of “can,” and the interpretation of “implies.” Having chosen a particular interpretation of the thesis to work on—in some ways its broadest interpretation—the paper tries to bring out some considerations that bear on its truth or falsity. After an excursion into the general theory of value, this (...)
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  9. R. K. Fellingham, A. Dhai, Y. Guidozzi & J. Gardner (2012). The 'War on Drugs' has Failed: Is Decriminalisation of Drug Use a Solution to the Problem in South Africa? South African Journal of Bioethics and Law 5 (2).
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  10. John Gardner (2012). How Law Claims, What Law Claims. In Matthias Klatt (ed.), Institutionalized Reason: The Jurisprudence of Robert Alexy. Oxford University Press.
    In this paper, written for a volume on the work of Robert Alexy, I discuss the idea that law makes certain distinctive claims, an idea familiar from the work of both Alexy and Joseph Raz. I begin by refuting some criticisms by Ronald Dworkin of the very idea of law as a claim-maker. I then discuss whether, as Alexy and Raz agree, law's claim is a moral one. Having arrived at an affirmative verdict, I discuss the content of law's (...)
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  11. John Gardner (2012). Law as a Leap of Faith: Essays on Law in General. Oxford University Press.
    Law as a leap of faith -- Legal positivism : 5 1/2 myths -- Some types of law -- Can there be a written constitution? -- How law claims, what law claims -- Nearly natural law -- The legality of law -- The supposed formality of the rule of law -- Hart on legality, justice, and morality -- The virtue of justice and the character of law -- Law in general.
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  12. John Gardner (2012). Wrongdoing by Results: Moore's Experiential Argument. Legal Theory 1 (1):1-13.
    Michael Moore and I agree about the moral importance of how our actions turn out. We even agree about some of the arguments that establish that moral importance. In Causation and Responsibility, however, Moore foregrounds one argument that I do not find persuasive or even helpful. In fact I doubt whether it even qualifies as an argument. He calls it the In this comment I attempt to analyze Moore's in some detail and thereby to bring out why it does not (...)
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  13. J. Gardner, A. Papanikitas, J. Owens & H. Engward (2011). Emerging Themes in the Everyday Ethics of Primary Care: A Report From an Interdisciplinary Workshop. Clinical Ethics 6 (4):211-214.
    We report key themes arising from a postgraduate workshop organized by the King's Interdisciplinary Discussion Society (KIDS) held in April 2011. KIDS believe that health is a phenomenon that transcends disciplinary boundaries, and therefore issues relating to health care and medical ethics are best addressed with an interdisciplinary approach. The workshop, entitled ‘Everyday Ethics and Primary Healthcare’, included poster presentations and oral presentations from participants from a range of disciplines and occupational backgrounds which highlighted the challenges faced by primary health-care (...)
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  14. John Gardner (2011). Can There Be a Written Constitution? In Leslie Green & Brian Leiter (eds.), Oxford Studies in Philosophy of Law. Oxford University Press.
    The existence of unwritten constitutions, such as that of the UK, strikes some as puzzling. However the existence of unwritten constitutions turns out to be easier to explain than the existence of written constitutions, such as that of the US. In this paper I explore, and attempt to answer, some tricky conceptual questions thrown up by written constitutions.
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  15. John Gardner (2011). Hart on Legality, Justice and Morality. Jurisprudence 1 (2):253-265.
    HLA Hart has sometimes been associated with the false proposition that there is 'no necessary connection between law and morality'. Nigel Simmonds is the latest critic to make the association. He offers an 'ironic' interpretation of a famous passage in Hart's The Concept of Law in which the proposition is apparently rejected as false by Hart. In this paper I explain why, even if Simmonds's ironic interpretation is tenable, it does not associate Hart with the proposition in the way that (...)
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  16. John Gardner (2011). Relations of Responsibility. In Rowan Cruft, Matthew H. Kramer & Mark R. Reiff (eds.), Crime, Punishment, and Responsibility: The Jurisprudence of Antony Duff. Oxford University Press. 87--102.
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  17. John Gardner (2011). What is Tort Law For? Part 1. The Place of Corrective Justice. Law and Philosophy 30 (1):1-50.
    In this paper I discuss the proposal that the law of torts exists to do justice, more specifically corrective justice, between the parties to a tort case. My aims include clarifying the proposal and defending it against some objections (as well as saving it from some defences that it could do without). Gradually the paper turns to a discussion of the rationale for doing corrective justice. I defend what I call the ‘continuity thesis’ according to which at least part of (...)
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  18. John Gardner & François Tanguay-Renaud (2011). Desert and Avoidability in Self-Defense. Ethics 122 (1):111-134.
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  19. John Gardner (2010). Ethics and Law. In John Skorupski (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Ethics. Routledge.
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  20. John Gardner (2010). Law and Morality. In John Skorupski (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Ethics. Routledge.
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  21. John Gardner (2009). Legal Positivism. In Aileen Kavanagh & John Oberdiek (eds.), Arguing About Law. Routledge. 153.
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  22. John Gardner (2009). The Logic of Excuses and the Rationality of Emotions. Journal of Value Inquiry 43 (3):315-338.
    Sometimes emotions excuse. Fear and anger, for example, sometimes excuse under the headings of (respectively) duress and provocation. Although most legal systems draw the line at this point, the list of potentially excusatory emotions outside the law seems to be longer. One can readily imagine cases in which, for example, grief or despair could be cited as part of a case for relaxing or even eliminating our negative verdicts on those who performed admittedly unjustified wrongs. To be sure, the availability (...)
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  23. John Gardner (2008). Hart and Feinberg on Responsibility. In Matthew H. Kramer (ed.), The Legacy of H. Oxford University Press.
    Forthcoming in Kramer et al (eds), The Legacy of H.L.A. Hart. Posted 8 February 2008.
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  24. John Gardner (2008). Hart on Responsibility. In Matthew Kramer, Claire Grant, Ben Colburn & Antony Hatzistavrou (eds.), The Legacy of H.L.A. Hart: Legal, Political and Moral Philosophy. Oup Oxford.
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  25. John Gardner (2008). Review of Douglas Husak, Overcriminalization: The Limits of the Criminal Law. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2008 (8).
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  26. John Gardner (2008). Simply in Virtue of Being Human': The Whos and Whys of Human Rights. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 2 (2).
    In this paper I raise some questions about the familiar claim, recently reiterated by James Griffin, that human rights are rights that humans have….
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  27. John Gardner (2007). Nearly Natural Law. American Journal of Jurisprudence 52 (1):1-23.
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  28. John Gardner (2007). Offences and Defences: Selected Essays in the Philosophy of Criminal Law. Oxford University Press.
    The wrongness of rape -- Rationality and the rule of law in offences against the person -- Complicity and causality -- In defence of defences -- Justifications and reasons -- The gist of excuses -- Fletcher on offences and defences -- Provocation and pluralism -- The mark of responsibility -- The functions and justifications of criminal law and punishment -- Crime : in proportion and in perspective -- Reply to critics.
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  29. John Gardner (2007). Complicity and Causality. Criminal Law and Philosophy 1 (2):127-141.
    This paper considers some aspects of the morality of complicity, understood as participation in the wrongs of another. The central question is whether there is some way of participating in the wrongs of another other than by making a causal contribution to them. I suggest that there is not. In defending this view I encounter, and resist, the claim that it undermines the distinction between principals and accomplices. I argue that this distinction is embedded in the structure of rational agency.
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  30. John Gardner (2006). Law's Aims in Law's Empire. In Scott Hershovitz (ed.), Exploring Law's Empire: The Jurisprudence of Ronald Dworkin. Oxford University Press.
     
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  31. Timothy Macklem & John Gardner (2006). Value, Interest, and Well-Being. Utilitas 18 (4):362-382.
    In this article we consider and cast doubt on two doctrines given prominence and prestige by the utilitarian tradition in ethics. According to the interest theory of value, value is realized only in the advancement of people's interests. According to the well-being theory of interests, people's interests are advanced only in the augmentation of their well-being. We argue that it is possible to resist these doctrines without abandoning the value-humanist doctrine that the value of anything has to be explained in (...)
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  32. Wayne C. Booth, Dudley Barlow, Orson Scott Card, Anthony Cunningham, John Gardner, Marshall Gregory, John J. Han, Jack Harrell, Richard E. Hart, Barbara A. Heavilin, Marianne Jennings, Charles Johnson, Bernard Malamud, Toni Morrison, Georgia A. Newman, Joyce Carol Oates, Jay Parini, David Parker, James Phelan, Richard A. Posner, Mary R. Reichardt, Nina Rosenstand, Stephen L. Tanner, John Updike, John H. Wallace, Abraham B. Yehoshua & Bruce Young (2005). Ethics, Literature, and Theory: An Introductory Reader. Sheed & Ward.
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  33. John Gardner (2005). Wrongs and Faults. Review of Metaphysics 59 (1):95 - 132.
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  34. John Gardner & Torts as Wrongs (2005). 15 Backward and Forward with Tort Law. In Joseph Keim Campbell, Michael O'Rourke & David Shier (eds.), Law and Social Justice. Mit Press. 255.
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  35. John Gardner (2004). The Legality of Law. Ratio Juris 17 (2):168-181.
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  36. John Gardner (2004). The Wrongdoing That Gets Results. Philosophical Perspectives 18 (1):53–88.
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  37. John Gardner (2004). Christopher Kutz, Complicity: Ethics and Law for a Collective Age:Complicity: Ethics and Law for a Collective Age. Ethics 114 (4):827-830.
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  38. John Gardner & Timothy Macklem (2004). Reasons. In Jules Coleman & Scott Shapiro (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. Oup Oxford.
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  39. John Gardner (2003). Review of Nagel, Thomas, Concealment and Exposure and Other Essays. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2003 (7).
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  40. John Gardner (2003). The Mark of Responsibility. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 23 (2):157-171.
    This paper tackles three common misconceptions about responsibility. The first misconception is that it is against our interests to be responsible for our actions. The second is that our responsibility for our actions is fixed at the time when we act. The third is that we can only be responsible to someone in particular, not responsible full stop. The three misconceptions turn out to be related, and disabusing ourselves of them helps us to rediscover the most fundamental point of the (...)
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  41. John Gardner (2002). Reasons for Teamwork. Legal Theory 8 (4):495-509.
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  42. John Gardner & Timothy Macklem (2002). Reasons, Reasoning, Reasonableness. In Jules Coleman & Scott J. Shapiro (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Jurisprudence and Philosophy of Law. Oup Oxford.
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  43. V. English, J. Gardner & G. Romano-Critchley (2001). Helsinki Declaration of Medical Research. Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (4):285.
     
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  44. V. English, J. Gardner & G. Romano-Critchley (2001). Human Tissue Retention in Australia. Journal of Medical Ethics 27 (4):285.
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  45. John Gardner (2001). Legal Positivism: 5½ Myths. American Journal of Jurisprudence 46 (1):199-227.
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  46. J. Gardner (1998). Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome. RA Bauman. The Classical Review 48 (1):97-99.
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  47. J. Gardner (1998). Der Konkubinat im kaiserzeitlichen Rom: von Augustus bis Septimius Severus. R Friedl. The Classical Review 48 (2):413-414.
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  48. J. Gardner (1998). Pagine di Diritto Romano. A Guarino. The Classical Review 48 (1):99-103.
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  49. J. Gardner (1998). Review Article. On the Ground of Her Sex(Uality). Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 18 (1):167-178.
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  50. John Gardner (1998). On the General Part of the Criminal Law. In Antony Duff (ed.), Philosophy and the Criminal Law: Principle and Critique. Cambridge University Press. 205--256.
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  51. J. Gardner (1997). Review. La Familia Romana: Aspetti Giuridici Ed Antiquari (Parte Prima). C Fayer. The Classical Review 47 (1):89-90.
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  52. J. Gardner (1997). Review. The Criminal Law of Ancient Rome. OF Robinson. The Classical Review 47 (1):92-93.
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  53. J. Gardner (1997). Review. Women in Antiquity: New Assessments. R Hawley & B Levick. The Classical Review 47 (2):373-375.
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  54. J. Gardner (1996). Discrimination as Injustice. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 16 (3):353-368.
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  55. J. Gardner (1996). J.A. Crook: Legal Advocacy in the Roman World. London: Duckworth, 1995. The Classical Review 46 (1):89-90.
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  56. J. Gardner (1996). R.P. Saller: Patriarchy, Property and Death in the Roman Family. (Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society in Past Time.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 46 (1):106-107.
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  57. John Gardner (1994). Criminal Law and the Uses of Theory: A Reply to Laing. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 14 (2):217-228.
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  58. Stephen Shute, John Gardner & Jeremy Horder (eds.) (1993). Action and Value in Criminal Law. Oxford University Press.
    In this challenging collection of new essays, leading philosophers and criminal lawyers from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Canada break with the tradition of treating the philosophical foundations of criminal law as an adjunct to the study of punishment. Focusing clearly on the central issues of moral luck, mistake, and mental illness, this volume aims to reorient the study of criminal law. In the process of retrieving valuable material from traditional law classifications, the contributors break down false associations, (...)
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  59. John Gardner & Heike Jung (1991). Making Sense of Mens Rea: Antony Duff's Account. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 11 (4):559-588.
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  60. John Gardner (1989). Liberals and Unlawful Discrimination. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 9 (1):1-22.
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  61. John Gardner (1988). Concerning Permissive Sources and Gaps. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 8 (3):457-461.
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  62. John Gardner (1977). Death by Art; Or, "Some Men Kill You with a Six-Gun, Some Men with a Pen". Critical Inquiry 3 (4):741.
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  63. John Gardner, Foster's Case Against Matter.
    This paper has two parts. The first is an exposition of John Foster's argument that ultimate reality, whatever else it might be, is not physical, and could not be. The second part is a somewhat tentative discussion of this argument, in which I consider ways it might be challenged or amended. I suggest that while Foster's argument may not render materialism untenable, at the very least it forces the materialist to adopt certain other controversial views, and so is a (...)
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  64. John Gardner, Justification Under Authority.
    In this paper I discuss and reply to Malcolm Thorburn's important article 'Justifications, Powers, and Authority', Yale Law Journal 117 (2008), 1070. My discussion raises a wide range of conceptual and doctrinal questions about Thorburn's account of justification defences, and about the theory of justfication defences more generally. The paper also trespasses on some broader questions about the nature of law and its relationship to morality.
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  65. John Gardner, Torts and Other Wrongs.
    It is hard to think of any contemporary writers who have done more than John Goldberg and Ben Zipursky to reassert and reinvigorate what might be called the classical interpretation of the common law of torts. I, for one, am greatly in their debt. They have taught me a great deal, not only about torts but also about how to combine legal argument felicitously with philosophical insight and historical scholarship. Like them, and partly because of them, I believe that the (...)
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  66. John Gardner, The Idea of Justice.
    Although famous as an economist, Amartya Sen is no less distinguished as a philosopher. In this he is far from unique. The same went for the founding father of economics, Adam Smith. But in these days of increased academic specialization the combination of philosopher and economist is rarer than once it was. Moreover the philosophical contributions of contemporary economists, such as they are, tend to be relatively narrow. Some, notably John Harsanyi and Thomas Schelling, are rightly lauded by philosophers for (...)
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