Gilbert Harman Princeton University
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  1. Gilbert Harman, Explaining an Explanatory Gap.
    Discussions of the mind-body problem often refer to an.
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  2. Gilbert Harman, What is Cognitive Access?
    Block is concerned with the question whether there are cases of phenomenology in the absence of cognitive access. I assume that, more precisely, the question is whether there are cases in which a subject S has a phenomenological experience E to which S does not have direct cognitive access? (S might have indirect cognitive access to E through scientific reasoning. I take it that’s not the sort of cognitive access in question.).
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  3. Gilbert Harman (forthcoming). About What an Adequate Grammar Could Do. Foundations of Language.
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  4. Gilbert Harman (forthcoming). Logical Form. Foundations of Language.
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  5. Gilbert Harman (forthcoming). Metaphysical Realism and Moral Relativism. Journal of Philosophy.
    Putnam rejects "metaphysical realism," which takes "the world" to be a single complex thing, a connected causal or explanatory order into which all facts fit. he argues that such metaphysical realism is responsible for views he finds implausible; in particular, it can lead to moral relativism when one tries to locate the place of value in the world of fact. i agree that metaphysical realism will lead a thoughtful philosopher to moral relativism, but find neither of these views implausible. in (...)
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  6. Gilbert Harman (forthcoming). Moral Relativism is Moral Realism. Philosophical Studies:1-9.
    I begin by describing my relation with Nicholas Sturgeon and his objections to things I have said about moral explanations. Then I turn to issues about moral relativism. One of these is whether a plausible version of moral relativism can be formulated as a claim about the logical form of certain moral judgments. I (now) agree that is not a good way to think of moral relativism. Instead, I think of moral relativism as a version of moral realism. I compare (...)
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  7. Gilbert Harman & Ernest Lepore (eds.) (2014). A Companion to W. V. O. Quine. Wiley-Blackwell.
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  8. Gilbert Harman (2013). Glüer, Kathrin., Donald Davidson: A Short Introduction. Review of Metaphysics 67 (1):162-164.
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  9. Gilbert Harman (2013). Skepticism & the Definition of Knowledge. Routledge.
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  10. Gilbert Harman (2012). Davidson's Contribution to the Philosophy of Language. In Gerhard Preyer (ed.), Donald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the Mental. Oxford University Press.
    The most basic theme in Davidson’s writings in philosophy of language in the 1960s is that we are finite beings whose mastery of the indefinitely many expressions of our language must somehow arise out of our mastery of finite resources. Otherwise, there would be an unbounded number of distinct things to learn in learning a language, which would make language learning..
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  11. Gilbert Harman (2012). Philosophy of Language. In Gerhard Preyer (ed.), Donald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the Mental. Oxford University Press. 39.
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  12. Gilbert Harman (2011). Judith Jarvis Thomson's Normativity. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 154 (3):435 - 441.
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  13. Gilbert Harman (2011). Review of Ernest Lepore and Kirk Ludwig, Donald Davidson's Truth-Theoretic Semantics. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 82 (3):788-792.
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  14. Gilbert Harman (2011). Review of Piotr Stalmaszczyk (Ed.), Philosophy of Language and Linguistics, Volume 1: The Formal Turn; Volume 2: The Philosophical Turn. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2011 (2).
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  15. Brett Sherman & Gilbert Harman (2011). Knowledge and Assumptions. Philosophical Studies 156 (1):131 - 140.
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  16. Gilbert Harman, Kelby Mason & Walter Sinnott-Armstrong (2010). Moral Reasoning. In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
    What is moral reasoning? For that matter, what is any sort of reasoning? Let me begin by making a few distinctions. First, there is a distinction between reasoning as something that that people do and the abstract structures of proof or “argument” that are the subject matter of formal logic. I will be mainly concerned with reasoning in the first sense, reasoning that people do. Second, there is a distinction between moral reasoning with other people and moral reasoning by and (...)
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  17. W. Merritt Maria, M. Doris John & Gilbert Harman (2010). Character. In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
  18. Maria Merritt, John Doris & Gilbert Harman (2010). Character. In John Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
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  19. Erica Roedder & Gilbert Harman (2010). Linguistics and Moral Theory. In John Michael Doris (ed.), The Moral Psychology Handbook. Oxford University Press.
  20. Gilbert Harman (2009). Field on the Normative Role of Logic. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 109 (1pt3):333 - 335.
    I begin by summarizing the first two chapters of (Harman 1986). The first chapter stresses the importance of not confusing inference with implication and of not confusing reasoning with the sort of argument studied in deductive logic. Inference and reasoning are psychological events or processes that can be done more or less well. The sort of implication and argument studied in deductive logic have to do with relations among propositions and with structures of propositions distinguished into premises, intermediate steps, and (...)
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  21. Gilbert Harman (2009). Guilt-Free Morality. Oxford Studies in Metaethics 4:203-14.
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  22. Gilbert Harman (2009). Skepticism About Character Traits. Journal of Ethics 13 (2/3):235 - 242.
    The first part of this article discusses recent skepticism about character traits. The second describes various forms of virtue ethics as reactions to such skepticism. The philosopher J.-P. Sartre argued in the 1940s that character traits are pretenses, a view that the sociologist E. Goffman elaborated in the 1950s. Since then social psychologists have shown that attributions of character traits tend to be inaccurate through the ignoring of situational factors. (Personality psychology has tended to concentrate on people's conceptions of personality (...)
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  23. Gilbert Harman & Sanjeev Kulkarni (2009). Précis of Reliable Reasoning: Induction and Statistical Learning Theory. Abstracta 5 (3):5-9.
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  24. Gilbert Harman & Sanjeev Kulkarni (2009). Response to Shaffer, Thagard, Strevens and Hanson. Abstracta 5 (3):47-56.
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  25. Gilbert Harman (2008). Part I: Foundations of Reasoning. In Jonathan Eric Adler & Lance J. Rips (eds.), Reasoning: Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations. Cambridge University Press. 35.
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  26. Gilbert Harman (2008). Thought, Selections. In Ernest Sosa (ed.), Epistemology: An Anthology. Blackwell Pub.. 194.
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  27. Mark Greenberg & Gilbert Harman (2007). Conceptual Role Semantics. In Ernest LePore & Barry Smith (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oxford University Press. 242-256.
    CRS says that the meanings of expressions of a language or other symbol system or the contents of mental states are determined and explained by the way symbols are used in thinking. According to CRS one.
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  28. Gilbert Harman (2007). Epistemic Contextualism as a Theory of Primary Speaker Meaning. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (1):173–179.
    Jason Stanley’s Knowledge and Practical Interests is a brilliant book, combining insights about knowledge with a careful examination of how recent views in epistemology fit with the best of recent linguistic semanties. Although I am largely convinced by Stanley’s objections to epistemic contextualism, I will try in what follows to formulate aversion that might have some prospect of escaping his powerful critique.
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  29. Gilbert Harman (2007). Epistemic Contextualism as a Theory of Primary Speaker Meaning. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 75 (1):173-179.
    Jason Stanley’s Knowledge and Practical Interests is a brilliant book, combining insights about knowledge with a careful examination of how recent views in epistemology fit with the best of recent linguistic semanties. Although I am largely convinced by Stanley’s objections to epistemic contextualism, I will try in what follows to formulate aversion that might have some prospect of escaping his powerful critique.
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  30. Gilbert Harman (2007). What is Cognitively Accessed? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):505-505.
    Is Block's issue about accessing an experience or its object? Having certain experiences appears to be incompatible with accessing the experience itself. And any experience of an object accesses that object. Such access either counts as cognitive or does not. Either way, Block's issue seems resolvable without appeal to the scientific considerations he describes.
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  31. Gilbert Harman & Sanjeev Kulkarni (2007). Reliable Reasoning: Induction and Statistical Learning Theory. A Bradford Book.
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  32. H. Ganthaler, A. Gehlen, E. Gellner, L. Goldstein, D. Gottlieb, E. Hanslick, G. Harman, N. Hartmann, K. Havlicek & O. Hazay (2006). Nagel, T. 3445 Neumaier, O. 18, 246. In Markus Textor (ed.), The Austrian Contribution to Analytic Philosophy. Routledge. 324.
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  33. Mark Greenberg & Gilbert Harman (2006). 14.1 Meanings Determined by Use. In Barry C. Smith (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Language. Oxford University Press. 295.
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  34. G. Harman (2006). The Realm of Reason. Philosophical Review 115 (2):243-246.
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  35. Gilbert Harman (2006). Self-Reflexive Thoughts. Philosophical Issues 16 (1):334-345.
    Alice has insomnia. She has trouble falling asleep and part of the problem is that she worries about it and realizes that her worrying about it tends to keep from falling asleep. It occurs to her that thinking that she will not be able to fall asleep may be a kind of self-fulfilling prophecy. Perhaps she even has a thought that might be expressed like this: I am not going to fall asleep because of my having this very thought. This (...)
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  36. Gilbert Harman (2006). Intending, Intention, Intent, Intentional Action, and Acting Intentionally: Comments on Knobe and Burra. Journal of Cognition and Culture 6:269-276.
    There has been considerable controversy about whether this last entailment always holds. Ordinary subjects may judge that (4) and (5) are appropriate in cases in which none of (1)-(3) are—cases in which Jack’s breaking the base is a foreseen but undesired consequence of Jack’s intentionally doing something else. It is currently debated what the best explanation of such ordinary reactions might be. It is also debated what to make of the fact that ordinary judgments using the adjective intentional or the (...)
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  37. Gilbert Harman & Sanjeev R. Kulkarni (2006). The Problem of Induction. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 72 (3):559-575.
    The problem of induction is sometimes motivated via a comparison between rules of induction and rules of deduction. Valid deductive rules are necessarily truth preserving, while inductive rules are not.
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  38. Gilbert Harman (2005). Moral Particularism and Transduction. Philosophical Issues 15 (1):44–55.
    Can someone be reasonable or justified in accepting a specific moral judgment not based on the prior acceptance of a general exceptioness moral principle, where acceptance of a general principle might be tacit or implicit and might not be expressible in language? This issue is an instance of a wider issue about direct or transductive inference. Developments in statistical learning theory show that such an inference can be more effective than alternative methods using inductive generalization and so can be reasonable. (...)
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  39. Gilbert Harman (2004). Practical Aspects of Theoretical Reasoning. In Piers Rawling & Alfred R. Mele (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Rationality. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 45--56.
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  40. Gilbert Harman (2004). Practical Aspects of Theoretical Rationality. In Alfred R. Mele & Piers Rawling (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Rationality. Oup Usa.
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  41. Gilbert Harman (2004). Selections From Thought. In Tim Crane & Katalin Farkas (eds.), Metaphysics: A Guide and Anthology. Oup Oxford.
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  42. Gilbert Harman & Brett Sherman (2004). Knowledge, Assumptions, Lotteries. Philosophical Issues 14 (1):492–500.
    John Hawthorne’s marvelous book contains a wealth of arguments and insights based on an impressive knowledge and understanding of contemporary discussion. We can address only a small aspect of the topic. In particular, we will offer our own answers to two questions about knowledge that he discusses.
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  43. Gilbert Harman (2003). Aspects of Reason II. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):280–284.
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  44. Gilbert Harman (2003). Category Mistakes in M&E. Philosophical Perspectives 17 (1):165–180.
    Theories of causation may imply that your birth causes your death, which seems odd in the way that it is not odd to say that your birth precedes your death. Theories of knowledge may imply that the object of knowledge is the same as the object of belief, although we know but do not believe facts and we can know a proposition without knowing whether it is true.
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  45. Gilbert Harman (2003). Category Mistakes in Metaphysics and Epistemology. In James Tomberlin (ed.), Language and Mind. Blackwell.
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  46. Gilbert Harman (2003). Lx8i^^ g? Jn view~. In Steven Luper (ed.), Essential Knowledge: Readings in Epistemology. Longman. 167.
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  47. Gilbert Harman (2003). No Character or Personality. Business Ethics Quarterly 13 (1):87-94.
    Solomon argues that, although recent research in social psychology has important implications for business ethics, it doesnot undermine an approach that stresses virtue ethics. However, he underestimates the empirical threat to virtue ethics, and his a prioriclaim that empirical research cannot overturn our ordinary moral psychology is overstated. His appeal to seemingly obvious differencesin character traits between people simply illustrates the fundamental attribution error. His suggestion that the Milgram and Darley andBatson experiments have to do with such character traits as (...)
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  48. Gilbert Harman (2003). Review: Aspects of Reason II. [REVIEW] Philosophical Quarterly 53 (211):280 - 284.
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  49. Gilbert Harman (2003). Skepticism and Foundations. In Luper Steven (ed.), The Skeptics: Contemporary Essays. Ashgate Press. 1--11.
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  50. Gilbert Harman (2003). The Future of the A Priori. Journal of Philosophical Research 28 (Supplement):23-34.
    Two conceptions of a priori methods and assumptions can be distinguished. First, there are the assumptions and methods accepted prior to a given inquiry. Second, there are innate assumptions and methods. For each of these two types of a priori methods and assumptions, we can also allow cases in which one starts with something that is a priori and is justified in reaching a new belief or procedure without making any appeal to new experiential data. But we should not suppose (...)
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  51. Gilbert Harman (2003). Three Trends in Moral and Political Philosophy. Journal of Value Inquiry 37 (3):415-425.
  52. Gilbert Harman (2003). Trzy trendy w filozofii politycznej i moralnej. Filo-Sofija 3 (1(3)):145-159.
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  53. Gilbert Harman (2002). Reflections on Knowledge and its Limits. Philosophical Review 111 (3):417-428.
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  54. Gilbert Harman (2002). 'The Internal Critique. In Dov M. Gabbay (ed.), Handbook of the Logic of Argument and Inference: The Turn Towards the Practical. Elsevier. 171--186.
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  55. Gilbert Harman (2001). General Foundations Versus Rational Insight. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (3):657–663.
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  56. Gilbert Harman (2001). 12 Is There a Single True Morality? In Paul K. Moser & Thomas L. Carson (eds.), Moral Relativism: A Reader. Oxford University Press. 165.
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  57. Gilbert Harman (2001). New Horizons in the Study of Language and Mind. Journal of Philosophy 98 (5):265-269.
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  58. Gilbert Harman (2001). Review: General Foundations Versus Rational Insight. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (3):657 - 663.
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  59. Gilbert Harman (2001). Rational Insight Versus General Foundations. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63:657--63.
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  60. G. Harman (2000). Can Evolutionary Theory Provide Evidence Against Psychological Hedonism? Journal of Consciousness Studies 7 (1-2):1-2.
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  61. Gilbert Harman (2000). Explaining Value and Other Essays in Moral Philosophy. Oxford University Press.
    Explaining Value is a selection of the best of Gilbert Harman's shorter writings in moral philosophy. The thirteen essays are divided into four sections, which focus in turn on moral relativism, values and valuing, character traits and virtue ethics, and ways of explaining aspects of morality. Harman's distinctive approach to moral philosophy has provoked much interest; this volume offers a fascinating conspectus of his most important work in the area.
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  62. Gilbert Harman (2000). The Nonexistence of Character Traits. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 100 (2):223–226.
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  63. Gilbert Harman (1999). Moral Philosophy and Linguistics. The Proceedings of the Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy 1:107-115.
    Any acceptable account of moral epistemology must accord with the following points. (1) Different people acquire seemingly very different moralities. (2) All normal people acquire a moral sense, whether or not they are given explicit moral instruction. Language resembles morality in these ways. There is considerable evidence from linguistics for linguistic universals. This suggests that (3) despite the first point, there are moral universals. If so, it might be possible to develop a moral epistemology that is analogous to the theory (...)
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  64. Gilbert Harman (1999). Moral Philosophy Meets Social Psychology: Virtue Ethics and the Fundamental Attribution Error. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 99 (1999):315 - 331.
    Ordinary moral thought often commits what social psychologists call 'the fundamental attribution error'. This is the error of ignoring situational factors and overconfidently assuming that distinctive behaviour or patterns of behaviour are due to an agent's distinctive character traits. In fact, there is no evidence that people have character traits (virtues, vices, etc.) in the relevant sense. Since attribution of character traits leads to much evil, we should try to educate ourselves and others to stop doing it.
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  65. Gilbert Harman (1999). Reasoning, Meaning, and Mind. Oxford University Press.
    In this important new collection, Gilbert Harman presents a selection of fifteen interconnected essays on fundamental issues at the center of analytic philosophy. The book opens with a group of four essays discussing basic principles of reasoning and rationality. The next three essays argue against the once popular idea that certain claims are true and knowable by virtue of meaning. In the third group of essays Harman presents his own view of meaning and the possibility of thinking in language The (...)
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  66. Gilbert Harman (1998). Ethics and Observation. In James Rachels (ed.), Ethical Theory 1: The Question of Objectivity. Oup Oxford.
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  67. Gilbert Harman (1998). Intentionality. In William Bechtel & George Graham (eds.), A Companion to Cognitive Science. Blackwell.
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  68. Gilbert Harman (1998). Précis of Part One. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (1):161-169.
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  69. Gilbert Harman (1998). Review: Précis of Moral Relativism and Moral Objectivity: Precis of Part One. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (1):161 - 169.
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  70. Gilbert Harman (1998). Review: Responses to Critics. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (1):207 - 213.
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  71. Gilbert Harman (1998). Responses to Critics. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 58 (1):207-213.
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  72. Gilbert Harman (1998). The Toxin Puzzle. In Jules L. Coleman, Christopher W. Morris & Gregory S. Kavka (eds.), Rational Commitment and Social Justice: Essays for Gregory Kavka. Cambridge University Press. 84--89.
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  73. William P. Alston, Roderick M. Chisholm, Donald Davidson, Gilbert Harman, Richard Rorty & John R. Searle (1997). Realism/Antirealism and Epistemology. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  74. Gilbert Harman (1997). Pragmatism and Reasons for Belief. In C. B. Kulp (ed.), Realism/Antirealism and Epistemology. Rowman and Littlefield.
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  75. Gilbert Harman (1997). Practical Reasoning. In Alfred R. Mele (ed.), The Philosophy of Action. Oxford University Press. 431--63.
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  76. Gilbert Harman (1996). Analyticity Regained? Noûs 30 (3):392-400.
  77. Gilbert Harman (1996). Explaining Objective Color in Terms of Subjective Reactions. Philosophical Issues 7:1-17.
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  78. Gilbert Harman (1996). Moral Relativism and Moral Objectivity. Blackwell.
    Do moral questions have objective answers? In this great debate, Gilbert Harman explains and argues for relativism, emotivism, and moral scepticism.
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  79. Gilbert Harman (1996). Qualia and Color Concepts. Philosophical Issues 7:75-79.
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  80. Gilbert Harman (1995). Phenomenal Fallacies and Conflations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):256.
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  81. Gilbert Harman (1995). Rationality. In E. E. Smith & D. N. Osherson (eds.), Invitation to Cognitive Science. Mit Press.
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  82. Gilbert Harman (1994). Doubts About Conceptual Analysis. In. In John O'Leary-Hawthorne & Michaelis Michael (eds.), Philosophy in Mind. Kluwer. 43--48.
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  83. Gilbert Harman (1994). Epistemology and the Diet Revolution. In. In John O'Leary-Hawthorne & Michaelis Michael (eds.), Philosophy in Mind. Kluwer. 203--214.
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  84. Gilbert Harman (1994). Explaining Value. Social Philosophy and Policy 11 (1):229-248.
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  85. Gilbert Harman, Gilbert Calhoun & Laurie Calhoun (1994). La valeur intrinsèque. Revue de Métaphysique Et de Morale 99 (2):245 - 255.
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  86. Gilbert Harman (ed.) (1993). Conceptions of the Human Mind: Essays on Honor of George A. Miller. Lawrence Erlbaum.
    This volume is a direct result of a conference held at Princeton University to honor George A. Miller, an extraordinary psychologist.
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  87. Gilbert Harman (1993). Can Science Understand the Mind? In , Conceptions of the Human Mind: Essays on Honor of George A. Miller. Lawrence Erlbaum. 111--121.
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  88. Gilbert Harman (1993). Meaning Holism Defended. Grazer Philosophische Studien 46:163-171.
    The meaning of a symbol is determined by its use, but the canonical way of specifying meaning is in a statement of the form "S means...". To be able to provide such a specification is equivalent to being able to translate the symbol S into one's own terms. A change in usage of terms involves a change of meaning iff the correct translation between earlier usage and later usage takes a term into a different expression. Such translation is holistic, a (...)
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  89. Gilbert Harman (1993). Review: Stringency of Rights and "Ought". [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (1):181 - 185.
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  90. Gilbert Harman (1993). Stringency of Rights and “Ought”. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 53 (1):181-185.
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  91. George A. Miller & Gilbert Harman (eds.) (1993). Conceptions of the Human Mind: Essays in Honor of George A. Miller. L. Erlbaum Associates.
    This volume is a direct result of a conference held at Princeton University to honor George A. Miller, an extraordinary psychologist. A distinguished panel of speakers from various disciplines -- psychology, philosophy, neuroscience and artificial intelligence -- were challenged to respond to Dr. Miller's query: "What has happened to cognition? In other words, what has the past 30 years contributed to our understanding of the mind? Do we really know anything that wasn't already clear to William James?" Each participant tried (...)
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  92. Raymond Guess, Gilbert Harman, Richard Jeffrey, David Lewis, Alison Mclntyre & Michael Smith (1991). Mark Johnston. In Daniel Kolak & R. Martin (eds.), Self and Identity: Contemporary Philosophical Issues. Macmillan.
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  93. Gilbert Harman (1991). Justification, Truth, Goals, and Pragmatism. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51 (1):195 - 199.
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  94. G. Harman (1990). The Intrinsic Quahty of Experience'In J. Tomber¬ Lin. Philosophical Perspectives 4.
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  95. Gilbert Harman (1990). Immanent and Transcendent Approaches to the Theory of Meaning. In Roger Gibson & Robert B. Barrett (eds.), Perspectives on Quine. Blackwell.
  96. Gilbert Harman (1990). Intentionality: Some Distinctions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (4):607-608.
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  97. Gilbert Harman (1990). Skepticism and the Definition of Knowledge. Garland Pub..
    First Published in 1990. Routledge is an imprint of Taylor & Francis, an informa company.
     
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  98. Gilbert Harman (1990). The Intrinsic Quality of Experience. Philosophical Perspectives 4:31-52.
  99. Gilbert Harman (1989). Book Review:Patterns, Thinking, and Cognition: A Theory of Judgment. Howard Margolis. [REVIEW] Ethics 100 (1):200-.
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  100. Gilbert Harman (1989). Some Philosophical Issues in Cognitive Science. In Michael I. Posner (ed.), Foundations of Cognitive Science. MIT Press.
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  101. Gilbert Harman (1988). Rationality in Agreement. Social Philosophy and Policy 5 (02):1-.
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  102. Gilbert Harman (1988). The Simplest Hypothesis. Crítica: Revista Hispanoamericana de Filosofía 20 (59):23 - 42.
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  103. Gilbert Harman (1988). Wide Functionalism. In Stephen Schiffer & Susan Steele (eds.), Cognition and Representation. Westview Press.
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  104. Gilbert Harman (1988). What is the Intentional Stance? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 11 (3):515.
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  105. Gilbert Harman (1987). (Nonsolipsistic) Conceptual Role Semantics. In Ernest LePore (ed.), New Directions in Semantics. Academic Press. 242-256.
  106. Bas C. Van Fraassen, R. I. G. Hughes & Gilbert Harman (1986). A Problem for Relative Information Minimizers, Continued. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (4):453 - 463.
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  107. Gilbert Harman (1986). Change in View. MIT Press.
    Change in View offers an entirely original approach to the philosophical study of reasoning by identifying principles of reasoning with principles for revising one's beliefs and intentions and not with principles of logic. This crucial observation leads to a number of important and interesting consequences that impinge on psychology and artificial intelligence as well as on various branches of philosophy, from epistemology to ethics and action theory. Gilbert Harman is Professor of Philosophy at Princeton University. A Bradford Book.
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  108. Gilbert Harman (1986). Moral Explanations of Natural Facts-Can Moral Claims Be Tested Against Moral Reality? Southern Journal of Philosophy 24 (S1):57-68.
  109. Bas C. Van Fraassen, R. I. G. Hughes & Gilbert Harman (1986). A Problem for Relative Information Minimizers, Continued. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 37 (4):453-463.
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  110. Gilbert Harman (1985). Is Pain Overt Behavior? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1):61-61.
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  111. Gilbert Harman (1984). Logic and Reasoning. Synthese 60 (1):107-127.
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  112. Gilbert Harman (1984). Positive Versus Negative Undermining in Belief Revision. Noûs 18 (1):39-49.
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  113. Gilbert Harman (1983). Adaptationist Theorizing and Intentional System Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):365.
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  114. Gilbert Harman (1983). Human Flourishing, Ethics, and Liberty. Philosophy and Public Affairs 12 (4):307-322.
  115. Gilbert Harman (1983). Internally Represented Grammars. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (3):408.
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  116. Gilbert Harman (1983). Justice and Moral Bargaining. Social Philosophy and Policy 1 (01):114-.
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  117. Gilbert Harman (1983). Knowledge and the Relativity of Information. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (1):72.
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  118. Gilbert Harman (1983). Logic and Probability Theory Versus Canons of Rationality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (2):251.
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  119. Gilbert Harman (1983). Problems with Probabilistic Semantics. In Alex Orenstein & Rafael Stern (eds.), Developments in Semantics. Haven. 243-237.
     
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  120. Gilbert Harman (1983). Rational Action and the Extent of Intentions. Social Theory and Practice 9 (2/3):123-141.
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  121. Gilbert Harman (1982). Book Review:The Formal Mechanics of Mind. Stephen N. Thomas. [REVIEW] Ethics 92 (2):350-.
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  122. Gilbert Harman (1982). Beliefs and Concepts: Comments on Brian Loar, "Must Beliefs Be Sentences?". PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1982:654 - 661.
    Concepts, not the beliefs employing them, have uses or roles in thought. Most conceptual roles cannot be specified solipsistically, and do not have inner aspects that can be specified solipsistically. (To think otherwise is to confuse function with misfunction.) A theory of truth conditions plays no useful part in any adequate account of conceptual role. Ordinary views about beliefs assign them conceptual structures which figure in explanations of functional relations. Which conceptual structures beliefs have may be relative to an arbitrary (...)
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  123. Gilbert Harman (1982). Critical Review: Richard B. Brandt, a Theory of the Good and the Right. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 42 (1):119 - 139.
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  124. Gilbert Harman (1982). Conceptual Role Semantics. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 28 (April):242-56.
  125. Gilbert Harman (1982). Metaphysical Realism and Moral Relativism: Reflections on Hilary Putnam's Reason, Truth and History. Journal of Philosophy 79 (10):568-575.
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  126. Gilbert Harman (1981). Book Review:Metaphysics and the Mind-Body Problem. Michael E. Levin. [REVIEW] Ethics 92 (1):174-.
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  127. Gilbert Harman (1981). The Essential Grammar of Action (and Other) Sentences. Philosophia 10 (3-4):209-215.
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  128. Gilbert Harman (1980). Comments on Fullinwider's Review. Metaphilosophy 11 (3-4):278-280.
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  129. Gilbert Harman (1980). Reasoning and Evidence One Does Not Possess1. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 5 (1):163-182.
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  130. Gilbert Harman (1980). Moral Relativism as a Foundation for Natural Rights. Journal of Libertarian Studies 4 (4):367-371.
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  131. Gilbert Harman (1980). Reasoning and Explanatory Coherence. American Philosophical Quarterly 17 (2):151 - 157.
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  132. Gilbert Harman (1980). Review: Susan Haack, Philosophy of Logics. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 45 (2):372-373.
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  133. Gilbert Harman (1980). Two Quibbles About Analyticity and Psychological Reality. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):21.
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  134. Gilbert Harman (1980). What is Methodological Solipsism? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (1):81.
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  135. Gilbert Harman (1979). If and Modus Ponens. Theory and Decision 11 (1):41-53.
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  136. Gilbert Harman (1978). Relativistic Ethics: Morality as Politics. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 3 (1):109-121.
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  137. Gilbert Harman (1978). Is There Mental Representation? Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 9.
     
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  138. Gilbert Harman (1978). Meaning and Theory. Southwestern Journal of Philosophy 9 (2):9-20.
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  139. Gilbert Harman (1978). Studying the Chimpanzee's Theory of Mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (4):576.
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  140. Gilbert Harman (1978). What is Experience Made Of? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 1 (3):356.
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  141. Gilbert Harman (1978). What is Moral Relativism? In A. I. Goldman & I. Kim (eds.), Values and Morals. Boston: D. Reidel. 143--161.
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  142. D. Z. Phillips & Gilbert Harman (1978). The Nature of Morality. Philosophical Quarterly 28 (110):89.
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  143. Gilbert Harman (1977). How to Use Propositions. American Philosophical Quarterly 14 (April):173-176.
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  144. Gilbert Harman (1977). The Nature of Morality: An Introduction to Ethics. Oxford University Press.
    Contains an overall account of morality in its philosophical format particularly with regard to problems of observation, evidence, and truth.
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  145. Bernard Comrie, Gilbert Harman & Finngeir Hiorth (1976). On Noam Chomsky: Critical Essays.Noam Chomsky, Linguistics and Philosophy. Philosophical Quarterly 26 (103):187.
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  146. Gilbert Harman (1976). Inferential Justification. Journal of Philosophy 73 (17):570-571.
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  147. Gilbert Harman (1976). Katz' Credo. Synthese 32 (3-4):387 - 394.
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  148. Gilbert Harman (1976). Reply to Lisagor. Philosophical Studies 29 (6):477 -.
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  149. Gilbert Harman (1975). Language, Thought, and Communication. Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science 7:270-298.
    Consider the idea that a natural language like English is in the first instance incorporated into the system of representation one thinks with. This ‘incorporation’ view is compared with a translation or ‘decoding’ view of communication. Compositional semantics makes sense only given the implausible decoding view.
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  150. Gilbert Harman (1975). Moral Relativism Defended. Philosophical Review 84 (1):3-22.
    Gilbert harman has recently proposed a version of moral relativism which is markedly clearer than any earlier statement of that position. Besides consistency and clarity, Harman claims for his thesis a number of positive virtues. The thesis, He argues, "helps explain otherwise puzzling aspects of our moral views"; it accounts for "a previously unnoticed distinction between inner and non-Inner judgments"' and it allows us to meet traditional objections to related theories. In this paper, I argue that none of these alleged (...)
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  151. Gilbert Harman (1975). Reasons. Crítica 7 (21):3 - 17.
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  152. Gilbert Harman (1975). Reply to Carrier. Journal of Critical Analysis 5 (4):151-152.
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  153. Gilbert Harman (1975). Una Teoría Naturista de Las Razones. Dianoia: Anuario de Filosofía 21:174-181.
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  154. Gilbert Harman (1974). Comment on Michael Dummett. Synthese 27 (3-4):401 - 404.
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  155. Gilbert Harman (1974). Identifying Numbers. Analysis 35 (1):12 -.
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  156. Gilbert Harman (1974). Meaning and Semantics. In Milton K. Munitz & Peter K. Unger (eds.), Semantics and Philosophy. New York University Press.
     
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  157. William H. Hanson, Gilbert Harman, N. L. Wilson, M. J. Cresswell, Storrs McCall & Margaret D. Wilson (1973). Reviews. [REVIEW] Synthese 26 (1):146-178.
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  158. Gilbert Harman (1973). Thought. Princeton University Press.
  159. Gilbert Harman (1972). Is Modal Logic Logic? Philosophia 2 (1-2):75-84.
    (1) modal logic is not needed, Since there are alternative accounts of modality. (2) modal logic does not function as logic even in the thinking of its advocates, As is revealed, E.G., When the semantics of modal logic is presented in an extensional metalanguage. Furthermore, (3) when a wider view is taken, One sees that modal logic treats as logical constants expressions that belong to a large and open syntactic class, Unlike other logical constants. Finally, (4) modal logic treats as (...)
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  160. Gilbert Harman (1971). Substitutional Quantification and Quotation. Noûs 5 (2):213-214.
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  161. Gilbert Harman (1971). Review of W. V. Quine. Philosophy of Logic. Englewood Cliffs. [REVIEW] Metaphilosophy 2 (2):184–190.
  162. Donald Davidson & Gilbert Harman (1970/1977). Semantics of Natural Language. Synthese 22 (1-2):1-2.
  163. Gilbert Harman (1970). Deep Structure as Logical Form. Synthese 21 (3-4):275 - 297.
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  164. Gilbert Harman (1970). Language Learning. Noûs 4 (1):33-43.
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  165. Gilbert Harman (1970). Review: B. L. Blose, Synonymy. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (3):457-458.
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  166. Gilbert Harman (1970). Review: William P. Alston, The Quest for Meanings; William P. Alston, Meaning and Use. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 35 (3):456-457.
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  167. Gilbert Harman (1970). Sellars' Semantics. Philosophical Review 79 (3):404-419.
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  168. Gilbert Harman (1969). Linguistic Competence and Empiricism. In Sidney Hook (ed.), Language and Philosophy. New York University Press.
  169. Gilbert Harman (1969). Reply to Arbini. Synthese 19 (3-4):425 - 432.
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  170. Gilbert Harman (1968). An Introduction to 'Translation and Meaning' Chapter Two Ofword and Object. Synthese 19 (1-2):14-26.
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  171. Gilbert Harman (1968). Knowledge, Inference, and Explanation. American Philosophical Quarterly 5 (3):164 - 173.
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  172. Gilbert Harman (1967). Detachment, Probability, and Maximum Likelihood. Noûs 1 (4):401-411.
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  173. Gilbert Harman (1967). Quine on Meaning and Existence, II. Existential Commitment. Review of Metaphysics 21 (2):343 - 367.
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  174. Gilbert Harman (1967). Quine on Meaning and Existence, I. The Death of Meaning. Review of Metaphysics 21 (1):124 - 151.
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  175. Gilbert Harman (1967). Scriven on the Unknowability of Psychological Laws. Philosophical Studies 18 (June):61-63.
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  176. Gilbert Harman (1967). Unger on Knowledge. Journal of Philosophy 64 (12):390-395.
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  177. Gilbert Harman & James M. Smith (1966). New Implications of 'Someone'. Analysis 26 (6):206 - 208.
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  178. Gilbert Harman & Erica Roedder, Moral Grammar.
    The approach to generative grammar originating with Chomsky (1957) has been enormously successful within linguistics. Seeing such success, one wonders whether a similar approach might help us understand other human domains besides language. One such domain is morality. Could there be universal generative moral grammar? More specifically, might it be useful to moral theory to develop an explicit generative account of parts of particular moralities in the way it has proved useful to linguistics to produce generative grammars for parts of (...)
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  179. Gilbert Harman, Models in the Mind.
    How do people reason about the what follows from certain assumptions? How do they think about implications between statements. According to one theory, people try to use a small number of mental rules of inference to construct an argument for or proof of a relevant conclusion from the assumptions (e.g., Rips 1994). According to a competing theory, people construct one or more mental models of the situation described in the assumptions and try to determine what conclusion fits with the model (...)
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  180. Gilbert Harman, Moral Relativism.
    According to moral relativism, there is not a single true morality. There are a variety of possible moralities or moral frames of reference, and whether something is morally right or wrong, good or bad, just or unjust, etc. is a relative matter—relative to one or another morality or moral frame of reference. Something can be morally right relative to one moral frame of reference and morally wrong relative to another. It is useful to compare moral relativism to other relativisms. One (...)
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  181. Gilbert Harman, Review of Christopher Peacocke, the Realm of Reason. [REVIEW]
    Peacocke argues that all epistemic entitlements depend at bottom on a priori entitlements, determined by "constitutive conditions" for the application of concepts. He does not address familiar doubts about the distinction between constitutive and nonconstitutive conditions of application. (These doubts are based on the widely accepted idea that justification begins with all of one's current beliefs and methods and seeks to modify these only to improve their overall coherence with each other, hoping ultimately for "reflective equilibrium.") In addition, Peacocke conflates (...)
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  182. Sanjeev R. Kulkarni & Gilbert Harman, Statistical Learning Theory: A Tutorial.
    In this article, we provide a tutorial overview of some aspects of statistical learning theory, which also goes by other names such as statistical pattern recognition, nonparametric classification and estimation, and supervised learning. We focus on the problem of two-class pattern classification for various reasons. This problem is rich enough to capture many of the interesting aspects that are present in the cases of more than two classes and in the problem of estimation, and many of the results can be (...)
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  183. Gilbert Harman, Epistemology as Methodology.
    What is distinctive about my views in epistemology? One thing is that my concern with epistemology is a concern with methodology. Furthermore, I reject psychologism about logic and reject the idea that deductive rules like modus ponens are in any way rules of inference. I accept a kind of methodological conservatism and reject methodological theories that appeal to special foundations, analytic truth, or a priori justification. Although I believe that there are significant practical aspects of theoretical reasoning, I reject the (...)
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  184. Gilbert Harman, More on Explaining a Gap.
    In (Harman 2007) I argued “that a purely objective account of conscious experience cannot always by itself give an understanding of what it is like to have that experience.” Following Nagel (1974), I suggested that such a gap “has no obvious metaphysical implications. It [merely] reflects the distinction between two kinds of understanding,” objective and subjective, where subjective understanding or “Das Verstehen” (Dilthey 1883/1989) of another creature’s experience involves knowing what it is like to have that experience—knowing what sort of (...)
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  185. Gilbert Harman, Naturalism in Moral Philosophy.
    For philosophical naturalism, as I understand it, philosophy is continuous with natural science. It takes the methods of philosophy to be continuous with those of the natural sciences and is sceptical of allegedly apriori intuitions which it claims need to be tested against one’s other beliefs and, ideally, against the world.
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  186. Gilbert Harman, Notes on Practical Reasoning.
    In these notes, I will use the word “reasoning” to refer to something people do. The general category includes both internal reasoning, reasoning things out by oneself—inference and deliberation—and external reasoning with others—arguing, discussing and negotiating.
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  187. Gilbert Harman, Online Versions of Recently Published Work.
    "What Is Cognitive Access?" PDF. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (2007 [published 2008]): 505. Brief comments on a paper of Ned Block's. "Mechanical Mind," a review of Mind as Machine: A History of Cognitive Science by Margaret Boden. Online Published Version . From American Scientist (2008): 76-81.
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  188. Gilbert Harman, Physical Science and Common-Sense Psychology.
    Scott Sehon argues for a complex view about the relation between commonsense psychology and the physical sciences.1 He rejects any sort of Cartesian dualism and believes that the common-sense psychological facts supervene on the physical facts. Nevertheless he asserts that there is an important respect in which common-sense psychology is independent of the physical sciences. Despite supervenience, we are not to expect any sort of reduction of common-sense psychology to physical science, nor are we to expect the physical sciences to (...)
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  189. Gilbert Harman, Quine's Semantic Relativity.
    Philosophers sometimes approach meaning metaphorically, for example, by speaking of “grasping” meanings, as if understanding consists in getting mental hands around something.1 Philosophers say that a theory of meaning should be a theory about the meanings that people assign to expressions in their language, that to understand other people requires identifying the meanings they associate with what they are saying, and that to translate an expression of another language into your own is to find an expression in your language with (...)
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  190. Gilbert Harman, Response to Hawthorne.
    Hawthorne discusses (without endorsing) the following instance of our (T1) , “One knows that one is seeing a desk by taking for granted, but without knowing, that one is not a brain in a vat” (510). We believe that this is a commonsensical way of describing an ordinary situation. Intuitively, one knows one is seeing a desk. Intuitively one is normally justified in taking it for granted that one is not a brain in a vat, but one does not know (...)
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  191. Gilbert Harman, Using a Linguistic Analogy to Study Morality.
    In his elegant discussion, Sripada distinguishes three possible innate bases for aspects of morality: (1) certain specific principles might be innate, (2) a less simple “principles and parameters” model might apply, and (3) innate biases might have have some influence over what morality a person acquires without determining the content of that morality.1 He argues against (1) and (2) and in favor of (3). Without disputing his case for (3) I will try to say why I think that his arguments (...)
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  192. Gilbert Harman, Words and Pictures in Reports of Fmri Research.
    This is indeed a fallacy, if the relevant sort of consistency is logical consistency. However, the expression “is consistent with” is often used by scientists to mean something much stronger, something like confirms or even strongly confirms.
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  193. Gilbert Harman & Sanjeev Kulkarni, Statistical Learning Theory as a Framework for the Philosophy of Induction.
    Statistical Learning Theory (e.g., Hastie et al., 2001; Vapnik, 1998, 2000, 2006) is the basic theory behind contemporary machine learning and data-mining. We suggest that the theory provides an excellent framework for philosophical thinking about inductive inference.
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  194. Gilbert Harman & Erica Roedder, Moral Theory: The Linguistic Analogy.
    Analogies are often theoretically useful. Important principles of electricity are suggested by an analogy between water current flowing through a pipe and electrical current “flowing” through a wire. A basic theory of sound is suggested by an analogy between waves caused by a stone being dropped into a still lake and “sound waves” caused by a disturbance in air.
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