Maria Bittner Rutgers University
Contact
  • No contact info.

Affiliations
  • Faculty, Rutgers University

Areas of specialization
  • None specified

Areas of interest

blank
About me
Not much to say..
My works
49 items found.
Sort by:
  1. Maria Bittner, Aspect as Eventuality Centering: Mandarin.
    Unlike English and Polish, Mandarin has no grammatical tense (TNS). Therefore, reference times are only introduced by temporal modifiers (contra Smith 1991/7, Wu 2003, Lin 2005, etc). In Mandarin discourse, the frequency of such modifiers (‘today’, ‘last night’, etc) is about the same (low) as in tensed languages (e.g. English, Polish) and plays a similarly marginal role in temporal discourse reference. This, however, does NOT mean that in tenseless Mandarin temporal relations between eventualities in discourse are in any way less (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Maria Bittner, Anaphora Without Indices: Dynamics of Centering.
    The standard way to represent anaphoric dependencies is to co-index the anaphor with its antecedent in the syntactic input to semantic rules, which then interpret such indices as variables. Dynamic theories (e.g. Kamp’s DRT, Heim’s File Change Semantics, Muskens’s Compositional DRT, etc) combine syntactic co-indexation with semantic left-to-right asymmetry. This captures the fact that the anaphor gets its referent from the antecedent and not vice versa. Formally, a text updates the input state of information to the output state. In particular, (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Maria Bittner, Notes on Evidentiality and Mood.
    In Kalaallisut (Eskimo-Aleut:Greenland) verbs inflect for illocutionary mood (declarative, interrogative, imperative, or optative). In addition, the language has an evidential (reportative) clitic which is compatible with all illocutionary moods and gives rise to a variety of readings. These<br>lecture notes exemplify the attested combinations and readings by means of a representative sample of mini-discourses and mini-dialogs.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Maria Bittner, From Mandarin Texts to Update with Centering.
    Simple Mandarin Chinese texts translated into Update with Centering. Notes toward a directly compositional fragment of Mandarin Chinese, combining Categorial Grammar with Update with Centering, to appear in Bittner (in prep.) "Temporality: Universals and Variation".
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Maria Bittner, Nominal Quantification as Top-Level Anaphora.
    So far, we have focused on discourse reference to atomic individuals and specific times, events, and states. The basic point of the argument was that all types of discourse reference involve attention-guided anaphora (in the sense of Bittner 2012: Ch. 2). We now turn to discourses involving anaphora to and by quantificational expressions. Today, we focus on quantification over individuals but the analysis we develop will directly generalize to other semantic types. The basic idea is that quantification is one more (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Maria Bittner, Aspect as Eventuality Centering: English and Polish.
    Last time we saw that grammatical tenses anaphorically refer to top-ranked times or time-valued functions of top-ranked events, just like grammatical person markers anaphorically refer to top-ranked individuals or invididual-valued functions of top-ranked events. Today we extend this idea to grammatical aspect. Specifically, grammatical aspect marking in English and Polish is analyzed as discourse anaphora to top-ranked eventualities (states or events).
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Maria Bittner, Temporal Quantification as Top-Level Anaphora.
    This is part two of our discussion of discourses involving anaphora to and by quantificational expressions of various types. In part one (March 8), we focused on quantification over individuals ("Nominal quantification as top-level anaphora"). In part two (March 22-29), we show that the proposed analysis of quantification, as anaphoric discourse reference to top-ranked sets, automatically generalizes to temporal quantifiers (over times, events, or states).
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Maria Bittner, Tense, Mood, and Centering.
    Natural languages exhibit a great variety of grammatical paradigms. For instance, in English verbs are grammatically marked for tense, whereas in the tenseless Eskimo-Aleut language Kalaallisut they are marked for illocutionary mood. Although time is a universal dimension of the human experience and speaking is part of that experience, some languages encode reference to time without any grammatical tense morphology, or reference to speech acts without any illocutionary mood morphology. Nevertheless, different grammatical systems are semantically parallel in certain respects. Specifically, (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Maria Bittner (forthcoming). Functional Answers Without Construction-Specific Rules. Linguistics and Philosophy.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Maria Bittner (forthcoming). Perspectival Discourse Referents for Indexicals. In Hannah Greene (ed.), Proceedings of SULA 7. UMass at Amherst.
    This paper argues that indexical reference is a species of discourse reference, just like anaphora. Both varieties of discourse reference involve not only context dependence, but also context change. The act of speaking up focuses attention and thereby makes this very speech event available for discourse reference by indexicals. Mentioning something likewise focuses attention, making the mentioned entity available for subsequent discourse reference by anaphors. Empirical evidence is presented from grammatical centering in Kalaallisut and "shifty indexicals" in Slave attitude reports.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Maria Bittner (forthcoming). Topic States in Mandarin Discourse. In Michael Opper (ed.), Proceedings of the 25th North American Conference on Chinese Linguistics. Ohio State University.
    I propose that Mandarin 。-sentences (units marked by 。) are aspectual topic-comment sequences, where an initial update (terminating in a pause) introduces a topic state for comment by one or more clauses. Each comment anaphorically refers to the topic state via the aspect feature of the verbal predicate. This proposal explains why Mandarin 。-sentences have controversial boundaries, since speakers may disagree where one topic state ends and the next one begins. It also explains various manifestations of aspect-prominence and topic-prominence in (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Maria Bittner (forthcoming). Temporality: Universals and Variation. Wiley-Blackwell.
    This book surveys the ways in which languages of different types refer to past, present, and future events and how these referents are related to the knowledge and attitudes of discourse participants. The book is the culmination of fifteen years of research by the author. Four major language types are examined in-depth: tense-based English, tense-aspect-based Polish, aspect-based Chinese, and mood-based Kalaallisut. Each contributes to a series of logical representation languages, which together define a common logical language that is argued to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Maria Bittner (2011). Time and Modality Without Tenses or Modals. In Renate Musan & Monika Rathert (eds.), Tense across Languages. Niemeyer. 147--188.
    In English, discourse reference to time involves grammatical tenses interpreted as temporal anaphors. Recently, it has been argued that conditionals involve modal discourse anaphora expressed by a parallel grammatical system of anaphoric modals. Based on evidence from Kalaallisut, this paper argues that temporal and modal anaphora can be just as precise in a language that does not have either grammatical category. Instead, temporal anaphora directly targets eventualities of verbs, without mediating tenses, while modal anaphora involves anaphoric moods and/or attitudinal verbs.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Maria Bittner (2008). Aspectual Universals of Temporal Anaphora. In Susan Rothstein (ed.), Theoretical and Crosslinguistic Approaches to the Semantics of Aspect. John Benjamins. 11--349.
    It has long been recognized that temporal anaphora in French and English depends on the aspectual distinction between events and states. For example, temporal location as well as temporal update depends on the aspectual type. This paper presents a general theory of aspect-based temporal anaphora, which extends from languages with grammatical tenses (like French and English) to tenseless languages (e.g. Kalaallisut). This theory also extends to additional aspect-dependent phenomena and to non-atomic aspectual types, processes and habits, which license anaphora to (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Maria Bittner & Naja Trondhjem (2008). Quantification as Reference: Evidence From Q-Verbs. In Lisa Matthewson (ed.), Quantification: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Emerald. 2--7.
    Formal semantics has so far focused on three categories of quantifiers, to wit, Q-determiners (e.g. 'every'), Q-adverbs (e.g. 'always'), and Q-auxiliaries (e.g. 'would'). All three can be analyzed in terms of tripartite logical forms (LF). This paper presents evidence from verbs with distributive affixes (Q-verbs), in Kalaallisut, Polish, and Bininj Gun-wok, which cannot be analyzed in terms of tripartite LFs. It is argued that a Q-verb involves discourse reference to a distributive verbal dependency, i.e. an episode-valued function that sends different (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Maria Bittner & Naja Trondhjem (2008). Quantification as Reference: Kalaallisut Q-Verbs. In Lisa Matthewson (ed.), Quantification: A Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Emerald. 64.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Maria Bittner (2007). Online Update: Temporal, Modal, and de Se Anaphora in Polysynthetic Discourse. In Chris Barker & Pauline Jacobson (eds.), Direct Compositionality. Oxford University Press. 11--363.
    This paper introduces a framework for direct surface composition by online update. The surface string is interpreted as is, with each morpheme in turn updating the input state of information and attention. A formal representation language, Logic of Centering, is defined and some crosslinguistic constraints on lexical meanings and compositional operations are formulated.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Maria Bittner (2006). Ontology for Human Talk and Thought (Not Robotics). Theoretical Linguistics 32 (1):47-56.
    Hamm, Kamp, and van Lambalgen 2006 (hereafter HLK) propose to relate NL discourse to cognitive representations that also deal with world knowledge, planning, belief revision, etc. Surprisingly, to represent human cognition they use an event calculus "which has found applications in robotics". This comment argues that the robotics-based theory of HLK attributes too much to world knowledge and not enough to the ontology, centering, and other universals of NL semantics. It is also too Anglo-centric to generalize to languages of other (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Maria Bittner (2005). Future Discourse in a Tenseless Language. Journal of Semantics 22 (4):339-87.
    The Eskimo language Kalaallisut (alias West Greenlandic) has traditionally been described as having a rich tense system, with three future tenses (Kleinschmidt 1851, Bergsland 1955, Fortescue 1984) and possibly four past tenses (Fortescue 1984). Recently however, Shaer (2003) has challenged these traditional claims, arguing that Kalaallisut is in fact tenseless.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Maria Bittner (2003). Proceedings From CLS 39-1. CLS.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Maria Bittner (2003). Word Order and Incremental Update. In Proceedings from CLS 39-1. CLS.
    The central claim of this paper is that surface-faithful word-by-word update is feasible and desirable, even in languages where word order is supposedly free. As a first step, in sections 1 and 2, I review an argument from Bittner 2001a that semantic composition is not a static process, as in PTQ, but rather a species of anaphoric bridging. But in that case the context-setting role of word order should extend from cross-sentential discourse anaphora to sentence-internal anaphoric composition. This can be (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Maria Bittner (2001). Surface Composition as Bridging. Journal of Semantics 18 (2):127-177.
    The development of explicit theories of dynamic context change has led to a fundamentally new perspective on the interpretation of discourse. In this paper I show that this development also opens up the possibility of approaching subclausal composition along similar lines. More specifically, I argue that a dynamic theory where type-driven rules apply directly to overt surface structures and fill in missing information by building anaphoric bridges is more faithful to natural language semantics than the classical Montagovian approach.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Maria Bittner (2001). Topical Referents for Individuals and Possibilities. In R. Hastings, B. Jackson & Z. Zvolensky (eds.), Proceedings from SALT XI. CLC.
    Partee (1973) noted anaphoric parallels between English tenses and pronouns. Since then these parallels have been analyzed in terms of type-neutral principles of discourse anaphora. Recently, Stone (1997) extended the anaphoric parallel to English modals. In this paper I extend the story to languages of other types. This evidence also shows that centering parallels are even more detailed than previously recognized. Based on this evidence, I propose a semantic representation language (Logic of Change with Centered Worlds), in which the observed (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Maria Bittner & Ken Hale (2000). Comparative Notes On Ergative Case Systems. In Robert Pensalfini & Norvin Richards (eds.), MITWPEL 2: Papers on Australian Languages. Dep. Linguistics, MIT.
    Ergative languages make up a substantial percentage of the world’s languages. They have a case system which distinguishes the subject of a transitive verb from that of an intransitive, grouping the latter with the object — that is, the object of a transitive verb and the subject of an intransitive verb are in the same case, which we refer to as the nominative. However, ergative languages differ from one another in important ways. In Greenlandic Eskimo the nominative, whether it is (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Maria Bittner (1999). Concealed Causatives. Natural Language Semantics 7 (1):1-78.
    Crosslinguistically, causative constructions conform to the following generalization: If the causal relation is syntactically concealed, then it is semantically direct. Concealed causatives span a wide syntactic spectrum, ranging from resultative complements in English to causative subjects in Miskitu. A unified type-driven theory is proposed which attributes the understood causal relation—and other elements of constructional meaning—to type lifting operations predictably licensed by type mismatch at LF. The proposal has far-reaching theoretical implications not only for the theory of compositionality and causation, but (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Maria Bittner (1998). Cross-Linguistic Semantics for Questions. Linguistics and Philosophy 21 (1):1-82.
    : The Hamblin-Karttunen approach has led to many insights about questions in English. In this article the results of this rule-by-rule tradition are reconsidered from a crosslinguistic perspective. Starting from the type-driven XLS theory developed in Bittner (1994a, b), it is argued that evidence from simple questions (in English, Polish, Lakhota and Warlpiri) leads to certain revisions. The revised XLS theory then immediately generalizes to complex questions — including scope marking (Hindi), questions with quantifiers (English) and multiple wh-questions (English, Hindi, (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Maria Bittner & Ken Hale (1996). The Structural Determination of Case and Agreement. Linguistic Inquiry 27 (1):1–68.
    We analyze Case in terms of independent constraints on syntactic structures — namely, the Projection Principle (inherent Case), the ECP (marked structural Case), and the theory of extended projections (the nominative, a Caseless nominal projection). The resulting theory accounts for (1) the government constraint on Case assignment, (2) all major Case systems (accusative, ergative, active, three-way, and split), (3) Case alternations (passive, antipassive, and ECM), and (4) the Case of nominal possessors. Structural Case may correlate with pronominal agreement because the (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Maria Bittner (1995). Quantification in Eskimo: A Challenge for Compositional Semantics. In E. Bach, E. Jelinek, A. Kratzer & B. Partee (eds.), Quantification in Natural Languages. Kluwer. 59--80.
    This paper describes quantificational structures in Greenlandic Eskimo (Kalaallisut), a language where familiar quantificational meanings are expressed in ways that are quite different from English. Evidence from this language thus poses some formidable challenges for cross-linguistic theories of compositional semantics.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Maria Bittner & Ken Hale (1995). Remarks on Definiteness in Warlpiri. In Emmon Bach, Eloise Jelinek, Angelika Kratzer & Barbara Partee (eds.), Quantification in Natural Languages. Kluwer.
    In this paper, we discuss some rather puzzling facts concerning the semantics of Warlpiri expressions of cardinality, i.e. the Warlpiri counterparts of English expressions like one,two, many, how many. The morphosyntactic evidence, discussed in section 1, suggests that the corresponding expressions in Warlpiri are nominal, just like the Warlpiri counterparts of prototypical nouns, eg. child. We also argue that Warlpiri has no articles or any other items of the syntactic category D(eterminer). In section 2, we describe three types of readings— (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Maria Bittner (1994). Cross-Linguistic Semantics. Linguistics and Philosophy 17 (1):53 - 108.
    Rooth & Partee (1982) and Rooth (1985) have shown that the English-specific rule-by-rule system of PTQ can be factored out into function application plus two transformations for resolving type mismatch (type lifting and variable binding). Building on these insights, this article proposes a universal system for type-driven translation, by adding two more innovations: local type determination for gaps (generalizing Montague 1973) and a set of semantic filters (extending Cooper 1983). This system, dubbed Cross-Linguistic Semantics (XLS), is shown to account for (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Maria Bittner (1987). On the Semantics of the Greenlandic Antipassive and Related Constructions. International Journal of American Linguistics 53:194–231.
    : This study describes a new field method, suited for investigating scope relations — and other aspects of truth conditional meaning — with native speaker consultants who may speak no other language and have no background in linguistics or logic. This method revealed a surprising scope contrast between the antipassive and the ergative construction in Greenlandic Eskimo. The results of this field work are described in detail and a crosslinguistic scope generalization is proposed based on Greenlandic Eskimo, Basque, Polish, Russian, (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Maria Bittner, Chan T'u'ul Ichil le Sahkabo'.
    TEXT: D. and A. Bolles, 1996, A Grammar of the Yucatecan Mayan Language/The Expoloits of Juan Thul, The Trickster Rabbit. http://www.famsi.org/reports/96072/grammar/section42.html. GLOSSES & TRANSLATION: See the text pdf at http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~mbittner/ym.html. ONLINE UPDATE: See Bittner 2004 ‘Online Update: Quantified de se and polysynthesis’. The following table lists some basic symbols of the semantic representation language to be used.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Maria Bittner, Grammatical Centering: Tense, Mood, and Evidentiality.
    Natural languages exhibit a great variety of verbal paradigms. For instance, in English main verbs are grammatically marked for tense, whereas in the tenseless Eskimo-Aleut language Kalaallisut they are marked for illocutionary mood. Although time is a universal dimension of the human experience and speaking is part of that experience, some languages encode discourse reference to time without any grammatical tense morphology (see e.g. Bittner 2005), or reference to speech acts without any illocutionary mood morphology.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Maria Bittner, Mood as Illocutionary Centering.
    By this point, we have developed some articulated analyses of top-level temporal anaphora, including temporal quantification, in languages with grammatical tense and/or aspect systems, represented by English, Polish, and Mandarin. But it is still not clear how this approach might extend to temporal anaphora in a language such as Kalaallisut, which has neither grammatical tense nor grammatical aspect, but instead marks only grammatical mood and person. Most theories of mood and modal reference either ignore temporal reference (e.g. Hamblin 1973, Stalnaker (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Maria Bittner, Mood-Based Temporal Reference.
    Last time we introduced the notion of an illocutionary perspective . The basic idea is that the very act of speaking up introduces several discourse referents. The speech act itself (e ) is introduced as the central perspective point ( ε ). In addition, all the speech spheres (p ) where this speech act is realized, as well as the worlds of each sphere (w ∈p ) are introduced as modal topics ( Ω and  ω ).
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Maria Bittner, Sample Derivations in Update with Centering.
    Appendix to lecture notes on "Nominal (re)centering: From Kalaallisut to UC1". Day 2 of advanced course on "Cross-linguistic compositional semantics" at LSA Summer Institute 2009 at UC Berkeley.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Maria Bittner, Conditionals as Attitude Reports.
    Most theories of conditionals and attitudes do not analyze either phenomenon in terms of the other. A few view attitude reports as a species of conditionals (e.g. Stalnaker 1984, Heim 1992). Based on evidence from Kalaallisut, this paper argues for the opposite thesis: conditionals are a species of attitude reports. The argument builds on prior findings that conditionals are modal topic-comment structures (e.g. Haiman 1978, Bittner 2001), and that in mood-based Kalaallisut English future (e.g. Ole will win) translates into a (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Maria Bittner, Scope in English: Analysis in CCG+UC2.
    Day 5 of advanced course on "Crosslinguistic compositional semantics" at 2009 LSA Summer Institute at UC Berkeley. Plan for today: (a) Introduction: scope prediction (SA vs. BA), sample data (English vs. Kalaallisut), (b) Analysis of English data.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Maria Bittner, From Kalaallisut to English: Analysis in CCG+UC2.
    Day 4 of advanced course on "Crosslinguistic compositional semantics" at 2009 LSA Summer Institute at UC Berkeley. Plan to today: (a) Introduction (syn-sem traits of English vs. Kalaallisut, scope corollary), (b) UC1 + event (re)centering = UC2, (c) English and Kalaallisut in CCG+UC2, (d) Analysis of Kalaallisut BA.TO.L (review) vs. English SA.SU.S (new).
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Maria Bittner, Individuals and Possibilities (3): Notes on Issues Raised by Stone & Hardt (1997).
    This is the last of three lectures on anaphoric parallels between individuals and possibilities across languages (IMS, Stuttgart, 2000).
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Maria Bittner, Notes From Greenland.
    Tuesday evening, December 27, 1983 …I did go skiing today, though, which is what I want to write about. The temperature is down to –10°C again, on my thermometer, which probably means –12 to –13°C, in real terms. The visibility is still very poor though the wind has stopped. I set off at 2 pm and got home at about 4 pm, which meant skiing in the dark all the time. This wouldn’t have bothered me except that I had an (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Maria Bittner, Scope in Kalaallisut: Analysis in CCG+UC2.
    Day 6 of advanced course on "Crosslinguistic compositional semantics" at 2009 LSA Summer Institute at UC Berkeley. Plan for today: (a) Review: scope prediction, Kalaallisut data, (b) Analysis of Kalaallisut data, (c) Questions & discussion.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Maria Bittner, Semantic Composition: Kalaallisut in CCG+UC1.
    Day 3 of advanced course on "Crosslinguistic compositional semantics" at 2009 LSA Summer Institute at UC Berkeley. Plan for the day: (a) Introduction: Toward sun-sem typology (b) CCG+UC1 fragment of Kalaallisut, (c) Kalaallisut BA.TO.L-traits explained.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Maria Bittner, Tense as Temporal Centering.
    Abstract According to an influential theory, English tenses are anaphoric to an aforementioned reference point. This point is sometimes construed as a time (e.g. Reichenbach 1947, Partee 1973, Stone 1997) and sometimes as an event (e.g. Kamp 1979, 1981, Webber 1988). Moreover, some researchers draw semantic parallels between tenses and pronouns (e.g. Partee 1973, 1984, Stone 1997), whereas others draw parallels between tenses and anaphorically anchored (in)definite descriptions (e.g.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Maria Bittner, Temporal Anaphora in Tenseless Languages: Day 1.
    Day 1 of advanced course on "Temporal anaphora in tenseless languages" at 2006 ESSLLI.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Maria Bittner, Individuals and Possibilities (1): Notes on Stone (1999) 'Reference to Possible Worlds'.
    The first of three lectures on nominal and modal discourse reference across languages (IMS, Stuttgart, 2000).
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Maria Bittner, Nominal (Re)Centering: From Kalaallisut to Uc.
    • A UC1-model M = 〈{Da| a ∈ Θ}, ⋅〉 assigns to each constant of type a, A ∈ Cona a value which is an object of type a, A ∈ Da.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Maria Bittner, Semantic Composition: Kalaallisut in Ccg+Uc.
    Maria Bittner (M2: August 3, 2009) 1. TOWARD SYN-SEM TYPOLOGY • E. Jelinek 1984: W(arlpiri)-TYPE (EJ traits (62.a-f) ~ MB traits BA, TO, L, …).
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Maria Bittner, Scope in English & Kalaallisut: Analysis in CCG+UC.
    <span class='Hi'>Maria</span> Bittner (M3 & W3: August 10 & 12, 2009) 1. SCOPE PREDICTION & SAMPLE DATA • SCOPE PREDICTION..
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
Is this list right?