Carlo Penco University of Genoa (Italy)
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http://www.dif.unige.it/epi/hp/penco
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  1. Filippo Domaneschi, Carlo Penco, Elena Carrea & Alberto Greco (2014). The Cognitive Load of Presupposition Triggers: Mandatory and Optional Repairs in Presupposition Failure. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 29 (1):136-146.
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  2. Carlo Penco, Between Knowing How and Knowing That. Liber Amicorum Pascal Engel.
    I wonder whether the idea of knowing how as kind of knowing that with a peculiar mode of presentation really helps in the debate between philosophers and scientists.
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  3. Carlo Penco (2013). Dummett and the Game of Tarots. Teorema (1):141-155.
    In this paper I give a reconstruction of Dummett’s main arguments concerning the theory of the occult origin of the Tarot, and discuss the reasons behind the success of the Tarot pack – in particular the Major Arcana – in the history of card games. I also provide some indication of the links between Dummett’s interest in the history of card games and aspects of his philosophical background. As I am not an expert on card games, this paper is mainly (...)
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  4. Carlo Penco (2013). Indexicals as Demonstratives: On the Debate Between Kripke and Künne. Grazer Philosophische Studien 88.
    This paper is a comparison of Kripke’s and Künne’s interpretations of Frege’s theory of indexicals, especially concerning Frege’s remarks on time as “part of the expression of thought”. I analyze the most contrasting features of Kripke’s and Künne’s interpretations of Frege’s remarks on indexicals. Subsequently, I try to identify a common ground between Kripke’s and Künne’s interpretations, and hint at a possible convergence between those two views, stressing the importance given by Frege to nonverbal signs in defining the content of (...)
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  5. Carlo Penco (2013). Sense and Linguistic Meaning: A Solution to the Kirkpe-Burge Conflict. Paradigmi 23 (3).
    In this paper I apply a well known tension between cognitive and semantic aspects in Frege’s notion of sense to his treatment of indexicals. I first discusses Burge’s attack against the identification of sense and meaning, and Kripke’s answer supporting such identification. After showing different problems for both interpreters, the author claims that the tension in Frege’s conception of sense (semantic and cognitive) accounts for some shortcomings of both views, and that considering the tension helps in understanding apparently contradictory Fregean (...)
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  6. Carlo Penco (2013). What Happened to the Sense of a Concept Word? Protosociology 30:6-28.
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  7. Carlo Penco (2012). Updating the Turing Test. Wittgenstein, Turing and Symbol Manipulation. Open Journal of Philosophy 2 (3):189-194.
  8. Daniele Santoro & Carlo Penco (2012). New Perspectives on Analytic Pragmatism. Philosophia 40 (1):1-11.
    Analytic pragmatism is a framework of analysis elaborated by Robert Brandom, whose goal is to explain the relations between meaning and use according to a systematic and general method of inquiry. In April 2009, a workshop was organized to discuss the recent developments of this new theoretical approach. Brandom delivered three lectures, where he explored some aspects of analytic pragmatism and addressed the motivating themes of this enterprise, while the contribution from the other speakers ranged over specific aspects of the (...)
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  9. Carlo Penco (2010). Essentially Incomplete Descriptions. European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 6 (2):47 - 66.
    In this paper I offer a defence of a Russellian analysis of the referential uses of incomplete (mis)descriptions, in a contextual setting. With regard to the debate between a unificationist and an ambiguity approach to the formal treatment of definite descriptions (introduction), I will support the former against the latter. In 1. I explain what I mean by "essentially" incomplete descriptions: incomplete descriptions are context dependent descriptions. In 2. I examine one of the best versions of the unificationist “explicit” approach (...)
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  10. Carlo Penco (2010). Frege. Carocci.
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  11. Carlo Penco (2010). The Influence of Einstein on Wittgenstein's Philosophy. Philosophical Investigations 33 (4):360-379.
  12. Carlo Penco & Daniele Porello (2010). Sense and Proof. In M. D'agostino, G. Giorello, F. Laudisa, T. Pievani & C. Sinigaglia (eds.), New Essays in Logic and Philosophy of Science,. College Publicationss.
    In this paper we give some formal examples of ideas developed by Penco in two papers on the tension inside Frege's notion of sense (see Penco 2003). The paper attempts to compose the tension between semantic and cognitive aspects of sense, through the idea of sense as proof or procedure – not as an alternative to the idea of sense as truth condition, but as complementary to it (as it happens sometimes in the old tradition of procedural semantics).
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  13. Cristina Amoretti, Carlo Penco & Federico Pitto (eds.) (2009). Towards and Analytic Pragmatism. CEUR WS.
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  14. Cristina Amoretti, Federico Pitto & Carlo Penco (eds.) (2009). Proceedings of the Workshop on Bob Brandom's Recent Philosophy of Language: Towards an Analytic Pragmatism Genoa, Italy, April 19-23, 2009. University of Genoa, Department of Philosophy.
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  15. Carlo Penco (2009). Assertion and Inference. In Cristina Amoretti, Carlo Penco & Federico Pitto (eds.), Towards and Analytic Pragmatism. CEUR WS.
    A very short introductory tutorial to Brandom's idea of assertion.
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  16. Carlo Penco (2009). Between Saying and Doing: Towards an Analytic Pragmatism – by Robert B. Brandom. Theoria 75 (4):366-369.
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  17. Carlo Penco (2009). Rational Procedures. The Dialogue - Yearbook of Philosophical Hermenutics, Lit Verlag. Berlin, 2009 4 (1):137-153.
    In this paper I shall deal with the role of "understanding a thought" in the debate on the definition of the content of an assertion. I shall present a well known tension in Frege's writings, between a cognitive and semantic notion of sense. This tension is at the source of some of the major contemporary discussions, mainly because of the negative influence of Wittgenstein's Tractatus, which did not give in-depth consideration to the tension found in Frege. However many contemporary authors, (...)
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  18. Carlo Penco (2008). Context and Contract. In R. Thomason, L. Serafini & P. Bouquet (eds.), Perspectives on Contexts. CSLI.
    The main point of the paper is the claim that a strong notion of cognitive context can answer the needs of a representation of dialogue context, with a higher generality than the "normative" notion suggested by Gauker. I will discuss some well known claims in the literature about communication and context, and I will suggest giving a central role to the notion of contract or semantic bargaining and to the normative constraints of indexicals and anaphora.
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  19. Carlo Penco (2008). Wittgenstein, Olismo Ed Esperimenti Mentali. Paradigmi 2.
    In questo articolo parlo della influenza di Einstein su Wittgenstein a partire da alcuni problemi che si pongono all’olismo. L’olismo è stato spesso collegato a Wittgenstein, almeno in forma di “olismo locale”. L’olismo è però soggetto a due tipi di paradossi: il paradosso della comunicazione per l’olismo semantico e il paradosso del relativismo concettuale per l’olismo epistemologico. Dopo aver presentato brevemente i due paradossi, confronto le risposte di Davidson, in difesa dell’olismo, con quelle di Wittgenstein (o di tipo wittgensteiniano). Da (...)
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  20. Carlo Penco (2007). Competenza pragmatica come filtro. Rivista di Estetica 47 (34):213-231.
    In questo lavoro tratto del problema del rapporto tra semantica e pragmatica, e in particolare cerco di dare una visione generale di cosa si dovrebbe intendere per "competenza pragmatica". Assumo una visione olistica del significato, perché mi permette di mostrare come, anche con una posizione radicale di questo genere, possiamo trovare modi per spiegare la comunicazione e salvare la composizionalità. Il modo per spiegare la comunicazione e salvare la composizionalità passa attraverso la dimensione pragmatica, intesa come il modo di filtrare (...)
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  21. Carlo Penco (2007). Idiolect and Context. In L. E. Hahn (ed.), Library of Living Philosphers: the Philosophy of Michael Dummett. Open Court.
    In this paper I will compare some of Dummett and Davidson’s claims on the problem of communication and idiolects: how can we understand each other if we use different idiolects? First I define the problem, giving the alternative theses of (I) the priority of language over idiolects and (II) the priority of idiolects over language. I then present Dummett's claims supporting (I) and Davidson's claims supporting (II).
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  22. Carlo Penco, Michael Beaney & Massimiliano Vignolo (eds.) (2007). Explaining the Mental: Naturalist and Non-Naturalist Approaches to Mental Acts and Processes. Cambridge Scholars Pub..
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  23. Carlo Penco, Massimiliano Vignolo, Valeria Ottonelli & Cristina Amoretti (eds.) (2007). Proceedings of the 4th Latin Meeting in Analytic Philosophy. Genoa: University of Genoa.
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  24. Carlo Penco (2006). Etica E Giustificazione: Wittgenstein E l'Influenza di Moore. In R. M. Carcaterra (ed.), Le ragioni del conoscere e dell'agire. Scritti in onore di Rosaria Egidi,.
    Nel febbraio 1912 Wittgenstein venne ammesso al Trinity College con Russell come supervisor, e iniziò a seguire le lezioni di Moore. E’ probabile che leggesse il libretto di Moore, Ethics, pubblicato al suo arrivo a Cambridge, o che ritrovasse nelle lezioni di Moore alcune delle suggestioni presenti nel libro. Ma dopo il Tractatus Wittgenstein dedicò poco spazio alle riflessioni sull’etica e quel poco in un periodo ristretto di tempo, agli inizi degli anni ‘30, dalla Conferenza sull’etica2 alle lezioni del ’32-33. (...)
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  25. Carlo Penco (2005). Converging Towards What: On Semantic and Pragmatic Competence. In L. Serafini & P. Bouquet (eds.), CEUR-Workshops.
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  26. Carlo Penco (2005). Keeping Track of Individuals: Brandom's Analysis of Kripke's Puzzle and the Content of Belief. Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (1):177-201.
    This paper gives attention to a special point in Brandom.
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  27. Carlo Penco (2005). Anatra All'arancia: Il Tema Del Contesto Nella Filosofia Analitica. Teoria (1):3-21.
    Questa conferenza offre una presentazione semplificata del concetto di contesto nella filosofia analitica,in particolare nella filosofia del linguaggio. E' semplificata perché tralascia una serie di discussioni rilevanti per fermarsi alle grandi linee che segnano l'emergenza del concetto di contesto in filosofia del linguaggio. Inoltre mi concentro su un aspetto particolare del dibattito: la linea di confine tra pragmatia e semantica e il ruolo che il concetto di contesto ha in questo dibattito, cercando di evidenziare i punti di disaccordo tra le (...)
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  28. Carlo Penco (2005). Uomini, Topi E Formiche: Riflessioni Sulla Scienza Cognitiva1 (Bozza). In Fondazione Devoto (ed.), Cultura umanistica e cultura scientifica.
    Riassunto: in queste note presentouna breve panoramica della scienza cognitiva, che costituisce a tutt'oggi, a più di vent'anni dalla sua nascita, un coacervo di novità rilevanti nell'ambito della ricerca interdisciplinare. Dopo una prima presentazione generale (§1), traccio una breve storia della disciplina (§2) per passare poi a descrivere nel § 3 uno dei nuclei di fondo della scienza cognitiva: il funzionalismo e l'idea di mente come sistema di rappresentazioni o mappe cognitive. Nel § 4. accenno ad alcune tensioni interne alla (...)
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  29. T. G. McCarthy, S. C. Stidd & C. Penco (2004). Recensioni/Reviews-Wittgenstein in America. Epistemologia 27 (2):351-352.
     
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  30. C. Penco & Norma B. Goethe (2004). REVIEWS-Frege: Two Theses, Two Senses. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 10 (2):232-233.
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  31. Carlo Penco (2004). Wittgenstein, Locality and Rules. In Annalisa Coliva & Eva Picardi (eds.), Wittgenstein Today. Il Poligrafo. 249--74.
    This paper tries to give some substance to local holism, a picture that seems to fit Wittgenstein’s analysis of the working of language. In the first part I state the well-known paradox of semantic holism, as discussed in philosophy of language: if meaning is holistic there is no possibility to share any meaning. In the second part I present the different answers to this paradox, from atomism to different forms of holism. In the third part I give a criticism of (...)
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  32. Carlo Penco (2003). Frege, Sense and Limited Rationality. History of Modern Logic 9:53-65.
    In this paper, I will discuss a well-known oscillation in Frege’s conception of sense. My point is only partially concerned with his two different criteria of sense identity, and touches upon a more specific point: what happens if we apply Frege’s intuitive criterion for the difference of thoughts to logically equivalent sentences? I will try to make a schematic argument here that will preempt any endeavor to make Frege more coherent than he really is. In sections A and B, I (...)
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  33. Carlo Penco (2003). Frege: Two Theses, Two Senses. History and Philosophy of Logic 24 (2):87-109.
    One particular topic in the literature on Frege’s conception of sense relates to two apparently contradictory theses held by Frege: the isomorphism of thought and language on one hand and the expressibility of a thought by different sentences on the other. I will divide the paper into five sections. In (1) I introduce the problem of the tension in Frege’s thought. In (2) I discuss the main attempts to resolve the conflict between Frege’s two contradictory claims, showing what is wrong (...)
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  34. Carlo Penco (2002). Holism, Strawberries, and Hair Dryers. Topoi 21 (1-2):47-54.
    The paper "Does Epistemological Holism lead to Meaning – Holism" (Cozzo, 2002) touches one of the main problems of a molecularist theory of meaning: how to restrict the class of inferences connected with a word, in order to define the sense of the word. I will discuss the starting point of this approach, mainly the pre-theoretical criterion against meaning holism: meaning holism, following a well-known argument by Dummett, reduces communication to a mystery. However there is a strong background assumption of (...)
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  35. Carlo Penco (2002). Olismo E Molecolarismo. In Massimo Dell'Utri (ed.), Olismo.
    In questo saggio non sviluppo una tesi precisa, ma presento alcune osservazioni sull'olismo e molecolarismo che tentano di mostrare la praticabilita' del molecolarismo e vederne allo stesso tempo le difficoltà: (i) Mi interrogo sulla fortuna del dibattito sull'olismo degli ultimi anni, come ripresa e precisazione delle osservazioni fatte a suo tempo da Dummett nel suo libro su Frege. (ii) Richiamo alcune idee fregeane a proposito di linguaggi formali che definiscono una specie di olismo innocuo, e al contempo impongono una distinzione (...)
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  36. Carlo Penco (2001). Laboratorio di Scienze Cognitive.
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  37. Carlo Penco (2001). Local Holism. In P. Bouquet (ed.), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Kluwer. 290--303.
    This paper is devoted to discuss a general tendency in contextualism which is known as "radical contextualism". In the first part I state the well known paradox of semantic holism, as discussed in philosophy of language: if meaning is holistic there is no possibility to share any meaning. In the second part I present the different answers to this paradox, from atomism to different forms of holism. In the third part I give a criticism of the traditional interpretation of Wittgenstein (...)
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  38. Carlo Penco (2001). Origini Del Paradigma Classico in Logica. In Laboratorio di scienze cognitive.
    In quanto segue si d× in poche pagine un'idea del paradigma classico della logica assiomatica; Ë un richiamo alla terminologia e ai simboli che si useranno in seguito. I due successivi capitoli presentano i problemi ce hanno segnato la nascita del paradigma classico e un confronto con il paradigma tradizionale della logica aristotelica.
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  39. Carlo Penco (2000). Three Alternatives on Context. In Diego Marconi (ed.), Knowledge and Meaning. Mercurio.
    Context is a concept used by philosophers and scientists with many different definitions. Since Dummett we speak of "context principle" in Frege and Wittgenstein: "an expression has a meaning only in the context of a sentence". The context principle finds an extension in some of Wittgenstein's ideas, especially in his famous passage where he says that "to understand a sentence is to understand a language". Given that Wittgenstein believes that "the" language does not exist but only language games exist, we (...)
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  40. Piergiorgio Donatelli, Paolo Leonardi & Carlo Penco (1999). Discussione Su "Making It Explicit" di Robert Brandom. Iride 12 (1):179-196.
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  41. Carlo Penco (1999). Interview with Robert Brandom. Epistemologia:143-150.
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  42. Carlo Penco (1999). Objective and Cognitive Context. In P. Brezillon & P. Bouquet (eds.), Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence. Springer.
    In what follows I consider the apparent contrast between two kinds of theories of context: a theory of objective context - exemplified in the works of Kaplan and Lewis - and a theory of subjective context -exemplified in the works of McCarthy and Giunchiglia. I consider then some difficulties for the objective theory. I don't give any formalization; instead I give some theoretical points about the problem. A possible result could be the abandon of the double indexing for a development (...)
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  43. Carlo Penco (1999). Holism in Artificial Intelligence? In Maria Luisa Dalla Chiara (ed.), Language, Quantum, Music. 37--48.
    [This is a larger version of the published article] In the discussion on semantic holism it has been claimed that A.I. is almost entirely holistic. In this paper I show that some of the main lines of research in symbolic artificial intelligence are not holistic; I will consider three classical cases: toy words, frames and contextual reasoning. I claim that these examples from A.I. can be interpreted as implementing molecularist intuitions about language. Eventually I suggest that some assumptions behind the (...)
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  44. Carlo Penco (1999). Ragione E Pratica Sociale: L'inferenzialismo di Robert Brandom. Rivista di Filosofia (3):467-486.
    Insieme a John McDowell, Robert Brandom è uno dei filosofi emergenti della reazione al naturalismo filosofico; seguace Wilfrid Sellars, è l'autore americano che più si avvicina al dialogo con la filosofia continentale e propone una rivalutazione di Kant e Hegel nella filosofia analitica. Già allievo di Richard Rorty, Brandom è diventuo famoso con la pubblicazione di Making it Explicit. Questo ponderoso volume di 900 pagine non ha avuto però ancora una sufficiente attenzione nel dibattito filosofico italiano (a parte alcuni inteventi (...)
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  45. Carlo Penco (1999). Sensi, catene anaforiche e olismo. Iride 26:190-195.
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  46. Carlo Penco (1999). Wittgenstein in Relation to Our Times. In Rosaria Egidi (ed.), n Search of a New Humanism: the Philosophy of Georg Henrik von Wright. Kluwer.
    In "Wittgenstein in relation to his times" Von Wright1 poses a dilemma regarding the relationship between three wittgensteinian tenets: (i) the view that individual's beliefs and thoughts are entrenched in accepted language games and socially sanctioned forms of life (ii) the view that "philosophical problems are disquietudes of the mind caused by some malfunctioning in the language games, and hence in the way of life of the community". (iii) the "rejection of the scientific-technological civilisation of industrialised societies". The dilemma is (...)
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  47. Roberto Casati, Carlo Penco & Timothy Williamson (1998). Discussione su "Lexical Competence" di Diego Marconi. Iride 11 (2):389-402.
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  48. Carlo Penco, Brandom's Solution of Kripke's Puzzle. [Papers on Line - Teaching Material].
    Brandom's "solution" of Kripke's puzzle in Making it Explicit [573-583] is to be read on the background of four main ideas, plus his general concern on inferential role semantics. I will give some hints about these basic presuppositions, because, once they have been accepted, Kripke's puzzle seems to have no more appeal (at least from Brandom's point of view). If already acquainted with Brandom's general ideas, you may skip part I and go directly to part II.
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  49. Carlo Penco (1998). Competenza E Competenze. Iride:329-397.
    Lexical Competence si presenta come una analisi dei diversi aspetti del del concetto di competenza semantica, con contributi originali sull'aspetto referenziale e sui problemi al margine tra filosofia e intelligenza artificiale. La pacata analisi del concetto di competenza lessicale porta a criticare tesi filosofiche sostanziali: le teorie oggettivistiche del significato alla Putnam tendono a ipostatizzare le norme semantiche, e le teorie naturaliste alla Chomsky tendono a dare poco o nessuno spazio agli aspetti normativi del linguaggio. Marconi cerca una terza via (...)
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  50. Carlo Penco, Kripke's Puzzle About Belief. teaching material.
    A traditional argument is often used against Mill's theory of names (the meaning of a name is exhausted by its referent). Mill's theory implies transparency of proper names (coreferring proper names are substitutable salva veritate); but examples like Frege's and Quine's show that proper names are not transparent in belief contexts. This could be thought to be a reductio ad absurdum of Mill's theory. In " A puzzle about Belief" (1979; 1988) Kripke builds up an argument which aims to show (...)
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  51. Carlo Penco, Expressing the Background. Icelandic Philosophical Association (talks).
    Is deduction of use in application to our everyday problems? Aristotle said that in practical matters we cannot use a strictly deductive attitude: "we must be content...in speaking about things which are only for the most part true, with premises of the same kind, to reach conclusions that are no better" (Nic.Eth.I,4 - my underlining). We may content ourselves with conclusions which - according to the usual views - are not true; but what happens when we realize that such conclusions (...)
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  52. C. Penco & G. Sarbia (eds.) (1996). Alle Radici Della Filosofia Analitica. ERGA.
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  53. Carlo Penco (1994). Dummett and Wittgenstein's Philosophy of Mathematics. In. In Brian McGuiness & Gianluigi Oliveri (eds.), The Philosophy of Michael Dummett. Kluwer. 113--136.
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  54. Carlo Penco (1992). Frege e il linguaggio come azione. Idee 20:53-68.
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  55. Carlo Penco (1992). Significato, Uso, Procedure. Lingua e Stile (2):87-99.
    In this paper we give some theoretical links between the wittgensteinian strategy of language-games and the strategy followed by students in Artificial Intelligence in the seventies. We refer also to the interpretation given by Dummett and Prawitz to the Wittgenstein's slogan of "meaning as use", showing the link of this ideas with the needs of Artificial Intelligence. We sustain that the concept of "procedure" as developed in early Artificial Intelligence is still one of the main attempt, realized in that field (...)
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  56. C. Penco (1989). Eredi del terzo regno. Epistemologia 12.
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  57. C. Penco (1989). Gottlob Frege, lettere a Wittgenstein. Epistemologia 12 (2).
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  58. Carlo Penco (1989). Filosofia Del Linguaggio. In [introductory work].
    - la prima parte dà una presentazione sommaria dei principali paradigmi di filosofia del linguaggio, mostrando alcune connessioni tra i principali autori di riferimento. Dovrebbe contenere il minimo indispensabile per avere una panoramica delle tematiche della filosofia del linguaggio e addentrarsi negli argomenti in modo più approfondito. La conoscenza dei contenuti di questa parte è un prerequisito per l’esame.
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  59. Carlo Penco, Truth, Charity and Assertion.
    In this paper [submitted in 2008] I discuss the relation between truth and assertion, starting from Linsky's example [her husband is kind to her], used in the debate on definite description by Keith Donnellan and Saul Kripke. To treat the problem of the referential use of definite descriptions we need not only to take into account the contest of utterance, but also the context of reception, or the cognitive context. If the cognitive context is given the right relevance we may (...)
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