Jaroslav Peregrin Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, University of Hradec Králové
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  • Faculty, University of Hradec Králové

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  1. Jaroslav Peregrin (2011). The Enigma of Rules. International Journal of Philosophical Studies 18 (3):377-394.
    In a remarkable early paper, Wilfrid Sellars warned us that if we cease to recognize rules, we may well find ourselves walking on four feet; and it is obvious that within human communities, the phenomenon of rules is ubiquitous. Yet from the viewpoint of the sciences, rules cannot be easily accounted for. Sellars himself, during his later years, managed to put a lot of flesh on the normative bones from which he assembled the remarkable skeleton of the early paper; and (...)
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  2. Jaroslav Peregrin (forthcoming). Language and the World (in Czechoslovakian). Filosoficky Casopis.
    Analytic philosophy is based on the assumption that our world is a world grasped in terms of (this or another) language and that the question of the character of any entity is closely connected with the question of the linguistic grasp of that entity. The father of this philosophical trend was Gottlob Frege: he showed the way to capture the semantic aspect of language in a systematic way without resorting into psychologism; he also showed that logical analysis can be an (...)
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  3. Vladimír Svoboda & Jaroslav Peregrin (forthcoming). Logical Form and Reflective Equilibrium. Synthese.
    Though, at first sight, logical formalization of natural language sentences and arguments might look like an unproblematic enterprise, the criteria of its success are far from clear and, surprisingly, there have only been a few attempts at making them explicit. This paper provides a picture of the enterprise of logical formalization that does not conceive of it as a kind of translation from one language (a natural one) into another language (a logical one), but rather as a construction of a (...)
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  4. Jaroslav Peregrin (2014). Rules as the Impetus of Cultural Evolution. Topoi 33 (2):531-545.
    In this paper I put forward a thesis regarding the anatomy of “cultural evolution”, in particular the way the “cultural” transmission of behavioral patterns came to piggyback, through us humans, on the transmission effected by genetic evolution. I claim that what grounds and supports this new kind of transmission is a complex behavioral “meta-pattern” that makes it possible to grasp a pattern as something that “ought to be”, i.e. that transforms the pattern into what we can call a rule. (Here (...)
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  5. Jaroslav Peregrin (2013). New Waves in Philosophical Logic, Edited by Greg Restall and Gillian Russell. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 91 (4):824-826.
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  6. Jaroslav Peregrin (2013). New Waves in Philosophical Logic, Edited by Greg Restall and Gillian Russell: New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, Pp. Ix+ 240, US 90/US 32 (Hardback/Paperback). [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy:1-3.
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  7. Jaroslav Peregrin (2013). Odkud Se Berou Axiomy Logiky? Organon F 20 (2):117-139.
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  8. Jaroslav Peregrin (2013). Where Do the Axioms of Logic Come From? Organon F 20:117-139.
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  9. Jaroslav Peregrin & Vladimír Svoboda (2013). Criteria for Logical Formalization. Synthese 190 (14):2897-2924.
    The article addresses two closely related questions: What are the criteria of adequacy of logical formalization of natural language arguments, and what gives logic the authority to decide which arguments are good and which are bad? Our point of departure is the criticism of the conception of logical formalization put forth, in a recent paper, by M. Baumgartner and T. Lampert. We argue that their account of formalization as a kind of semantic analysis brings about more problems than it solves. (...)
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  10. Jaroslav Peregrin (2012). Inferentialism and the Normativity of Meaning. Philosophia 40 (1):75-97.
    There may be various reasons for claiming that meaning is normative, and additionally, very different senses attached to the claim. However, all such claims have faced fierce resistance from those philosophers who insist that meaning is not normative in any nontrivial sense of the word. In this paper I sketch one particular approach to meaning claiming its normativity and defend it against the anti-normativist critique: namely the approach of Brandomian inferentialism. However, my defense is not restricted to inferentialism in any (...)
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  11. Jaroslav Peregrin (2012). Philosophical Logic? Filosoficky Casopis 60 (3):343-360.
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  12. Jaroslav Peregrin (2012). Spory o Realismus, Hegel a Jazyk (y) Matematiky. Organon F 19 (1):66-83.
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  13. Jaroslav Peregrin & Vladimir Svoboda (2012). Which Formula is the Right One?(Criteria of Adequacy of Logical Analysis). Organon F 19 (1).
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  14. Jaroslav Peregrin (2011). The Past and Future of Meaning. The Baltic International Yearbook of Cognition, Logic and Communication 6 (1).
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  15. Jaroslav Peregrin (2011). The Use-Theory of Meaning and the Rules of Our Language Games. In K. Turner (ed.), Making semantics pragmatic. Emerald.
    While most theoreticians of meaning in the first half of the twentieth century subscribed to a representational theory (viewing meanings as entities stood for by the expressions), the second half of the century was marked by the rise of various versions of use-theories of meaning. The roots of this ‘pragmatist turn’ are detectable in the writings of the later Wittgenstein, the Oxford speech act theorists (Austin, Grice) and the American neopragmatists (Quine, Sellars). Though it is now rather popular (and sometimes (...)
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  16. Jaroslav Peregrin (ed.) (2010). Foundations of Logic. Charles University in Prague/Karolinum Press.
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  17. Jaroslav Peregrin (2010). Inferentializing Semantics. Journal of Philosophical Logic 39 (3):255 - 274.
    The entire development of modern logic is characterized by various forms of confrontation of what has come to be called proof theory with what has earned the label of model theory. For a long time the widely accepted view was that while model theory captures directly what logical formalisms are about, proof theory is merely our technical means of getting some incomplete grip on this; but in recent decades the situation has altered. Not only did proof theory expand into new (...)
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  18. Jaroslav Peregrin (2010). Kvaszova Filosofie Matematiky Mezi Platonismem a Naturalismem. Organon F 17 (1):71-80.
    Ve svém článku Matematika a skúsenosť (2009) předkládá Ladislav Kvasz pohled na matematiku, který je do jisté míry 'pragmatistický' či 'naturalistický' a mně osobně je velmi sympatický. Jenom si myslím, že je škoda, že je naturalistický právě jenom "do jité míry".
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  19. Jaroslav Peregrin (2010). Logic and Natural Selection. Logica Universalis 4 (2):207-223.
    Is logic, feasibly, a product of natural selection? In this paper we treat this question as dependent upon the prior question of where logic is founded. After excluding other possibilities, we conclude that logic resides in our language, in the shape of inferential rules governing the logical vocabulary of the language. This means that knowledge of (the laws of) logic is inseparable from the possession of the logical constants they govern. In this sense, logic may be seen as a product (...)
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  20. Jaroslav Peregrin (2010). Review of Bernhard Weiss, How to Understand Language: A Philosophical Inquiry. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (5).
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  21. Jaroslav Peregrin (2010). The Myth of Semantic Structure. In Piotr Stalmaszczyk (ed.), Philosophy of Language and Linguistics. Ontos Verlag. 1.
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  22. Jaroslav Peregrin (2009). Davidson's" Vocabulary of Agency". Filosoficky Casopis 57:7-18.
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  23. Jaroslav Peregrin (2009). Raclavský Vs.“Notorious, Chameleonic Deceivers”. Organon F 16 (2):239-241.
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  24. Jaroslav Peregrin (2008). An Inferentialist Approach to Semantics: Time for a New Kind of Structuralism? Philosophy Compass 3 (6):1208-1223.
    The perennial question – What is meaning? – receives many answers. In this paper I present and discuss inferentialism – a recent approach to semantics based on the thesis that to have ( such and such ) a meaning is to be governed by ( such and such ) a cluster of inferential rules . I point out that this thesis presupposes that looking for meaning requires seeing language as a social institution (rather than, say, a psychological reality). I also (...)
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  25. Jaroslav Peregrin (2008). Brandom’s Incompatibility Semantics. Philosophical Topics 36 (2):99-121.
    Formal semantics is an enterprise which accounts for meaning in formal, mathematical terms, in the expectation of providing a helpful explication1 of the concept of the meaning of specific word kinds (such as logical ones), or of words and expressions generally. Its roots go back to Frege, who proposed exempting concepts, meanings of predicative expressions, from the legislation of psychology and relocating them under that of mathematics. This started a spectacular enterprise, fostered at first within formal logic and later moving (...)
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  26. Jaroslav Peregrin (2008). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 69 (1):131-135.
    In his “Making it Explicit”,1 Robert Brandom set up a new philosophical paradigm, concentrating especially on the link between language and the world, but extendable (in the way familiar from the dawn of the linguistic turn) to the rest of philosophy. He views modern philosophy in terms of the tension between “representationalist” and “inferentialist” approaches to language (which, according to him, also underlies the much more commonly cited struggle between empiricism and rationalism); and elaborating on the ideas of his teacher (...)
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  27. Jaroslav Peregrin (2008). What is the Logic of Inference? Studia Logica 88 (2):263 - 294.
    The topic of this paper is the question whether there is a logic which could be justly called the logic of inference. It may seem that at least since Prawitz, Dummett and others demonstrated the proof-theoretical prominency of intuitionistic logic, the forthcoming answer is that it is this logic that is the obvious choice for the accolade. Though there is little doubt that this choice is correct (provided that inference is construed as inherently single-conclusion and complying with the Gentzenian structural (...)
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  28. Jaroslav Peregrin (2007). Developing Sellars's Semantic Legacy: Meaning as a Role. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 92 (1):257-274.
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  29. Jaroslav Peregrin (2007). Logical Rules and the a Priori: Good and Bad Questions. In Jean-Yves Béziau & Alexandre Costa-Leite (eds.), Perspectives on Universal Logic. 111--122.
  30. Jaroslav Peregrin (ed.) (2006). Logika 20. Filosofia.
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  31. Jaroslav Peregrin (ed.) (2006). Logika 20. Století: Mezi Filosofií a Matematikou: Výbor Textů K Moderní Logice. Filosofia.
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  32. Jaroslav Peregrin (2006). Meaning as an Inferential Role. Erkenntnis 64 (1):1-35.
    While according to the inferentialists, meaning is always a kind of inferential role, proponents of other approaches to semantics often doubt that actual meanings, as they see them, can be generally reduced to inferential roles. In this paper we propose a formal framework for considering the hypothesis of the.
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  33. Jaroslav Peregrin (2006). Semantics as Based on Inference. In Johan van Benthem, Gerhard Heinzman, M. Rebushi & H. Visser (eds.), The Age of Alternative Logics. Springer. 25--36.
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  34. Jaroslav Peregrin (2005). Brandom and Davidsom: What Do We Need to Account for Thinking and Agency? Philosophica 75.
    There are various approaches to truth and knowledge (in fact, cataloguing them has become something of a philosophical industry of its own); and in many cases, their explanations are taken to underlie the explanation of other crucial concepts, like language, reason etc. Especially in recent years, some of the approaches have come to be based on reducing semantics to pragmatics. An outstanding example of such a pragmatist approach is that of Bob Brandom, who bases the explication of both truth and (...)
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  35. Jaroslav Peregrin (2005). The Nature of Meaning: Brandom Versus Chomsky. Pragmatics and Cognition 13 (1):39-58.
    Part of the philosophy of language of the 20th century is marked by a shift from the view of language as a tool of representing the world to its view as a means of interacting with the world. This shift is common to the later Wittgenstein, to pragmatists and neopragmatists including Brandom, and also to Chomsky and his school. The claim of the paper is that though the Chomskyans have offered an admirably elaborated theory of syntax adequate to the interactive (...)
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  36. J. Peregrin (2004). Once Again on Two Levels of Meaning. Filosoficky Casopis 52 (1):117-121.
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  37. J. Peregrin (2004). The Renaissance of Pragmatism in the USA. Filosoficky Casopis 52 (2):255-256.
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  38. J. Peregrin (2003). Quine and the Analytic-Synthetic Distinction. Filosoficky Casopis 51 (1):84-92.
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  39. J. Peregrin (2003). Two Levels of Semantics (Frege, Carnap). Filosoficky Casopis 51 (4):547-565.
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  40. Jaroslav Peregrin (2003). Meaning and Inference. In Timothy Childers & Ondrej Majer (eds.), Logica Yearbook 2002. Filosofia.
    In this paper we first propose an exact definition of the concept of inferential role, and then go on to examine the question whether subscribing to inferentialism necessitates throwing away existing theories of formal semantics, as we know them from logic, or whether these could be somehow accomodated within the inferentialist framework. The conclusion we reach is that it is possible to make an inferentialist sense of even those common semantic theories which are usually considered as incompatible with inferentialism, such (...)
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  41. Jaroslav Peregrin (ed.) (2003). Meaning: The Dynamic Turn. Elsevier Science.
    In recent decades, many theories of formal semantics of natural language have undergone what can be called a dynamic turn: they have moved from treating language as a static system to considering it 'in action' and to taking meanings as crucially involving 'context-change potentials'. The theories, however, usually concentrate much more on the hows of the turn than on its whys and as a result, the conceptual foundations of dynamic semantics are much less elaborated than its technical side. This book, (...)
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  42. Jaroslav Peregrin (2003). Robert B. Brandom, Tales of the Mighty Dead, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA. Erkenntnis 59 (3):421-424.
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  43. Jaroslav Peregrin (2002). Gavagai! The Philosophers' Magazine 20:23-24.
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  44. Jaroslav Peregrin (2001). No Change. The Philosophers' Magazine 13:59-59.
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  45. Jaroslav Peregrin (2001). No Weirdo. The Philosophers' Magazine 14:57-57.
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  46. Jaroslav Peregrin (2001). Robert B. Brandom, Articulating Reasons (an Introduction to Inferentialism). Erkenntnis 55 (1):121-127.
  47. Jaroslav Peregrin (2000). Dynamická logika. Organon F 7 (3):338-348.
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  48. Jaroslav Peregrin (2000). 'Fregean' Logic and 'Russellian' Logic. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 78 (4):557 – 574.
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  49. Jaroslav Peregrin (2000). Hintikkova" logika podporující nezávislost. Organon F 7 (1):90-96.
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  50. Jaroslav Peregrin (2000). Paul Horwich (Ed.): Meaning. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 53 (3):415-422.
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  51. Jaroslav Peregrin (2000). Pozoruhodné logické systémy. Organon F 8:90-96.
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  52. Jaroslav Peregrin (2000). Reference and Inference: The Case of Anaphora. In Klaus von Heusinger & Urs Egli (eds.), Reference and Anaphoric Relations. Kluwer. 269--286.
    In part one, I give an (unsystematic) overview of the development of logical tools which have been employed in the course of the analysis of referring expressions, i.e. definite and (specific) indefinite singular terms, of natural language. I present Russell's celebrated theory of definite descriptions which I see as an attempt to explain definite reference in terms of unique existence (and reference in general in terms of existence simpliciter); and I present Hilbert's E-calculus as an attempt to explain existence in (...)
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  53. Jaroslav Peregrin (2000). The "Natural" and the "Formal". Journal of Philosophical Logic 29 (1):75-101.
    The paper presents an argument against a "metaphysical" conception of logic according to which logic spells out a specific kind of mathematical structure that is somehow inherently related to our factual reasoning. In contrast, it is argued that it is always an empirical question as to whether a given mathematical structure really does captures a principle of reasoning. (More generally, it is argued that it is not meaningful to replace an empirical investigation of a thing by an investigation of its (...)
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  54. Jaroslav Peregrin (2000). Variables in Natural Language: Where Do They Come From?'. In Michael Böttner & Wolf Thümmel (eds.), Variable-Free Semantics. Secolo. 46--65.
  55. Jack Furlong, Ion Giorgiou, Jaroslav Peregrin, Jon Phelan & Lawrence Phillips (1999). Big Question Marks. The Philosophers' Magazine 6:53-54.
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  56. J. Peregrin (1999). Donald Davidson: Fighting the" Myth of the Subjective". Filosoficky Casopis 47 (2):191-214.
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  57. Jaroslav Peregrin (1999). Berka vs. Frege: několik poznámek. Organon F 6 (4):410-413.
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  58. Jaroslav Peregrin (1999). The Pragmatization of Semantics. In Ken Turner (ed.), The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface From Different Points of View. Elsevier. 419--442.
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  59. Jaroslav Peregrin (1999). Význam a Struktura. Oikoymenh.
    V knize konfrontuji běžné pojetí jazyka, podle kterého je význam záležitostí vztahu slovo-věc, se strukturalistickým pohledem, podle kterého význam nemůže existovat bez toho, aby byly výrazy určitým způsobem provázány mezi sebou. Ukazuji, že takový strukturalismus není jen věcí Ferdinanda de Saussura, ale že se vyskytuje (pod jménem holismus) i v základech (post)analytické filosofie Quina, Davidsona, Sellarse a Brandoma. Ukazuji také, že není neslučitelný s formálně-logickým přístupem k významu, jaký byl rozpracován Carnapem, Montaguem a dalšími.
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  60. J. Peregrin (1998). Element to the Elements! Filosoficky Casopis 46 (1):85-87.
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  61. J. Peregrin (1998). Internet: Good or Evil? Filosoficky Casopis 46 (1):5-17.
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  62. Jaroslav Peregrin (1998). Děláme Světy Jazykem? Organon F 6:40-48.
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  63. Jaroslav Peregrin (1998). Logic and Consciousness. The Philosophers' Magazine 2 (2):46-47.
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  64. Jaroslav Peregrin (1998). Mark Norris Lance and John O'Leary-Hawthorne, the Grammar of Meaning. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 49 (3):403-409.
  65. Jaroslav Peregrin & Petr Sgall (1998). Meaning and" Propositional Attitudes". Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 62:73-80.
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  66. Jaroslav Peregrin (1997). Language and its Models: Is Model Theory a Theory of Semantics? Nordic Journal of Philosophical Logic 2 (1):1-23.
    Tarskian model theory is almost universally understood as a formal counterpart of the preformal notion of semantics, of the “linkage between words and things”. The wide-spread opinion is that to account for the semantics of natural language is to furnish its settheoretic interpretation in a suitable model structure; as exemplified by Montague 1974.
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  67. Jaroslav Peregrin (1997). Structure and Meaning. Semiotica 113 (1-2):71-88.
    It seems that the theories of language of the present century can be classified into two basic groups. The approaches of the first group perceive language as a mathematical structure and understand any theory of language as a kind of application of mathematics or logic. Their ideological background is furnished by logical positivism and analytical philosophy (esp. by Russell, Carnap, Wittgenstein and their followers); and their practical output is Chomskian formal syntax and subsequent formal semantics. The approaches of the other (...)
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  68. Jaroslav Peregrin (ed.) (1997). The Nature of Truth (If Any): Proceedings of the International Colloquium, Prague, September 17-20, 1996. Filosofia.
     
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  69. Jaroslav Peregrin (1996). Dynamická sémantika. Organon F 4:333-348.
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  70. Jaroslav Peregrin (1996). Dynamická sémantika a dynamická logika. Organon F 3 (4):333-348.
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  71. J. Peregrin (1995). Idea. Concept. Meaning-Commentary. Filosoficky Casopis 43 (6):989-990.
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  72. J. Peregrin (1995). Philosopher in the Network IV. Filosoficky Casopis 43 (4):702-712.
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  73. J. Peregrin (1995). Philosophy in the Network. 3. Filosoficky Casopis 43 (3):529-536.
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  74. J. Peregrin (1995). Philosopher on the Network. 5. Filosoficky Casopis 43 (5):884-891.
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  75. J. Peregrin (1995). Philosopher on the Network VI. Filosoficky Casopis 43 (6):1069-1075.
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  76. J. Peregrin (1995). Quine and Meaning. Filosoficky Casopis 43 (5):861-863.
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  77. Jaroslav Peregrin (1995). Robert B. Brandom, Making It Explicit Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 15 (2):84-86.
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  78. J. Peregrin (1994). Rorty, Richard Path to Postmodernism. Filosoficky Casopis 42 (3):381-402.
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  79. J. Peregrin (1994). Towards a Reviews of My Book on Analytical Philosophy. Filosoficky Casopis 42 (2):311-320.
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  80. Jaroslav Peregrin (1994). Interpreting Formal Logic. Erkenntnis 40 (1):5 - 20.
    The concept ofsemantic interpretation is a source of chronic confusion: the introduction of a notion ofinterpretation can be the result of several quite different kinds of considerations.Interpretation can be understood in at least three ways: as a process of dis-abstraction of formulas, as technical tool for the sake of characterizing truth, or as a reconstruction of meaning-assignment. However essentially different these motifs are and however properly they must be kept apart, these can all be brought to one and the same (...)
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  81. Jaroslav Peregrin (1994). Post-Analytická Filosofie. Organon F 1 (2):89-108.
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  82. J. Peregrin (1993). Language and the World-Where and for What is Analytic Philosophy Going. Filosoficky Casopis 41 (5):737-760.
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  83. J. Peregrin & K. von Heusinger, Dynamic Semantics with Choice Functions.
    Over the last two decades, semantic theory has been marked by a continuing shift from a static view of meaning to a dynamic one. The increasing interest in extending semantic analysis from isolated sentences to larger units of discourse has fostered the intensive study of anaphora and coreference, and this has engendered a shift from viewing meaning as truth conditions to viewing it as the potential to change the "informational context".
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  84. Jaroslav Peregrin, Consequence & Inference.
    Logic is usually considered to be the study of logical consequence – of the most basic laws governing how a statement’s truth depends on the truth of other statements. Some of the pioneers of modern formal logic, notably Hilbert and Carnap, assumed that the only way to get hold of the relation of consequence was to reconstruct it as a relation of inference within a formal system built upon explicit inferential rules. Even Alfred Tarski in 1930 seemed to foresee no (...)
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  85. Jaroslav Peregrin, DISCUSSION* Is Language a Code?
    In his sharp critique of contemporary theoretical linguistics, Pavel Tichý speaks about a scandal (The Scandal of Linguistics , From the Logical Point of view 3/92, 70-80). As a matter of fact, I am not quite unsympathetic with such a sharp criticism of linguistics; but the view of language and of linguistic theory presented in Tichý's essay seem to me to be so misguiding, that I doubt that his advice presented in the essay could really help linguistics "to get out (...)
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  86. Jaroslav Peregrin, Filosofická Logika?
    Existuje obrovské množství definic logiky; avšak je tu jistá jednotící myšlenka, která se proplétá většinou z nich, a to je ta, že logika nám má pomoci klasifikovat úsudky, způsoby argumentace či důkazy na „správné“ a „nesprávné“, a tímto způsobem nám má pomoci lépe „usuzovat“. A protože úsudek či argumentační schéma je věcí kroku od nějakých premis k nějakému závěru a jeho správnost můžeme vyjadřovat také tak, je jeho závěr odvoditelný z jeho premis či z nich vyplývá . Toto úzké pojetí (...)
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  87. Jaroslav Peregrin, Following the Rules of Discourse.
    Th is review article discusses Rebecca Kukla and Mark Lance’s (2009) book on normative speech act theory and Joseph Heath’s (2008) book on rule following, putting them into the context of the general problem of normativity of human discursive practices (and human practices in general). Th e upshot of the discussion is that while Heath’s book advances our understanding of the normative dimension of human life, prominently including human language, Kukla and Lance’s one presents a deeply interesting attempt at a (...)
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  88. Jaroslav Peregrin, Http://Jarda.Peregrin.Cz.
    Clauses (1) and (2) guarantee the inclusion of all 'intuitive' natural numbers, and (3) guarantees the exclusion of all other objects. Thus, in particular, no nonstandard numbers, which would follow after the intuitive ones are admitted (nonstandard numbers are found in nonstandard models of Peano arithmetic, in which the standard natural numbers are followed by one or more 'copies' of integers running from minus infinity to infinity)1. What is problematic about this delimitation? I suspect that its hypothetical proponent would see (...)
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  89. Jaroslav Peregrin, Inference as an Explication and as a Counterpart of Consequence.
    Logic is usually considered to be the study of logical consequence – of the most basic laws governing how a statement’s truth depends on the truth of other statements. Some of the pioneers of modern formal logic, notably Hilbert and Carnap, assumed that the only way to get hold of the relation of consequence was to reconstruct it as a relation of inference within a formal system built upon explicit inferential rules. Even Alfred Tarski in 1930 seemed to foresee no (...)
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  90. Jaroslav Peregrin, Inferentialism: Logic and Language.
    In recent years, I have published a number of papers addressing various aspect of inferentialism. These papers, I believe, do provide for a relatively multifaceted picture of (my version of) this enterprise; though still a picture that is in some respects patchy. This has made me start working on this book – it should bring my ideas of various aspects and dimensions of inferentialism to a desirable synthesis. Building the individual chapters, I usually start from taking parts of my published (...)
     
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  91. Jaroslav Peregrin, Jaroslav Peregrin.
    The paper presents an argument against a "metaphysical'* conception of logic according to which logic spells out a specific kind of mathematical structure that is somehow inherently related to our factual reasoning. In contrast, it is argued that it is always an empirical question as to whether a given mathematical structure really does captures a principle of reasoning. lMore generally, it is argued that it is not meaningful to replace an empirical investigation of a thing by an investigation of its (...)
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  92. Jaroslav Peregrin, Johan van Benthem and Alice ter Meulen, Eds.
    The relationships between logic and natural language are multiverse. On the one hand, logic is a theory of argumentation, proving and giving reasons, and such activities are primarily carried out in natural language. This means that logic is, in a certain loose sense, about natural language. On the other hand, logic has found it useful to develop its own linguistic means which sometimes in a sense compete with those of natural language. This has led to the situation where the systems (...)
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  93. Jaroslav Peregrin, Kognitivní KontraRevoluce?
    Ve standardních výkladech moderních dějin studia mysli ve dvacátém století se dočteme, že zatímco kolem poloviny tohoto století ovládl studium mysli zpozdilý behaviorismus, v šedesátých letech nastoupila "kognitivní revoluce", která nadvládu behaviorismu smetla a otevřela cestu ke skutečně nepředpojatému a adekvátnímu studiu mysli. V tomto textu se chci nad tímto standardním výkladem zamyslet a zpochybnit ho: konkrétně chci poukázat na to, že behaviorismus nebyl ve všech ohledech tak zpozdilý, jak by se z tohoto pohledu mohl jevit; a že "kognitivní revoluce" (...)
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  94. Jaroslav Peregrin, Logic As Based On Incompatibility.
    Can we base the whole of logic solely on the concept of incompatibility? My motivation for asking this is two-fold: firstly, a technical interest in what a minimal foundations of logic might be; and secondly, the existence of philosophers who have taken incompatibility as the ultimate key to human reason (viz., e.g., Hegel's concept of determinate negation). The main aim of this contribution is to tackle two related questions: Is it possible to reduce the foundations of logic to the mere (...)
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  95. Jaroslav Peregrin, Logic and Reasoning.
    Logic, it is often held, is primarily concerned with reasoning; and the conviction that logic and reasoning are two sides of the same coin nowadays usually equates with the conviction that logic spells out some directives for the "right" management of beliefs. In this paper I put forward an alternative view, based on seeing rules of logic rules as constitutive rules, not instructing us how to reason, but rather providing us with certain vehicles or in terms of which to reason. (...)
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  96. Jaroslav Peregrin, Logic and Nothing Else.
    Clauses (1) and (2) guarantee the inclusion of all 'intuitive' natural numbers, and (3) guarantees the exclusion of all other objects. Thus, in particular, no nonstandard numbers, which would follow after the intuitive ones are admitted (nonstandard numbers are found in nonstandard models of Peano arithmetic, in which the standard natural numbers are followed by one or more 'copies' of integers running from minus infinity to infinity).
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  97. Jaroslav Peregrin, Logica Ludus.
    (1) Syntaktická součást vymezuje, co je výrokem (a obecněji výrazem) jazyka, který stojí v základě tohoto kalkulu; (2) Axiomatická součást vymezuje, který výrok je správně odvoditelný ze kterých jiných výroků (a tím i které výroky jsou teorémy daného kalkulu); a (3) sémantická součást vymezuje, jaký má který výraz denotát a zda, či relativně k jaké interpretaci je který výrok pravdivý (a tím i které výroky jsou tautologiemi tohoto kalkulu1).
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  98. Jaroslav Peregrin, Logic Reduced to Bare (Proof-Theoretical) Bones.
    What is a minimal proof-theoretical foundation of logic? Two possibilities seem to come naturally: we may try to reduce the whole of logic to the relation of inference, or else to the property of incompatibility. In the first case, we may define inferential structure as an ordered pair , where S is a set and ├─⊆Pow(S)×S such that XA whenever A∈X, and X,Y├─B whenever X,A├─B and Y├─A. Then we can define logical operators in terms of the algebraic properties of the (...)
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  99. Jaroslav Peregrin, Myšlení a Pravidla.
    Abstrakt. Běžně se má za to, že pravidla hrají v rámci myšlení jenom marginální úlohu. Myšlení je přece proces, který je svou podstatou svobodný, ne-mechanický a kreativní – a tudíž nikoli řízený nějakými pravidly. Často se má dokonce za to, že je to právě absence pravidel, která dělá z lidského myšlení to, čím je, a co člověka principiálně odlišuje od stroje. V ostrém kontrastu k tomuto pohledu stojí Wittgensteinův výrok, že vlastně nemůžeme překročit hranice logiky – že nemůžeme myslet tak, (...)
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  100. Jaroslav Peregrin, Obrat K Jazyku: Druh㉠Kolo.
    W.V.O. Quine: Ontologická relativita W. Sellars: VĂ˝znam jako funkÄŤnĂ klasifikace D. Davidson: O samotnĂ© myšlence pojmovĂ©ho schĂ©matu N. Goodman: Slova, dĂla svÄ›ty R. Rorty: ZkoumĂnĂ jako rekontextualizace: antidualistickĂ© pojetĂ interpretace H. Putnam: Otázka realismu..
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  101. Jaroslav Peregrin, Pozoruhodne Logicke Systemy.
    Vuvodnim rocniku ORGANONu Pavel Cmorej ve svych @@piton lch z logicjce syntaxe predvadel, jak je prirozeny jazyk mozne nahlizet prismatem 'standardni' logiky. Historicky ovsem neexistuje jedna logika,ale ruzne logicke systemy, ktere spolu castecne soupeii (tak jako treba klasicka a intuicionisticka logika), castecne jeden druhy rozsiruji (Iako treba klasicky vyrokovy a klasicky predikatovy pocet) ci se navzajem doplnuji (Iako napriklad modalni a temporalni logika). To co je v logice obecne prijimano za standard, je fakticky vysledkem interakce a soutezeni ruznych neustale vznikajicich (...)
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  102. Jaroslav Peregrin, Politizace Rozumu, Nebo Jeho Depolitizace?
    Knihu Kritika depolitizovaného rozumu (podtitul Úvahy (nejen) o nové normalizaci, Václav Bělohradský a kol., Grimmus, Všeň 2010) jsem si kupoval s vědomím, že s její- mi autory se asi nebudu ve všem shodovat, nicméně také s přesvědčením, že problém, na který poukazuje její název, je skutečně závažný, a s nadějí, že se o něm třeba dozvím něco z úhlu pohledu, který mi není vlastní, a tak se mi podaří ho nahlédnout plastičtěji. Bohužel jsem zjistil, že název knihy je pouze krycí; (...)
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  103. Jaroslav Peregrin, Pavel TichĂ˝: O ÄŤem mluvĂme?
    s. 50, 51 Ve vĂ˝razu 'x = Dallas ® S' ve formulĂch (5) a (6) a v neÄŤĂslovanĂ© formuli na desátĂ©m řádku odspoda na str. 51 má bĂ˝t nad symbolem 'S' vodorovná čárka (znaÄŤĂcĂ jeho negaci).
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  104. Jaroslav Peregrin, Praktiky Řízené Pravidly.
    O nějaké činnosti v rámci nějakého lidského společenství říkám, že je řízená pravidly , jsou‐li určité způsoby provozování této činnosti systematicky brány členy tohoto společenství, nebo nějakou jeho podskupinou, za správné, a jiné za nesprávné. Braní za správné či nesprávné (neboli normativní postoje ) beru v podstatě za dále neanalyzovatelné behaviorální vzorce, není to tedy pojem, který by primárně odkazoval k něčemu jako je kognitivní výbava účastníků, rozhodně nepředpokládá nic takového, jako že jsou tyto postoje věcí něčeho jako jsou plnohodnotná (...)
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  105. Jaroslav Peregrin, Society and Normativity.
    Normativity is one of the keywords of contemporary philosophical discussions. It is clear that philosophy has to do not only with theories, but also with norms (especially in ethics); but more and more current philosophers are busy arguing that, in addition, those parts of philosophy where norms are prima facie not in high focus, such as philosophy of language or philosophy of mind, have kinds of "normative dimensions". However, not everybody subscribes to this enthusiasm for normativity. Within philosophy, there is, (...)
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  106. Jaroslav Peregrin, Social Normativism.
    Normativity is one of the keywords of contemporary philosophical discussions (which partly reincarnate traditional debates about the differences between Geisteswissenschaften and Naturwissenschaften ). But are the philosophers who argue for the irreducible role of normativity within accounts for human societies obliged to assume, as Stephen Turner has recently put it, the existence of a "non‐natural, non‐empirical stuff that is claimed to be necessarily, intrinsically there and to in some sense account for the actual"?
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  107. Jaroslav Peregrin, Sellarsian "Patterned Governed Behavior" and the Space of Meaningfulness.
    While the traditional view was that in order to understand language and our linguistic practices we must explain meaning, the 'pragmatic turn' emerging within the writings of various philosohpers of the second half of the twentieth century caused a basic change of the perspective: the tendency is to concentrate directly on explaining the linguistic practices and leave the need for explaining meaning to emerge (or, as the case may be, not to emerge) subsequently. I argue that after this turn we (...)
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  108. Jaroslav Peregrin, Topic, Focus and the Logic of Language.
    The terms topic and focus are used by many theoreticians, but they often mean different things. In the most usual informal sense, topic is what an utterance is about (as contrasted to comment), and focus is what is emphasized in the utterance (as contrasted to background). Let us consider how this intuition can be sharpened.
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  109. Jaroslav Peregrin, The Interaction Between Linguistics & Philosophy.
    Like so many sciences, linguistics originated from philosophy's rib. It reached maturity and attained full independence only in the twentieth century (for example, it is a well-known fact that the first linguistics department in the UK was founded in 1944); though research which we would now classify as linguistic (especially leading to generalizations from comparing different languages) was certainly carried out much earlier. The relationship between philosophy and linguistics is perhaps reminiscent of that between an old-fashioned mother and her emancipated (...)
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  110. Jaroslav Peregrin, There is No Such Thing as Predication.
    In a memorable paper, Donald Davidson (1986, p. 446) insists that "there is no such thing as a language, not if a language is anything like what many philosophers and linguists have supposed". I have always taken this as an exaggeration, albeit an apt exaggeration that might be philosophically helpful. Now when it comes to predication, what I would have expected to hear from the same author would be along the lines of "there is no such thing as predication ... (...)
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  111. Jaroslav Peregrin, The Past of Meaning: Res Cogitans Infiltrated.
    For many centuries, a predominant view of meaning was that the meaning of a word is some kind of chunk of mind-stuff (“idea”) glued to the word and animating it. However, while the traditional view was that we must first understand meaning, which enables us to understand language and hence our linguistic practices, a new approach to semantics that has emerged in the second half of the twentieth century, and which I see as marking the future of meaning, suggests that (...)
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  112. Jaroslav Peregrin, The Use Theory of Meaning.
    After putting forward his celebrated deflationary theory of truth (Horwich, 1998a), Paul Horwich added a compatible theory of meaning (Horwich, 1998b). I am calling also this latter theory deflationism (although it may be a slightly misleading name in that, as Paul himself notes, his theory of meaning is deflationary more in the sense of being forced by the deflationary theory of truth than of being particularly deflationary in itself). In contrast, what I call inferentialism is the theory of meaning which (...)
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  113. Jaroslav Peregrin, Www.Cuni.Cz/-Peregrin.
    Summary. I do not think there is one true answer to the question What is logic?. There are, clearly, good and less good answers, and there are answers which are plainly wrong; but the term 'logic' has been employed, throughout the history of the subject matter, in such diverse ways that no single one of the uses can be said to be the correct one. However, even among the answers which are acceptable on historico-semantical grounds there are still, without doubt, (...)
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  114. Jaroslav Peregrin, Wittgenstein a Pravidla Našich Jazykových Her.
    Abstrakt. Když se řekne Ludwig Wittgenstein, vybaví se člověku, který to jméno už někdy slyšel, nejspíše termín jazyková hra. Tento termín si Wittgenstein vybral, aby se v rámci své pozdní filosofie distancoval od určitého druhu názorů na jazyk (druhu, kterého byly i jeho vlastní ranější filosofické názory). Chtěl jeho pomocí zdůraznit různorodost lidských aktivit, které se opírají o jazyk. Avšak ač to Wittgenstein úplně explicitně neříká, zdá se mi že je tu něco podstatného, co je podle něj pro jazykové hry (...)
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  115. Jaroslav Peregrin, Absolute and Relative Concepts in Logic.
    It is a common wisdom that whereas consequence or entailment is a semantic concept, provability is a syntactic concept. However, what exactly does this mean? What is provability? In the traditional, intuitive sense, to prove something is to demonstrate its truth, and indeed the Latin word for proof is demonstratio. Hence in this sense, we cannot prove something unless it is true. Now in the course of his well known proof of the incompleteness of arithmetic, Gödel showed that provability within (...)
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  116. Jaroslav Peregrin, Andrei Marmor: Social Conventions, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2009, Xii + 186 Pp. [REVIEW]
    A few decades ago, only isolated groups of philosophers counted the phenomenon of normativity as one of their principal interests. Rules and norms have always, of course, been in the purview of moral philosophers, who often took them as exceedingly abstract entities, if not directly metaphysical. Philosophers from the border territories of philosophy and social sciences, on the other hand, were interested in more concrete norms, namely those that emerge and survive within human societies. Philosophers of law stood between these (...)
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  117. Jaroslav Peregrin, Constructions and Concepts.
    Some twenty years ago, semanticists of natural language came to be overwhelmed by the problem of semantic analysis of belief sentences (and sentences reporting other kinds of propositional attitudes): the trouble was that sentences of the shapes X believes that A and X believes that B appeared to be able to have different truth values even in cases when A and B shared the same intension, i.e. were, from the viewpoint of intensional semantics, synonymous 1 . Thus, taking intensional semantics (...)
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  118. Jaroslav Peregrin, Co Je to Myšlenka?
    Abstrakt. Co je to myšlenka? Všichni se asi shodneme na tom, že každý z nás lidí si myslí různé věci, že všichni máme všelijaké myšlenky, a že právě toto naše myšlení je tím, co nás lidi odlišuje od ostatních tvorů a věcí, na které můžeme v našem světě narazit. Co to ale taková myšlenka je, jak vypadá a co dělá? A jak vůbec lze na takto položenou otázku odpovídat; je to věc empirického výzkumu, nebo snad něčeho jiného (třeba fenomenologické introspekce)? (...)
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  119. Jaroslav Peregrin, Co Je to Sémantika?
    "Syntaktika sa obmedzuje výlučně na skúmanie samotných výrazov ... Sémantika sa sústreďuje najmä na skúmanie vzťahov medzi jazykovými výrazmi a predmetmi, na ktoré sa tieto výrazy vzťahujú a na tie vlastnosti a vzťahy výrazov, ktoré súvisja a ich vzťahmi k týmto predmetom." (P. Cmorej: Úvod do logickej syntaxe a sémantiky, IRIS, Bratislava, 2001, s. 19.).
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  120. Jaroslav Peregrin, Co Je to (Fregovská) Logika?
    Filosofové odedávna snili o jazyce, který by byl z hlediska řešení těch problémů, se kterými se potýkají (případně všech lidských problémů vůbec), vhodnější než jazyk, jímž nás obdařila příroda. Mnozí z nich si představovali, že filosofické problémy vznikají zčásti nebo zcela v důsledku toho, že přirozený jazyk není dostatečně přesným prostředkem vyjádření našich idejí a myšlenek - a že by se tedy vše spravilo, kdyby byl k dispozici jazyk, jehož výrazivo by bylo s našim myšlením - případně s naším světem (...)
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  121. Jaroslav Peregrin, Co Je to Elementární Logika?
    Ve svém článku ‘Je elementární logika totéž co predikátová logika prvního řádu?’ (Pokroky matematiky, fyziky a astronomie 42, 1997, 127-133) klade Jiří Fiala nesmírně zajímavou otázku, zda je opodstatněné ztotožňovat elementární logiku s predikátovou logikou prvního řádu; s pomocí argumentů propagovaných již delší dobu finským logikem a filosofem Jaako Hintikkou (viz již jeho Logic, Language-Games and Information, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1973; nejnověji jeho The Principles of Mathematics Revisited, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1996) naznačuje, že by tomu tak být nemuselo. Myslím, (...)
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  122. Jaroslav Peregrin, Creatures of Norms as Uncanny Niche Constructors.
    Imagine a Paleolithic hunter, who has failed to hunt down anything for a couple of days and is hungry. He has an urgent desire, the desire to eat, which he is not able to fulfill – his desire is frustrated by the world. Now imagine our contemporary bank clerk, who went to work forgetting his wallet at home and is hungry too. He too is not able to fulfill his urgent desire to eat because it is frustrated by the world. (...)
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  123. Jaroslav Peregrin, Deflationism and Inferentialism.
    After putting forward his celebrated deflationary theory of truth (Horwich, 1998a), Paul Horwich added a compatible theory of meaning (Horwich, 1998b). I am calling also this latter theory deflationism (although it may be a slightly misleading name in that, as Paul himself notes, his theory of meaning is deflationary more in the sense of being forced by the deflationary theory of truth than of being particularly deflationary in itself). In contrast, what I call inferentialism is the theory of meaning which (...)
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  124. Jaroslav Peregrin, Donald Davidson: Boj S „Mýtem Subjektivity“.
    Existují filosofové, jejichž díly se lidé zabývají prostě proto, že mají pocit, že v nich najdou něco moudrého či užitečného. Existují ale i filosofové, jejichž díla jsou mnohými lidmi brána ne(jen) jako zdroj poučení, ale i jako jakási hádanka, která se dá luštit. Ze starověkých filosofů se tohoto druhu popularity dostalo například Herakleitovi, kterému bylo dokonce už tehdy přezdíváno skoteinos, temný. V našem století je příkladem filosofa takovéhoto druhu Wittgenstein: mezi těmi, kdo se prokousávají jeho spisy, je zjevně nemalá část (...)
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  125. Jaroslav Peregrin, Dvě Úrovně Sémantiky.
    Putnamův myšlenkový experiment Ve svém velice slavném článku The Meaning of ‘Meaning‘1 Hilary Putnam předkládá dilema, které nedávno na stránkách Filosofického časopisu Tomáš Hříbek rekapituloval následujícím způsobem2: Tradiční pojetí (1) Porozumění slovu je psychologický stav. významu (2) Mluvčí, kteří se nacházejí v tomtéž psychologickém stavu, rozumějí slovu tímtéž způsobem. (3) Tito mluvčí tudíž míní tímtéž slovem totéž (tj. souhlasí v intenzi). (4) Protože souhlasí v intenzi, souhlasí v extenzi.
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  126. Jaroslav Peregrin, Filosofie Pro Normální Lidi.
    ONTOLOGIE (aneb Z čeho všeho se skládá svět) RELATIVISMUS A POSTMODERNA (aneb Má každý svou pravdu?) EPISTEMOLOGIE (aneb Jak můžeme o světě něco vědět?) FILOSOFIE JAZYKA (aneb Co je to jazyk a co je to význam?) STRUKTURALISMUS (aneb Co je to jazyk a co je to význam? podruhé) FILOSOFIE MYSLI (aneb Co to je mysl a kdo všechno jí může disponovat?) FILOSOFIE JAKO ANALÝZA MYSLI (aneb Jak nám naše mysl dává žít v našem světě?) FILOSOFIE VĚDY (aneb Jak svět poznávat (...)
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  127. Jaroslav Peregrin, Formální Zachycení Kontextu.
    Určité okolnosti (konkrétně historické okolnosti vývoje jazyka) určují, co slova, ze kterých se tato věta skládá, znamenají. (ii) Jiné okolnosti (kontext výpovědi této věty) mohou určovat, k čemu některé výrazy v této větě (já, tady, ...) odkazují. (iii) Další okolnosti (odpovídající tomu, o čem tato věta hovoří) určují, zda se věci mají tak, jak věta říká. Vezměme například větu..
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  128. Jaroslav Peregrin, Gödelova Cesta Do Hlubin Lidského Rozumu.
    V letošním roce uplynulo 90 let ode dne, kdy se v Brně narodil geniální německý logik a matematik Kurt Gödel; člověk, který způsobil v moderní matematické logice převrat hlubší než byl ten, k jakému došlo v moderní fyzice díky lidem jako byli Einstein, Heisenberg a Bohr. Během svého života, stráveného z větší části nejprve ve Vídni a potom v Princetonu v USA, publikoval celou řadu prací, které měly pro matematickou logiku zcela zásadní význam; oním skutečným mezníkem, který mu zajistil trvalé (...)
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  129. Jaroslav Peregrin, Gödel, Truth & Proof.
    In this paper I would like to indicate that this interpretation of Gödel goes far beyond what he really proved. I would like to show that to get from his result to a conclusion of the above kind requires a train of thought which is fuelled by much more than Gödel's result itself, and that a great deal of the excessive fuel should be utilized with an extra care.
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  130. Jaroslav Peregrin, Holistické Pojetí Jazyka.
    Zdá se, že není nic přirozenějšího, než se spolu s Russellem domnívat, že „máme-li smysluplně hovořit a ne pouze vydávat zvuky, musíme slovům, která užíváme, dávat nějaký význam; a významem, který svým slovům dáváme, musí být něco, s čím jsme přišli do styku“. Naše slova přece musí, aby byla skutečně smysluplná, něco představovat! Od toho se odvíjí běžná poučka, která nám říká, že slova jazyka jsou symboly, to jest (podle Encyklopedie Britannica), „prvky komunikace, které mají představovat osobu, předmět, skupinu, proces (...)
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  131. Jaroslav Peregrin, Intersubstitutivity.
    Atomists explain properties of wholes as compositions of properties of their parts; in particular properties of complex expressions as composed of properties of their parts. Especially, semantic atomists explain meanings of complex expressions as composed of meanings of their parts. Holists deny themselves this way: they insist that at least in some cases properties of wholes are more basic than, or not reducible to, properties of their parts; in particular, semantic holists claim that meanings of (at least some) wholes are (...)
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  132. Jaroslav Peregrin, Inferentialist Approach to Semantics.
    The perennial question What is meaning? receives many answers. In this paper we present and discuss inferentialism - a recent approach to semantics based on the thesis that to have (such or another) meaning is to be governed by (such or another) cluster of inferential rules. We point out that this thesis presupposes that looking for meaning requires seeing language as a social institution (rather than, say, a psychological reality). We also indicate that this approach may be see as a (...)
     
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  133. Jaroslav Peregrin, Inferentialism and the Compositionality of Meaning.
    Inferentialism, which I am going to present in detail in the following sections, is the view that meanings are, roughly, roles that are acquired by types of sounds and inscriptions in virtue of their being treated according to rules of our language games, roughly in the sense in which wooden pieces acquire certain roles by being treated according the rules of chess. The most important consequences are that (i) a meaning is not an object labeled (stood for, represented ...) by (...)
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  134. Jaroslav Peregrin, Ivan Blecha: Fenomenologie a Kultura Slepé Skvrny, Triton, Praha, 2002, 119 S.
    Ve své knížce Fenomenologie a kultura slepé skvrny předkládá Ivan Blecha tři eseje, jejichž společným jmenovatelem je konfrontace různých aspektů postmodernistické filosofie s filosofií fenomenologickou. Proti obratu k jazyku a z něj často vyvozovaného pluralismu nebo dokonce relativismu staví Blecha tezi, že svět, ve kterém člověk žije, je determinován způsobem, kterým v kadlubu své intencionální mysli konstituuje věci ze svého bezprostředního prožívání, a že tudíž tento svět není v žádném podstatném slova smyslu ani tvarován jazykem, ani otevřen žádným velkým pluralistickým (...)
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  135. Jaroslav Peregrin, Inferentialism: From Logic to Language.
    1.1 INFERENTIALISM AND REPRESENTATIONALISM 1.2 INFERENTIALISM AND LOGIC 1.3 FROM PROOF THEORY TO SEMANTICS 1.4 BRANDOM'S NORMATIVE INFERENTIALISM..
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  136. Jaroslav Peregrin, It is Uncommon to Contrive a Book on Theoretical Linguistics as a Kind of a Platonic Dialogue. However, the Authors Of.
    Topic-Focus Articulation, Tripartite Structures, and Semantic Content have chosen to do precisely this: what they present is a dialogic confrontation of two different kinds of views of a certain aspect of language, resulting into a partial synthesis. I should say immediately that this unusual form was a happy choice; but to explain why we must return to the roots of formal semantics.
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  137. Jaroslav Peregrin, Is Propositional Calculus Categorical?
    According to the standard definition, a first-order theory is categorical if all its models are isomorphic. The idea behind this definition obviously is that of capturing semantic notions in axiomatic terms: to be categorical is to be, in this respect, successful. Thus, for example, we may want to axiomatically delimit the concept of natural number, as it is given by the pre-theoretic semantic intuitions and reconstructed by the standard model. The well-known results state that this cannot be done within first-order (...)
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  138. Jaroslav Peregrin, Jan Dejnožka: The Ontology of the Analytic Tradition and its Origins (Realism and Identity in Frege, Russell, Wittgenstein and Quine), Littlefield Adams Books, Maryland, 1996.
    Existuje překvapivě málo knih, které by se pokoušely o syntetizující pohled na analytickou filosofii. Je ovšem pravda, že ve druhé polovině našeho století se soubor filosofů, kteří se k analytické filosofii hlásí nebo kteří k ní bývají řazeni, stává natolik různorodý, že se jakákoli syntéza stává problematickou; překvapivě málo syntetizujících prací existuje ale i o ‘klasické’ analytické filosofii, to jest o analytické filosofii období zhruba od konce devatenáctého století do poloviny století dvacátého. Dejnožkova kniha je jednou z těch mála, které (...)
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  139. Jaroslav Peregrin, Jazyk, Magie & Matematika.
    Je potěšením stát na břehu a vidět lodě, jak vyplouvají na moře; je potěšením stát v okně hradu a pozorovat bitvu a její zápletky dole; avšak žádné potěšení se nevyrovná tomu, když stojíme na vyvýšené půdě pravdy ... a vidíme chyby, omyly, zmatení a bouře v údolí pod námi.
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  140. Jaroslav Peregrin, Ještě Několik Poznámek K Tomu, Co Je V Mé Knize.
    Reakce Petra Koťátka na moji odpověď na jeho kritiku mé knihy (‘Struktura, význam, interpretace’, Filosofický časopis 49, 2001, 509-521) se mi jeví být podstatně věcnější a pro mne stravitelnější než jeho předchozí text; a mám pocit, že teď přece jenom některým jeho výhradám lépe rozumím. To mne vede k tomu, abych se ještě k několika bodům našeho sporu ještě jednou alespoň krátce vrátil; omezím se však již jen na to cco se mi jeví jako skutečně zásadně podstatné a nebudu se (...)
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  141. Jaroslav Peregrin, Jeremy Wanderer: Robert Brandom.
    When Bob Brandom, six years after publishing his opus magnum Making it explicit (hereafter MIE)1, produced his slender Articulating reasons2, many people expected that finally they would have a concise introduction to his philosophical views. Their expectations, however, were to be dashed: Articulating reasons is a heterogeneous collection of texts elaborating on some of the topics of MIE and hardly digestible without the background of MIE3. As yet, Brandom has produced nothing that could be taken as introductory. His subsequent books (...)
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  142. Jaroslav Peregrin, Lesk a Bída Platonistické Koncepce Sémantiky.
    Podíváme-li se na rané Platónovy dialogy, vidíme, že o co v nich jde především, je předvedení toho, že pojmy mají relativně jasné hranice, že zdánlivému chaosu užívání slov vládne jistý pevný řád, který si člověk dokáže i explicitně uvědomit, je-li k tomu vhodným způsobem veden. Snaha o zdůraznění a znázornění tohoto na první pohled neviditelného 'řádu v chaosu' pak podle mého názoru postupně vedla i ke konstituci Platónovy mytologie říše idejí, které, ač neviděny, hrají z hlediska viditelného světa klíčovou roli. (...)
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  143. Jaroslav Peregrin, Logika a Logiky.
    Kniha, jako je tato, nemůže být tak docela dílem jediného člověka. Dovést ji do podoby koherentního celku bych nedokázal bez pomoci svých kolegů, kteří po mně text četli a upozornili mě na spoustu chyb a nedůsledností, které se v něm vyskytovaly. Můj dík v tomto směru patří zejména Vojtěchu Kolmanovi, Liboru Běhounkovi a Martě Bílkové. Za připomínky k různým částem rukopisu jsem vděčen i Pavlu Maternovi, Milanu Matouškovi, Prokopu Sousedíkovi, Vladimíru Svobodovi, Petru Hájkovi a Grahamu Priestovi. Kniha vznikla v rámci (...)
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  144. Jaroslav Peregrin, Logic as "Making It Explicit".
    In considering the very possibility of deviant logic, we face the following question: what makes us see an operator of one logical system as a deviant version of an operator of another system? Why not see it simply as a different operator? Why do we see, say, intuitionist implication as an operator 'competing' with classical implication? Is it only because both happen to be called implications?1 It is clear that if we want to make cross-systemic comparisons, we need an 'Archimedean (...)
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  145. Jaroslav Peregrin, Linguistics and Philosophy.
    During the first half of the present century a number of outstanding philosophers realized that language theory could profitably be viewed as far more than merely a means of studying one among the many human faculties, or merely sharpening the tool we use to philosophize - they realized that there is a sense in which philosophy of language comprises (almost) the whole of philosophy. This was the famous linguistic turn: philosophers came to accept that everything that is is in a (...)
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  146. Jaroslav Peregrin, Člověk a Pravidla.
    Když Bůh stvořil Adama, pošeptal mu do ucha: Ve všech kontextech jednání budeš brát v potaz pravidla, byť by to mělo být jenom pravidlo, že se máš pídit po pravidlech, která bys mohl brát v potaz. Přestaneš-li brát v potaz pravidla, budeš chodit po čtyřech.
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  147. Jaroslav Peregrin, Lubomír Valenta: Problémy Analytické Filosofie, Nakladatelství Olomouc, Olomouc, 2003, 223 S.
    Není tomu tak dávno, co se ti, kdo vzývali termín "analytická filosofie", v naší zemi jevili jako příslušníci nějaké divné sekty, kteří smysl termínu "filosofie" jakýmsi úchylným způsobem překrucují. Není-li však člověk zrovna Valihrachem, nemůže o tom, co slova znamenají, svévolně rozhodovat; a faktem je, analytická filosofie tvoří podstatnou část toho, co se ve světě pod hlavičkou "filosofie" učí a provozuje. (Já bych řekl, že dokonce většinu, ale statistické údaje samozřejmě k dispozici žádné nemám.) Během posledních zhruba deseti let se (...)
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  148. Jaroslav Peregrin, Metaphysics as an Attempt to Have One's Cake and Eat It.
    Metaphysics is usually understood as the investigation of being qua being and of its ultimate categories. Given this characterization, it may be hard to grasp why anyone might wish to oppose metaphysics, why anyone might claim that metaphysics ”leads the philosopher into complete darkness” (Wittgenstein, 1958, p.18)? What could be so misleading about the investigation of the most abstract vestiges of being? One source of disparagement towards metaphysics, of course, stems from the relativist conviction that there is no absolute being, (...)
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  149. Jaroslav Peregrin, My, Gnostici Kybernetického Věku.
    technických a obslužných prostředků lidské společnosti” – J. Zahradil, MF Dnes 12.5., s. 9). Pozoruhodná kniha Erika Davise Techgnosis (Mýtus, magie a mystika ve věku nformací), vydaná nakladatelstvím Harmony Books v New Yorku v roce 1998, se pokouší dokládat, že naše budoucnost by mohla být v tomto směru ještě podivuhodnější, než se má v těchto diskusích obvykle za to.
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  150. Jaroslav Peregrin, Many-Valued Logic or Many-Valued Semantics?
    There have been, I am afraid, almost as many answers to the question what is logic? as there have been logicians. However, if logic is not to be an obscure "science of everything", we must assume that the majority of the various answers share a common core which does offer a reasonable delimitation of the subject matter of logic. To probe this core, let us start from the answer given by Gottlob Frege (1918/9), the person probably most responsible for modern (...)
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  151. Jaroslav Peregrin, Možné Světy V Logice.
    S pojmem možného světa se můžeme setkat již ve scholastice. Na úsvitu novověké filosofie ho G. Leibniz použil, když se pokoušel odpovědět na otázku, proč Bůh dopouští tolik zjevného neštěstí: jeho odpovědí bylo, že Bůh nám dává žít v nejlepším z těch světů, které jsou možné.
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  152. Jaroslav Peregrin, Odpovědi Kritikům.
    Zatímco kritickým diskusím nad dílem zasloužilých světových filosofů věnuje nakladatelství Open Court svazky edice Library of Living Philosophers, mně se, jak jsem zjistil, dostalo té cti, že mi byla věnována nezanedbatelná část Filosofického časopisu 2/05 - vůči mým publikovaným názorům se tam totiž vymezují hned tři autoři. (A to nehovořím o tom, že v mottu posledního příspěvku tančím ve fantasmagorické vizi P. Kozelky s Petrem Koťátkem na ledě ...).
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  153. Jaroslav Peregrin, Other Worlds.
    Wenn es aber Wirklichkeitssinn gibt, und niemand wird bezweifeln, daß er seine Daseinsberechtigung hat, dann muß es auch etwas geben, das man Möglichkeitssinn nennen kann. Wer ihn besitzt, sagt beispielsweise nicht: Hier ist dies oder das geschehen, wird geschehen, muß geschehen; sondern er erfindet: Hier könnte, sollte oder müßte geschehn; und wenn man ihm von irgend etwas erklärt, daß es so sei, wie es sei, dann denkt er: Nun, es könnte wahrscheinlich auch anders sein. So ließe sich der Möglichkeitssinn geradezu (...)
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  154. Jaroslav Peregrin, Petr Kolář: Pravda a Fakt, Filosofia, Praha, 2002.
    Nová kniha Petra Koláře, Pravda a fakt (Filosofia, Praha, 2002) je věnována tématu, kterým se Kolář částečně zabýval již ve své předchozí knize: teoriím pravdivosti a zejména teorii korespondenční. Diskuse o tom, jak explikovat pojem pravdy či pravdivosti se analytickou filosofií táhnou od jejích počátků, a rozdmychány byly zejména výsledky Tarského matematických analýz tohoto pojmu1. Kolář v první části knihy probírá a srovnává hlavní kategorie těch teorií, které jsou výsledky těchto diskusí (některé z nich samozřejmě tak či onak existovaly dávno (...)
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  155. Jaroslav Peregrin, Pavel Materna: Concepts and Objects. Acta Philosophica Fennica Vol 63, Societas Philosophica Fennica, Helsinky 1998; 177 Pp. [REVIEW]
    Pavel Materna je logikem a filosofem, na kterého se, domnívám se, mimořádně hodí anglický přívlastek single-minded, který bohužel nemá v češtině skutečný ekvivalent. Materna již dávno přijal za svůj ten pojmový rámec, který stojí v základě systému transparentní intenzionální logiky (TIL) vyvinuté Pavlem Tichým, a tento rámec se mu stal měřítkem všech věcí, jsoucích že jsou a nejsoucích že nejsou. Ani jeho poslední kniha Concepts and Objects, která vyšla v ediční řadě vydávané Filosofickou společností Finska, není v tomto směru výjimkou: (...)
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  156. Jaroslav Peregrin, Pragmatism & Semantics.
    Theories of language in the twentieth century tend towards one of two radically different models. One paradigm holds that expressions ‘stand for’ entities and their meanings are the entities stood for by them. According to the other, expressions are rather tools of interaction and their meanings are their functions within the interaction, their aptitudes to serve it in their distinctive ways.
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  157. Jaroslav Peregrin, Possible Worlds: A Critical Analysis.
    Frege has proposed to consider names as denoting objects, predicates as standing for concepts and sentences as denoting truth values. He was, however, aware that such denotation does not exhaust all what is to be said about meaning. Therefore he has urged that in addition to such denotation (Bedeutung) an expression has sense (Sinn). The sense is the "way of presentation" of denotation; hence the expressions Morning Star and Evening Star have identical denotations, but different senses. Carnap has proposed to (...)
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  158. Jaroslav Peregrin, Rozpaky Nad Vopěnkovými Meditacemi o Základech Vědy.
    V kontextu české filosofie, kde není nouze o vzdělané a chytré lidi, ale kde se to nijak nehemží skutečnými individualitami, představuje Petr Vopěnka zcela zvláštní případ. Je matematik nejenom vzděláním, ale v matematice i leccos dokázal. Jeho knihy o filosofii matematiky, zejména jeho tetralogie Rozprav s geometrií1, jsou velice vyhraněné: Vopěnka v nich předkládá svůj originální obraz a příliš se nestará o to, aby ho konfrontoval s tím, co si o tom myslí jiní. Jak sám připouští, i historické osoby, o (...)
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  159. Jaroslav Peregrin, Rules, Society and Evolution.
    Within human communities, the phenomenon of rules is ubiquitous. We have the allimportant rules that are codified by our law; we have rules that are not authoritatively written down, but are usually followed (like the rule that if somebody helps me, I should be prepared to help him in turn); we have traffic rules; and the rules of various games and sports. Yet, from the scientific viewpoint, rules are not easy to account for. How is their emergence to be explained (...)
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  160. Jaroslav Peregrin, Structural Linguistics And Formal Semantics.
    The beginning of this century hailed a new paradigm in linguistics, the paradigm brought about by de Saussure's Cours de Linguistique Genérále and subsequently elaborated by Jakobson, Hjelmslev and other linguists. It seemed that the linguistics of this century was destined to be structuralistic. However, half of the century later a brand new paradigm was introduced by Chomsky's Syntactic Structures followed by Montague's formalization of semantics. This new turn has brought linguistics surprisingly close to mathematics and logic, and has facilitated (...)
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  161. Jaroslav Peregrin, Stephen Neale, Facing Facts, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001, Xv + 254 Pp. [REVIEW]
    It is now often taken for granted that facts are entia non grata, for there exists a powerful argument (dubbed the slingshot), which is backed by such great names as Frege or Gödel or Davidson (and so could hardly be wrong), that discredits their existence. There indeed is such an argument, and it indeed is not wrong on the straightforward sense of wrong. However, in how far it knocks down any conception of facts is another story, a story which is (...)
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  162. Jaroslav Peregrin, Scott Soames, Beyond Rigidity, The Unfinished Semantic Agenda of Naming and Necessity, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, Ix + 379 Pp. [REVIEW]
    Saul Kripke ’s book Naming and Necessity (which first appeared in 1972 as a paper within a volume on natural language semantics1) is felt, by many linguists and philosophers, as a milestone of the semantic analysis of natural language. Prior to it, many semanticists took for granted that the meaning of any expression must be a two-level matter, consisting of something of the kind of what Frege called Sinn and Bedeutung or what Carnap christened as intension and extension. The first (...)
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  163. Jaroslav Peregrin, S T A T E.
    The contemporary popularity of the prefix post has found its expression also in the realm of analytic philosophy - there arises something which has come to be called postanalytic philosophy. We put forward that this branch of the analytic movement, germinating in the writings of the late Ludwig Wittgenstein, of Willard Van Orman Quine and Willfrid Sellars, and coming to full blossom with Nelson Goodman, Donald Davidson, Hilary Putnam and Richard Rorty, springs first and foremost from the repudiation of the (...)
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  164. Jaroslav Peregrin, Sex V Jeskyních (Aneb Méně Známá Tvář Virtuální Reality ).
    Asi aždý člověk již slyšel či četl o virtuální realitě : o divech multimediální techniky, které dovedou vykouzlit dokonalou iluzi něčeho, co ve skutečnosti neexistuje. Nasadíte si přilbu, která se postará o vás zrak a sluch, případně navléknete rukavice, které obhospodaří váš hmat, a můžete procházet domy, které nebyly nikdy postaveny, či někde neexistujícím vesmírném prostoru bojovat s neexistujícími vetřelci.
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  165. Jaroslav Peregrin, Topic-Focus Articulation as Generalized Quantification.
    Recent results of Partee, Rooth, Krifka and other formal semanticians confirm that topic-focus articulation (TFA) of sentence is relevant for its semantics. The essential import of TFA, which is more apparent in case of a language with relatively free word order such as Czech than in case of English, has been traditionally intensively studied by Czech linguists. In this paper we would like to indicate the possibility of the account for TFA in terms of the theory of generalized quantifiers, drawing (...)
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  166. Jaroslav Peregrin, TIL a Hyperintenzionalita.
    Ve svém článku 'Hledání hyperintenzionality' se Bjorn Jespersen pokusil rekapitulovat a zdůvodnit způsob, jakým TIL vykládá pojem významu. Jakkoli si myslím, že se Jespersenovi (nikoli jenom v tomto článku) daří TIL předvádět způsobem srozumitelným i přitažlivým i pro outsidery..
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  167. Jaroslav Peregrin, Two Concepts of Validity and Completeness.
    A formula is (materially) valid iff all its instances are true sentences; and an axiomatic system is called (materially) sound and complete iff it proves all and only valid formulas. These are 'natural' concepts of validity and completeness, which were, however, in the course of the history of modern logic, stealthily replaced by their formal descendants: formal validity and completeness. A formula is formally valid iff it is true under all interpretations in all universes; and an axiomatic system is called (...)
     
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  168. Jaroslav Peregrin, The 'Causal Story' and the 'Justificatory Story'.
    Suppose for a moment, that J.R.R. Tolkien, the famous author of the cult fantasy saga Lord of the Rings, did not publish anything of his writings during his lifetime; suppose that after his death the manuscripts of all his writings are lying on his table. Where, then, is the Middlearth, the glorious land of hobbits, dwarfs, elfs and human heroes, situated? We might be tempted to say that it is within our world, namely inside the pile of the papers on (...)
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  169. Jaroslav Peregrin, The Logic of Anaphora.
    The paper addresses foundational questions concerning the dynamic semantics of natural language based on dynamic logic of the Groenendijko-Stokhofian kind. Discussing a series of model calculi of increasing complexity, it shows in detail how the usual semantics of dynamic logic can be seen as emerging from the account for certain inferential patterns of natural language, namely those governing anaphora. In this way, the current ‘dynamic turn’ of logic is argued to be reasonably seen not as the product of changing the (...)
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  170. Jaroslav Peregrin, The Philosophers’ Magazine/Autumn 2002.
    What is structuralism? The stock To explain why we should see Quine can translate the natives’ gavagai either as answer is that it is the brainas a structuralist, I would like to revive rabbit or as undetached rabbit’s part, so he child of Ferdinand de his widely discussed thought experican translate his peers’ rabbit either as Saussure, later fostered by Levi-Strauss, ment, featuring a field linguist decipherrabbit or as undetached rabbit’s part. Hence Foucault, Derrida and their allies. But I ing (...)
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  171. Jaroslav Peregrin, Teorie Všeho? Èeho Všeho?
    Fascinující rozvoj fyziky v našem století znamená mimo jiné pronikání fyzikù do míst, která bývala tradiènì hájemstvím filozofù. Fyziky a popularizátory fyziky to nìkdy vede k tomu, že v souvislosti s tímto pohybem hovoøí, tak jako John D. Barrow ve své..
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  172. Jaroslav Peregrin, Význam a Struktura: O Čem Je Má Kniha.
    Ve FČ 4/2000 demonstroval Petr Koťátko svůj soustavný kritický zájem o mé práce tentokrát polemikou s názory, které jsem vyslovil ve své knize Význam a struktura (OIKOYMENH, Praha, 1999). Nad mým chápáním významu jakožto ‘zhmotnění’ inferenční role si Koťátko klade otázku „co je za takovými formulacemi, a především: co je zde reálně navíc v porovnání s funkcí, kterou strukturám (včetně inferenčních) běžně přiznáváme, aniž bychom se deklarovali jako strukturalisté“. Nemohu než konstatovat, že o tom, co za nimi je, je moje (...)
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  173. Jaroslav Peregrin, Úvod Do Teoretické Sémantiky.
    Když jsem v roce 1992 začínal na filosofické fakultě UK přednášet teorii sémantiky, cítil jsem intenzivní potřebu poskytnout studentům nějaký učební text. O překotném vývoji tohoto interdisciplinárního oboru, který odstartovalo v sedmdesátých letech úspěšné “zkřížení logiky s lingvistikou” Richardem Montaguem a dalšími a který se nezpomalil dodnes, totiž v češtině neexistovaly prakticky žádné zprávy (s čestnou výjimkou přístupu tzv. transparentní intenzionální logiky, který byl dílem českého emigranta Pavla Tichého a o kterém u nás psal Pavel Materna). Přehledové publikace, jaké jsou (...)
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  174. Jaroslav Peregrin, When Meaning Goes by the Board, What About Philosophy?
    Philosophy is usually considered to be searching out the most general, and hence also the most necessary and the most eternal, truth; its central part, ontology, is often assumed to be fastening upon whatever might be "the form of the world". And because our world is the world as formed by the way we comprehend it and by the way we cope with it by means of our language, it is often assumed that its form must be brought out by (...)
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  175. Jaroslav Peregrin, Wilfrid Sellars: A Double Impact.
    Today, a steadily growing number of philosophers regard Wilfrid Sellars as a principal pillar not just of American analytic philosophy, but of twentieth century philosophy in general. But not so long ago, things were different: though Sellars has held the acclaim of a first-rate philosopher for a couple of decades, it is only recently that he has achieved the nimbus of a philosopher whom you must read. It is largely due to his outstanding disciples and followers, from Paul Churchland (...)
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  176. Jaroslav Peregrin, What is Inferentialism?
    Inferentialism is the conviction that to be meaningful in the distinctively human way, or to have a 'conceptual content', is to be governed by a certain kind of inferential rules. The term was coined by Robert Brandom as a label for his theory of language; however, it is also naturally applicable (and is growing increasingly common) within the philosophy of logic.
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  177. Jaroslav Peregrin, Diagonalization.
    It is a trivial fact that if we have a square table filled with numbers, we can always form a column which is not yet contained in the table. Despite its apparent triviality, this fact underlies the foundations of most of the path-breaking results of logic in the second half of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century. We explain how this fact can be used to show that there are more sequences of natural numbers than there (...)
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  178. Jaroslav Peregrin, Inferentializing Consequence.
    The proof of correctness and completeness of a logical calculus w.r.t. a given semantics can be read as telling us that the tautologies (or, more gen erally, the relation of consequence) specified in a model theoretic way can be equally well specified in a proof theoretic way, by means of the calculus (as the theorems, resp. the relation of inferability of the calculus). Thus we know that both for the classical propositional calculus and for the clas sical predicate calculus theorems (...)
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  179. Jaroslav Peregrin, Legal Inferentialism and Semantic Inferentialism.
    One of the recent trends in the philosophy of language and theory of meaning is the inferentialist project launched by Robert Brandom (1994, 2000, 2008), elaborating on the approach of Wilfrid Sellars (1953, 1954, 1956, 1974). According to this project, language is to be seen as essentially a rule-governed activity, providing for meaningful utterances in a way analogous to the way in which the rules of chess provide for making one's pawns, bishops or rooks attack one's opponent, checking his king (...)
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