Stephan Hartmann Ludwig Maximilians Universität, München
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  1. Stephan Hartmann, Gabriella Pigozzi & Jan Sprenger (2010). Reliable Methods of Judgment Aggregation. Journal for Logic and Computation 20:603--617.
    The aggregation of consistent individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective judgment on the same propositions has recently drawn much attention. Seemingly reasonable aggregation procedures, such as propositionwise majority voting, cannot ensure an equally consistent collective conclusion. The literature on judgment aggregation refers to such a problem as the \textit{discursive dilemma}. In this paper we assume that the decision which the group is trying to reach is factually right or wrong. Hence, we address the question of how good (...)
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  2. Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (forthcoming). Computersimulationen in der Angewandten Politischen Philosophie - Ein Beispiel. In Carl-Friedrich Gethmann (ed.), Lebenswelt und Wissenschaft. Meiner. 601ß634.
    In den vergangenen Jahren hat die Europäische Union (EU) wiederholt versucht, ihre Institutionen zu reformieren. Als der Entwurf für eine Europäische Verfassung und später der Vertrag von Lissabon ausgehandelt wurden, betraf einer der meistdiskutiertesten Streitpunkte die Frage, nach welcher Entscheidungsregel der EU-Ministerrat abstimmen sollte. Diese Frage ist eine genuin normative Frage. Deshalb sollten auch politische Philosophen und Ethiker etwas zu dieser Frage beitragen können. Im folgenden wollen wir uns dieser Herausforderung stellen und alternative Entscheidungsregeln für den EU-Ministerrat bewerten. Dabei erweisen (...)
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  3. M. Colombo, S. Hartmann & R. van Iersel (forthcoming). Models, Mechanisms, and Coherence. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axt043.
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  4. R. Dawid, S. Hartmann & J. Sprenger (forthcoming). The No Alternatives Argument. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science:axt045.
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  5. Rogier De Langhe, Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (forthcoming). The Progress of Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A.
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  6. Henk de Regt, Samir Okasha & Stephan Hartmann (eds.) (forthcoming). Proceedings of EPSA09. Springer.
  7. Lefteris Farmakis & Stephan Hartmann (forthcoming). Book Review: Inference to the Best Explanation by P. Lipton. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews.
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  8. Dov Gabbay, Stephan Hartmann & John Woods (eds.) (forthcoming). Handbook of the History and Philosophy of Logic, Vol. 10: Inductive Logic. Elsevier.
  9. Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (forthcoming). Bayesian Epistemology. In Duncan Pritchard & Sven Bernecker (eds.), Routledge Companion to Epistemology. Routledge.
    Bayesian epistemology addresses epistemological problems with the help of the mathematical theory of probability. It turns out that the probability calculus is especially suited to represent degrees of belief (credences) and to deal with questions of belief change, confirmation, evidence, justification, and coherence. Compared to the informal discussions in traditional epistemology, Bayesian epis- temology allows for a more precise and fine-grained analysis which takes the gradual aspects of these central epistemological notions into account. Bayesian epistemology therefore complements traditional epistemology; it (...)
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  10. Stephan Hartmann, Marcel Weber, Wenceslao Gonzalez, Dennis Dieks & Thomas Uebe (eds.) (forthcoming). Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation: New Trends and Old Ones Reconsidered. Springer.
  11. Ryan Muldoon, Chiara Lisciandra & Stephan Hartmann (2014). Why Are There Descriptive Norms? Because We Looked for Them. Synthese 191 (18):4409-4429.
    In this work, we present a mathematical model for the emergence of descriptive norms, where the individual decision problem is formalized with the standard Bayesian belief revision machinery. Previous work on the emergence of descriptive norms has relied on heuristic modeling. In this paper we show that with a Bayesian model we can provide a more general picture of the emergence of norms, which helps to motivate the assumptions made in heuristic models. In our model, the priors formalize the belief (...)
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  12. Ulrich Gähde, Stephan Hartmann & Jörn Henning Wolf (eds.) (2013). Models, Simulations, and the Reduction of Complexity. De Gruyter.
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  13. Stephan Hartmann, Chiara Lisciandra & Edouard Machery (2013). Editorial: Formal Epistemology Meets Experimental Philosophy. [REVIEW] Synthese 190 (8):1333-1335.
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  14. Ryan Muldoon, Chiara Lisciandra, Cristina Bicchieri, Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2013). On the Emergence of Descriptive Norms. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 13 (1):1470594-12447791.
    A descriptive norm is a behavioral rule that individuals follow when their empirical expectations of others following the same rule are met. We aim to provide an account of the emergence of descriptive norms by first looking at a simple case, that of the standing ovation. We examine the structure of a standing ovation, and show it can be generalized to describe the emergence of a wide range of descriptive norms.
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  15. Ulrich V. Gähde & Stephan Hartmann (eds.) (2013). Models, Simulation, and the Reduction of Complexity. de Gruyter.
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  16. D. Dieks, S. Hartmann, T. Uebel & M. Weber (eds.) (2012). Probabilities, Laws and Structure. Springer.
    This conception of natural kinds might be dubbed a 'structural kinds' view. It is the conception of kinds offered by ExtOSR within a Humean framework. To invoke structural kinds also means to invoke structural laws. For laws generalize over ...
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  17. Stephan Hartmann & Wouter Meijs (2012). Walter the Banker: The Conjunction Fallacy Reconsidered. [REVIEW] Synthese 184 (1):73-87.
    In a famous experiment by Tversky and Kahneman (Psychol Rev 90:293–315, 1983), featuring Linda the bank teller, the participants assign a higher probability to a conjunction of propositions than to one of the conjuncts, thereby seemingly committing a probabilistic fallacy. In this paper, we discuss a slightly different example featuring someone named Walter, who also happens to work at a bank, and argue that, in this example, it is rational to assign a higher probability to the conjunction of suitably chosen (...)
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  18. Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2012). Judgment Aggregation and the Problem of Tracking the Truth. Synthese 187 (1):209-221.
    The aggregation of consistent individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective judgment on those propositions has recently drawn much attention. Seemingly reasonable aggregation procedures, such as propositionwise majority voting, cannot ensure an equally consistent collective conclusion. The literature on judgment aggregation refers to that problem as the discursive dilemma. In this paper, we motivate that many groups do not only want to reach a factually right conclusion, but also want to correctly evaluate the reasons for that conclusion. In (...)
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  19. Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2012). The Future of Philosophy of Science: Introduction. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (2):157-159.
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  20. Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (2011). Introduction. In Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.), Probabilities in Physics. Oup Oxford.
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  21. Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (eds.) (2011). Probabilities in Physics. Oxford University Press.
    This volume is the first to provide a philosophical appraisal of probabilities in all of physics.
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  22. Dennis Dieks, Wenceslao Gonzalo, Thomas Uebel, Stephan Hartmann & Marcel Weber (eds.) (2011). Explanation, Prediction, and Confirmation. Springer.
    This volume, the second in the Springer series Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective, contains selected papers from the workshops organised by the ESF ...
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  23. Foad Dizadji-Bahmani, Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann (2011). Confirmation and Reduction: A Bayesian Account. Synthese 179 (2):321 - 338.
    Various scientific theories stand in a reductive relation to each other. In a recent article, we have argued that a generalized version of the Nagel-Schaffner model (GNS) is the right account of this relation. In this article, we present a Bayesian analysis of how GNS impacts on confirmation. We formalize the relation between the reducing and the reduced theory before and after the reduction using Bayesian networks, and thereby show that, post-reduction, the two theories are confirmatory of each other. We (...)
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  24. Roman Frigg, Stephan Hartmann & Cyrille Imbert (2011). Preface. Synthese 180 (1):1-2.
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  25. Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Welfarist Evaluations of Decision Rules Under Interstate Utility Dependencies. Social Choice and Welfare 34 (2):315-344.
    We provide welfarist evaluations of decision rules for federations of states and consider models, under which the interests of people from different states are stochastically dependent. We concentrate on two welfarist standards; they require that the expected utility for the federation be maximized or that the expected utilities for people from different states be equal. We discuss an analytic result that characterizes the decision rule with maximum expected utility, set up a class of models that display interstate dependencies and run (...)
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  26. Mark Colyvan & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Reduction and the Special Sciences. Erkenntnis 73:3 (special issue).
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  27. Mark Colyvan & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Editorial to “Reduction and the Special Sciences”. Erkenntnis 73 (3):293-293.
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  28. Vincenzo Crupi & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Formal and Empirical Methods in Philosophy of Science. In Friedrich Stadler et al (ed.), The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer. 87--98.
    This essay addresses the methodology of philosophy of science and illustrates how formal and empirical methods can be fruitfully combined. Special emphasis is given to the application of experimental methods to confirmation theory and to recent work on the conjunction fallacy, a key topic in the rationality debate arising from research in cognitive psychology. Several other issue can be studied in this way. In the concluding section, a brief outline is provided of three further examples.
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  29. Foad Dizadji-Bahmani, Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Who's Afraid of Nagelian Reduction? Erkenntnis 73 (3):393-412.
    We reconsider the Nagelian theory of reduction and argue that, contrary to a widely held view, it is the right analysis of intertheoretic reduction, since the alleged difficulties of the theory either vanish upon closer inspection or turn out to be substantive philosophical questions rather than knock-down arguments.
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  30. Alan Hájek & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Bayesian Epistemology. In J. Dancy et al (ed.), A Companion to Epistemology. Blackwell.
    Bayesianism is our leading theory of uncertainty. Epistemology is defined as the theory of knowledge. So “Bayesian Epistemology” may sound like an oxymoron. Bayesianism, after all, studies the properties and dynamics of degrees of belief, understood to be probabilities. Traditional epistemology, on the other hand, places the singularly non-probabilistic notion of knowledge at centre stage, and to the extent that it traffics in belief, that notion does not come in degrees. So how can there be a Bayesian epistemology?
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  31. S. Hartmann & J. Schupbach (2010). M. Strevens: Depth: An Account of Scientific Explanation.(Review of the Book Depth: An Account of Scientific Explanation, M. Strevens, 2008, 9780674031838). [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 6 (38).
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  32. Stephan Hartmann (2010). Who's Afraid of Nagelian Reduction? Erkenntnis 73 (3):393 - 412.
    We reconsider the Nagelian theory of reduction and argue that, contrary to a widely held view, it is the right analysis of intertheoretic reduction. The alleged difficulties of the theory either vanish upon closer inspection or turn out to be substantive philosophical questions rather than knock-down arguments.
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  33. Stephan Hartmann & Daniela Bailer-Jones (2010). Modelle. In Hans Jörg Sandkühler & Others (eds.), Enzyklopädie Philosophie. Meiner Verlag. 2--1627.
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  34. Stephan Hartmann, Carlo Martini & Jan Sprenger (eds.) (2010). Formal Modeling in Social Epistemology. [REVIEW] Logic Journal of the IGPL (special issue).
    Special issue. With contributions by Rogier De Langhe and Matthias Greiff, Igor Douven and Alexander Riegler, Stephan Hartmann and Jan Sprenger, Carl Wagner, Paul Weirich, and Jesús Zamora Bonilla.
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  35. Stephan Hartmann & Jan Sprenger (2010). The Weight of Competence Under a Realistic Loss Function. Logic Journal of the Igpl 18:346-352.
    In many scientific, economic and policy-related problems, pieces of information from different sources have to be aggregated. Typically, the sources are not equally competent. This raises the question of how the relative weights and competences should be related to arrive at an optimal final verdict. Our paper addresses this question under a more realistic perspective of measuring the practical loss implied by an inaccurate verdict.
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  36. Sebastian Lutz & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Conventional and Objective Invariance: Debs and Redhead on Symmetry. [REVIEW] Metascience 19:15-23.
    This review is a critical discussion of three main claims in Debs and Redhead’s thought-provoking book Objectivity, Invariance, and Convention. These claims are: (i) Social acts impinge upon formal aspects of scientific representation; (ii) symmetries introduce the need for conventional choice; (iii) perspectival symmetry is a necessary and sufficient condition for objectivity, while symmetry simpliciter fails to be necessary.
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  37. Antigone M. Nounou, Mauro Dorato, Sebastian Lutz, Stephan Hartmann, Talal A. Debs & Michael L. G. Redhead (2010). A New Perspective on Objectivity and Conventionalism. Metascience 19 (1):3-27.
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  38. F. Stadler, D. Dieks, W. Gonzales, S. Hartmann, T. Uebel & M. Weber (eds.) (2010). The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer.
    This volume is a serious attempt to open up the subject of European philosophy of science to real thought, and provide the structural basis for the ...
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  39. Patrick Suppes & Stephan Hartmann (2010). Entanglement, Upper Probabilities and Decoherence in Quantum Mechanics. In M. Suaráz et al (ed.), EPSA Philosophical Issues in the Sciences: Launch of the European Philosophy of Science Association. Springer. 93--103.
    Quantum mechanical entangled configurations of particles that do not satisfy Bell’s inequalities, or equivalently, do not have a joint probability distribution, are familiar in the foundational literature of quantum mechanics. Nonexistence of a joint probability measure for the correlations predicted by quantum mechanics is itself equivalent to the nonexistence of local hidden variables that account for the correlations (for a proof of this equivalence, see Suppes and Zanotti, 1981). From a philosophical standpoint it is natural to ask what sort of (...)
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  40. Thomas Uebel, Stephan Hartmann, Wenceslao Gonzalez, Marcel Weber, Dennis Dieks & Friedrich Stadler (eds.) (2010). The Present Situation in the Philosophy of Science. Springer.
    This volume is a serious attempt to open up the subject of European philosophy of science to real thought, and provide the structural basis for the ...
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  41. R. Frigg, S. Hartmann & C. Imbert (2009). Special Issue Models and Simulation. Synthese 169.
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  42. Roman Frigg, Stephan Hartmann & Cyrille Imbert (2009). Models and Simluations. Synthese 169 (3).
    Special issue. With contributions by Anouk Barberouse, Sarah Francescelli and Cyrille Imbert, Robert Batterman, Roman Frigg and Julian Reiss, Axel Gelfert, Till Grüne-Yanoff, Paul Humphreys, James Mattingly and Walter Warwick, Matthew Parker, Wendy Parker, Dirk Schlimm, and Eric Winsberg.
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  43. Jan Sprenger, Carlo Martini & Stephan Hartmann (2009). Consensual Decision-Making Among Epistemic Peers. Episteme 6 (2):110-129.
    This paper focuses on the question of how to resolve disagreement and uses the Lehrer-Wagner model as a formal tool for investigating consensual decision-making. The main result consists in a general definition of when agents treat each other as epistemic peers (Kelly 2005; Elga 2007), and a theorem vindicating the “equal weight view” to resolve disagreement among epistemic peers. We apply our findings to an analysis of the impact of social network structures on group deliberation processes, and we demonstrate their (...)
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  44. Nancy Cartwright, Stephan Hartmann, Carl Hoefer & Luc Bovens (eds.) (2008). Nancy Cartwright's Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    Nancy Cartwright is one of the most distinguished and influential contemporary philosophers of science. Despite the profound impact of her work, until now there has not been a systematic exposition of Cartwright's philosophy of science nor a collection of articles that contains in-depth discussions of the major themes of her philosophy. This book is devoted to a critical assessment of Cartwright's philosophy of science and contains contributions from Cartwright's champions and critics. Broken into three parts, the book begins by addressing (...)
     
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  45. Nancy Cartwright, Stephan Hartmann, Carl Hoefer & Luc Bovens (eds.) (2008). Nancy Cartwright's Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    Nancy Cartwright is one of the most distinguished and influential contemporary philosophers of science. Despite the profound impact of her work, until now there has not been a systematic exposition of Cartwright's philosophy of science nor a collection of articles that contains in-depth discussions of the major themes of her philosophy. This book is devoted to a critical assessment of Cartwright's philosophy of science and contains contributions from Cartwright's champions and critics. Broken into three parts, the book begins by addressing (...)
     
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  46. Stephan Hartmann (2008). Modeling High-Temperature Superconductors: Correspondence at Bay? In Lena Soler (ed.), Rethinking Scientific Change. Stabilities, Ruptures, Incommensurabilities? Springer. 107--128.
    How does a predecessor theory relate to its successor? According to Heinz Post’s General Correspondence Principle, the successor theory has to account for the em- pirical success of its predecessor. After a critical discussion of this principle, I outline and discuss various kinds of correspondence relations that hold between successive scientific theories. I then look in some detail at a case study from contemporary physics: the various proposals for a theory of high-temperature superconductivity. The aim of this case study is (...)
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  47. Stephan Hartmann (2008). Modeling in Philosophy of Science. In W. K. Essler & M. Frauchiger (eds.), Representation, Evidence, and Justification: Themes From Suppes. Ontos Verlag. 1--95.
    Models are a principle instrument of modern science. They are built, applied, tested, compared, revised and interpreted in an expansive scientific literature. Throughout this paper, I will argue that models are also a valuable tool for the philosopher of science. In particular, I will discuss how the methodology of Bayesian Networks can elucidate two central problems in the philosophy of science. The first thesis I will explore is the variety-of-evidence thesis, which argues that the more varied the supporting evidence, the (...)
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  48. Stephan Hartmann & L. Bovens (2008). Welfare, Voting and the Constitution of a Federal Assembly. In Maria-Carla Galavotti (ed.), Reasoning, Rationality and Probability. CSLI Publications.
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  49. Stephan Hartmann, Luc Bovens & Carl Hoefer (eds.) (2008). Nancy Cartwright's Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    Nancy Cartwright is one of the most distinguished and influential contemporary philosophers of science. Despite the profound impact of her work, until now there has not been a systematic exposition of Cartwright's philosophy of science nor a collection of articles that contains in-depth discussions of the major themes of her philosophy. This book is devoted to a critical assessment of Cartwright's philosophy of science and contains contributions from Cartwright's champions and critics. Broken into three parts, the book begins by addressing (...)
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  50. Stephan Hartmann, Carl Hoefer & Luc Bovens (eds.) (2008). Nancy Cartwright's Philosophy of Science. Routledge.
    Nancy Cartwright is one of the most distinguished and influential contemporary philosophers of science. Despite the profound impact of her work, until now there has not been a systematic exposition of Cartwright's philosophy of science nor a collection of articles that contains in-depth discussions of the major themes of her philosophy. This book is devoted to a critical assessment of Cartwright's philosophy of science and contains contributions from Cartwright's champions and critics. Broken into three parts, the book begins by addressing (...)
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  51. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2007). Special Issue of Synthese on Bayesian Epistemology. Synthese 156 (3):403-403.
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  52. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2007). Special Issue on Bayesian Epistemology Edited by L. Bovens and S. Hartmann. Synthese 156 (3).
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  53. Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann (2007). Introduction. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (2):231-232.
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  54. Stephan Hartmann & Gabriella Pigozzi (2007). Aggregation in Multi-Agent Systems and the Problem of Truth-Tracking. In AAMAS 07 (ed.), Proceedings of The Sixth International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.
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  55. Claus Beisbart & Stephan Hartmann (2006). Welfarism and the Assessment of Social Decision Rules. In Jerome Lang & Ulle Endriss (eds.), Computational Social Choice 2006. University of Amsterdam.
    The choice of a social decision rule for a federal assembly affects the welfare distribution within the federation. But which decision rules can be recommended on welfarist grounds? In this paper, we focus on two welfarist desiderata, viz. (i) maximizing the expected utility of the whole federation and (ii) equalizing the expected utilities of people from different states in the federation. We consider the European Union as an example, set up a probabilistic model of decision making and explore how different (...)
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  56. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2006). An Impossibility Result for Coherence Rankings. Philosophical Studies 128 (1):77-91.
    If we receive information from multiple independent and partially reliable information sources, then whether we are justified to believe these information items is affected by how reliable the sources are, by how well the information coheres with our background beliefs and by how internally coherent the information is. We consider the following question. Is coherence a separable determinant of our degree of belief, i.e. is it the case that the more coherent the new information is, the more justified we are (...)
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  57. Rolf Haenni & Stephan Hartmann (2006). Modeling Partially Reliable Information Sources: A General Approach Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory. Information Fusion 7:361-379.
    Combining testimonial reports from independent and partially reliable information sources is an important problem of uncertain reasoning. Within the framework of Dempster-Shafer theory, we propose a general model of partially reliable sources which includes several previously known results as special cases. The paper reproduces these results, gives a number of new insights, and thereby contributes to a better understanding of this important application of reasoning with uncertain and incomplete information.
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  58. Rolf Haenni & Stephan Hartmann (2006). Causality, Uncertainty and Ignorance. Minds and Machines 16 (3).
    Special issue. With contributions by Malcolm Forster, Rocio Garcia-Rotamero and Ulrich Hoffrage, Christian Jakob, Kevin Korb and Erik Nyberg, Michael Smithson, Daniel Steel, Brad Weslake, and Jon Williamson.
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  59. Stephan Hartmann & C. Beisbart (2006). Welfarism and the Assessments of Social Decision Rules. In Ulle Endriss (ed.), Computational Social Choice 2006.
    The choice of a social decision rule for a federal assembly affects the welfare distribution within the federation. But which decision rules can be recommended on welfarist grounds? In this paper, we focus on two welfarist desiderata, viz. (i) maximizing the expected utility of the whole federation and (ii) equalizing the expected utilities of people from dif- ferent states in the federation. We consider the European Union as an example, set up a probabilistic model of decision making and explore how (...)
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  60. Stephan Hartmann & Luc Bovens (2006). An Impossibility Result for Coherence Rankings. Philosophical Studies 128 (1):77-91.
    If we receive information from multiple independent and partially reliable information sources, then whether we are justified to believe these information items is affected by how reliable the sources are, by how well the information coheres with our background beliefs and by how internally coherent the information is. We consider the following question. Is coherence a separable determinant of our degree of belief, i.e. is it the case that the more coherent the new information is, the more justified we are (...)
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  61. Stephan Hartmann & Roman Frigg (2006). Models in Science. In Ed Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Stanford.
    Models are of central importance in many scientific contexts. The centrality of models such as the billiard ball model of a gas, the Bohr model of the atom, the MIT bag model of the nucleon, the Gaussian-chain model of a polymer, the Lorenz model of the atmosphere, the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interaction, the double helix model of DNA, agent-based and evolutionary models in the social sciences, or general equilibrium models of markets in their respective domains are cases in point. (...)
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  62. Stephan Hartmann & Rolf Haenni (2006). Special Issue of Minds and Machines on Causality, Uncertainty and Ignorance. Minds and Machines 16 (3):237-238.
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  63. Stephan Hartmann & Gabriella Pigozzi (2006). Merging Judgments and the Problem of Truth-Tracking. In Jerome Lang & Ulle Endriss (eds.), Computational Social Choice 2006. University of Amsterdam.
    The problem of the aggregation of consistent individual judgments on logically interconnected propositions into a collective judgment on the same propositions has recently drawn much attention. The dificulty lies in the fact that a seemingly reasonable aggregation procedure, such as propositionwise majority voting, cannot ensure an equally consistent collective outcome. The literature on judgment aggregation refers to such dilemmas as the discursive paradox. So far, three procedures have been proposed to overcome the paradox: the premise-based and conclusion-based procedures on the (...)
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  64. Claus Beisbart, Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2005). A Utilitarian Assessment of Alternative Decision Rules in the Council of Ministers. European Union Politics 6 (4):395-419.
    We develop a utilitarian framework to assess different decision rules for the European Council of Ministers. The proposals to be decided on are conceptualized as utility vectors and a probability distribution is assumed over the utilities. We first show what decision rules yield the highest expected utilities for different means of the probability distri- bution. For proposals with high mean utility, simple bench- mark rules (such as majority voting with proportional weights) tend to outperform rules that have been proposed in (...)
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  65. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2005). Coherence and the Role of Specificity: A Response to Meijs and Douven. Mind 114 (454):365-369.
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  66. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2005). Why There Cannot Be a Single Probabilistic Measure of Coherence. Erkenntnis 63 (3):361-374.
    Bayesian Coherence Theory of Justification or, for short, Bayesian Coherentism, is characterized by two theses, viz. (i) that our degree of confidence in the content of a set of propositions is positively affected by the coherence of the set, and (ii) that coherence can be characterized in probabilistic terms. There has been a longstanding question of how to construct a measure of coherence. We will show that Bayesian Coherentism cannot rest on a single measure of coherence, but requires a vector (...)
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  67. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2005). Why There Cannot Be a Single Probabilistic Measure of Coherence. Erkenntnis 63 (3):361-374.
    Bayesian Coherence Theory of Justification or, for short, Bayesian Coherentism, is characterized by two theses, viz. (i) that our degree of confidence in the content of a set of propositions is positively affected by the coherence of the set, and (ii) that coherence can be characterized in probabilistic terms. There has been a longstanding question of how to construct a measure of coherence. We will show that Bayesian Coherentism cannot rest on a single measure of coherence, but requires a vector (...)
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  68. Lefteris Farmakis & Stephan Hartmann (2005). Review of Inference to the Best Explanation by Peter Lipton. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2005 (6).
  69. Lefteris Farmakis & Stephan Hartmann (2005). „Review of Inference to the Best Explanation, ”. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 1.
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  70. Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann (2005). Scientific Models. In Sahotra Sarkar et al (ed.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia, Vol. 2. Routledge.
    Models are of central importance in many scientific contexts. The roles the MIT bag model of the nucleon, the billiard ball model of a gas, the Bohr model of the atom, the Gaussian-chain model of a polymer, the Lorenz model of the atmosphere, the Lotka- Volterra model of predator-prey interaction, agent-based and evolutionary models of social interaction, or general equilibrium models of markets play in their respective domains are cases in point.
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  71. Ulrich Gähde & Stephan Hartmann (2005). Coherence, Truth and Testimony. Erkenntnis 63 (3).
    Special issue. With contributions by Luc Bovens and Stephan Hartmann, David Glass, Keith Lehrer, Erik Olsson, Tomoji Shogenji, Mark Siebel, and Paul Thagard.
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  72. Stephan Hartmann (2005). Transdisziplinarität – Eine Herausforderung für Die Wissenschaftstheorie. In Gereon Wolters & Martin Carrier (eds.), Homo Sapiens und Homo Faber. de Gruyter. 335--343.
    Die zeitgenössische Wissenschaftstheorie leidet unter ähnlichen Problemen wie die Wissenschaften, mit denen sie sich befasst. So nimmt auch in der Wissenschaftstheorie die Spezialisierung stark zu, und bei vielen der behandelten Fragestellungen geht es einzig um Detailprobleme, die sich aus einem sich verselbständigenden Diskussionszusammenhang entwickelt haben, wobei der Bezug zur jeweiligen Ausgangsfrage und die größere philosophische Perspektive leicht aus den Augen verloren geht.
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  73. Stephan Hartmann, Claus Beisbart & Luc Bovens (2005). A Utilitarian Assessment of Alternative Decision Rules in the Council of Ministers. European Union Politics 6 (4):395-419.
    We develop a utilitarian framework to assess different decision rules for the European Council of Ministers. The proposals to be decided on are conceptualized as utility vectors and a probability distribution is assumed over the utilities. We first show what decision rules yield the highest expected utilities for different means of the probability distribution. For proposals with high mean utility, simple benchmark rules (such as majority voting with proportional weights) tend to outperform rules that have been proposed in the political (...)
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  74. Stephan Hartmann & L. Bovens (2005). Coherence and the Role of Specificity: A Response to Meijs and Douven. Mind 114 (454):365-369.
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  75. Stephan Hartmann & Luc Bovens (2005). Why There Cannot Be a Single Probabilistic Measure of Coherence. Erkenntnis 63 (3):361-374.
    Bayesian Coherence Theory of Justification or, for short, Bayesian Coherentism, is characterized by two theses, viz. (i) that our degree of confidence in the content of a set of propositions is positively affected by the coherence of the set, and (ii) that coherence can be characterized in probabilistic terms. There has been a longstanding question of how to construct a measure of coherence. We will show that Bayesian Coherentism cannot rest on a single measure of coherence, but requires a vector (...)
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  76. Stephan Hartmann & Roman Frigg (2005). Scientific Models. In SarkarSahotra (ed.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia, Vol. 2. Routledge.
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  77. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (eds.) (2004). Bayesian Epistemology. OUP Oxford.
    Probabilistic models have much to offer to philosophy. We continually receive information from a variety of sources: from our senses, from witnesses, from scientific instruments. When considering whether we should believe this information, we assess whether the sources are independent, how reliable they are, and how plausible and coherent the information is. Bovens and Hartmann provide a systematic Bayesian account of these features of reasoning. Simple Bayesian Networks allow us to model alternative assumptions about the nature of the information sources. (...)
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  78. Stephan Hartmann (2004). Artificial Intelligence and its Methodological Implications. In Friedrich Stadler (ed.), Induction and Deduction in the Sciences. Springer. 217.
    Donald Gillies is one of the pioneers in the philosophical analysis of artificial intelligence (AI). In his recent book, Gillies (1996) not only makes a new and rapidly developing field of science accessible to philosophers; he also introduces philosophical topics relevant to researchers in AI and thereby helps establish a dialogue between the two disciplines. His book clearly and convincingly demonstrates the fruitful interplay between AI and philosophy of science.
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  79. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2003). Bayesian Epistemology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Bovens and Hartmann provide a systematic guide to the use of probabilistic methods not just in epistemology, but also in philosophy of science, voting theory, ...
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  80. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2003). Solving the Riddle of Coherence. Mind 112 (448):601-633.
    A coherent story is a story that fits together well. This notion plays a central role in the coherence theory of justification and has been proposed as a criterion for scientific theory choice. Many attempts have been made to give a probabilistic account of this notion. A proper account of coherence must not start from some partial intuitions, but should pay attention to the role that this notion is supposed to play within a particular context. Coherence is a property of (...)
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  81. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2003). ``Solving the Riddle of Coherence&Quot;. Mind 112 (448):601-634.
    A coherent story is a story that fits together well. This notion plays a central role in the coherence theory of justification and has been proposed as a criterion for scientific theory choice. Many attempts have been made to give a probabilistic account of this notion. A proper account of coherence must not start from some partial intuitions, but should pay attention to the role that this notion is supposed to play within a particular context. Coherence is a property of (...)
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  82. Stephan Hartmann & Luc Bovens (2003). Solving the Riddle of Coherence. Mind 112 (448):601-634.
    A coherent story is a story that fits together well. This notion plays a central role in the coherence theory of justification and has been proposed as a criterion for scientific theory choice. Many attempts have been made to give a probabilistic account of this notion. A proper account of coherence must not start from some partial intuitions, but should pay attention to the role that this notion is supposed to play within a particular context. Coherence is a property of (...)
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  83. Luc Bovens, Branden Fitelson, Stephan Hartmann & Josh Snyder (2002). Too Odd (Not) to Be True? A Reply to Olsson. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (4):539-563.
    Corroborating Testimony, Probability and Surprise’, Erik J. Olsson ascribes to L. Jonathan Cohen the claims that if two witnesses provide us with the same information, then the less probable the information is, the more confident we may be that the information is true (C), and the stronger the information is corroborated (C*). We question whether Cohen intends anything like claims (C) and (C*). Furthermore, he discusses the concurrence of witness reports within a context of independent witnesses, whereas the witnesses in (...)
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  84. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2002). Bayesian Networks and the Problem of Unreliable Instruments. Philosophy of Science 69 (1):29-72.
    We appeal to the theory of Bayesian Networks to model different strategies for obtaining confirmation for a hypothesis from experimental test results provided by less than fully reliable instruments. In particular, we consider (i) repeated measurements of a single test consequence of the hypothesis, (ii) measurements of multiple test consequences of the hypothesis, (iii) theoretical support for the reliability of the instrument, and (iv) calibration procedures. We evaluate these strategies on their relative merits under idealized conditions and show some surprising (...)
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  85. Stephan Hartmann (2002). Kohärenter Explanatorischer Pluralismus. In Wolfram Hogrebe (ed.), Grenzen und Grenzüberschreitungen. Sinclair Press.
    Die Frage, was eine wissenschaftliche Erklärung ist, stellt seit mehr als einem halben Jahrhundert ein zentrales Thema der Wissenschaftsphilosophie dar. Die heutige Diskussion begann mit einer richtungsweisenden Arbeit von Carl Hempel im Jahre 1942 über den Erklärungsbegriff in der Geschichtswissenschaft. In dieser Arbeit gab Hempel, frühere Überlegungen von John Stuart Mill, Karl Popper und anderen präzisierend, eine formale Definition der Erklärung eines singulären Faktums.1 Mit seiner dem zugrunde liegenden Auffassung, dass die Wissenschaften sehr wohl in der Lage sind, Erklärungen zu (...)
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  86. Stephan Hartmann (2002). On Correspondence. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 33 (1):79-94.
    This paper is an essay review of Steven French and Harmke Kamminga (eds.), Correspondence, Invariance and Heuristics. Essays in Honour of Heinz Post (Dordrecht: Kluwer, 1993). I distinguish a varity of correspondence relations between scientific theories (exemplified by cases from the book under review) and examine how one can make sense of the the prevailing continuity in scientific theorizing.
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  87. Stephan Hartmann & Luc Bovens (2002). Bayesian Networks and the Problem of Unreliable Instruments. Philosophy of Science 69 (1):29-72.
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  88. Stephan Hartmann, Luc Bovens, Branden Fitelson & Josh Snyder (2002). Too Odd (Not) to Be True: A Reply to Olsson. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (4):539-563.
    In ‘Corroborating Testimony, Probability and Surprise’, Erik J. Olsson ascribes to L. Jonathan Cohen the claims that if two witnesses provide us with the same information, then the less probable the information is, the more confident we may be that the information is true (C), and the stronger the information is corroborated (C*). We question whether Cohen intends anything like claims (C) and (C*). Furthermore, he discusses the concurrence of witness reports within a context of independent witnesses, whereas the witnesses (...)
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  89. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2001). Belief Expansion, Contextual Fit and the Reliability of Information Sources. In V. Akman (ed.), Modeling and Using Context. Springer.
    We develop a probabilistic criterion for belief expansion that is sensitive to the degree of contextual fit of the new information to our belief set as well as to the reliability of our information source. We contrast our approach with the success postulate in AGM-style belief revision and show how the idealizations in our approach can be relaxed by invoking Bayesian-Network models.
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  90. Stephan Hartmann (2001). Effective Field Theories, Reductionism and Scientific Explanation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (2):267-304.
    Effective field theories have been a very popular tool in quantum physics for almost two decades. And there are good reasons for this. I will argue that effective field theories share many of the advantages of both fundamental theories and phenomenological models, while avoiding their respective shortcomings. They are, for example, flexible enough to cover a wide range of phenomena, and concrete enough to provide a detailed story of the specific mechanisms at work at a given energy scale. So will (...)
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  91. Stephan Hartmann (2001). Mechanisms, Coherence, and the Place of Psychology. In Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. Pittsburgh: University of Pitt Press.
     
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  92. Stephan Hartmann (2001). Mechanisms, Coherence, and Theory Choice in the Cognitive Neurosciences. In Peter McLaughlin, Peter Machamer & Rick Grush (eds.), Theory and Method in the Neurosciences. Pittsburgh University Press.
    Let me first state that I like Antti Revonsuo’s discussion of the various methodological and interpretational problems in neuroscience. It shows how careful and methodologically reflected scientists have to proceed in this fascinating field of research. I have nothing to add here. Furthermore, I am very sympathetic towards Revonsuo’s general proposal to call for a Philosophy of Neuroscience that stresses foundational issues, but also focuses on methodological and explanatory strategies. In a footnote of his paper, Revonsuo complains – as many (...)
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  93. Stephan Hartmann (2001). Mechanisms, Coherence, and Theory Choice in the Cognitive Neurosciences. In Peter Machamer et al (ed.), Theory and Method in the Neurosciences.
    Let me first state that I like Antti Revonsuo’s discussion of the various methodological and interpretational problems in neuroscience. It shows how careful and methodologically reflected scientists have to proceed in this fascinating field of research. I have nothing to add here. Furthermore, I am very sympathetic towards Revonsuo’s general proposal to call for a Philosophy of Neuroscience that stresses foundational issues, but also focuses on methodological and explanatory strategies.2 In a footnote of his paper, Revonsuo complains – as many (...)
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  94. Stephan Hartmann (2001). Vacuum. In H. Gründer (ed.), Historisches Wörterbuch der Philosophie. Schwabe.
    Vacuum (leer, frei) bezeichnete bis zum 19. Jahrhundert allein den körperlosen Raum. Unter dem Einfluss physikalischer (Feld-) Theorien meint der Terminus inzwischen diejenige residuale physische Entiät, die einen vorgegebenen Raum ausfüllt bzw. im Prinzip ausfüllen würde, nachdem alles, was mit physikalischen Mitteln entfernt werden kann, aus dem Raum entfernt wurde. Theorien über das V. sind daher eng mit Theorien über die Struktur des Raumes, die Bewegung, die physikalischen Gegenstände und deren Wechselwirkungen verbunden. In der Quantentheorie bezeichnet V. den Zustand niedrigster (...)
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  95. Stephan Hartmann & L. Bovens (2001). A Probabilistic Theory of the Coherence of an Information Set. In BeckermannAnsgar (ed.), Argument & Analysis: Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of the Society for Analytical Philosophy. Bielefeld.
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  96. Stephan Hartmann & L. Bovens (2001). Belief Expansion, Contextual Fit and the Reliability of Information Sources. In AkmanV (ed.), Modeling and Using Context,. Springer.
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  97. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann (2000). Coherence, Belief Expansion and Bayesian Networks. In BaralC (ed.), Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Non-Monotonic Reasoning, NMR'2000.
    We construct a probabilistic coherence measure for information sets which determines a partial coherence ordering. This measure is applied in constructing a criterion for expanding our beliefs in the face of new information. A number of idealizations are being made which can be relaxed by an appeal to Bayesian Networks.
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  98. Stephan Hartmann (2000). J. Cushing: Philosophical Concepts in Physics. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 52:133-137.
    This book successfully achieves to serve two different purposes. On the one hand, it is a readable physics-based introduction into the philosophy of science, written in an informal and accessible style. The author, himself a professor of physics at the University of Notre Dame and active in the philosophy of science for almost twenty years, carefully develops his metatheoretical arguments on a solid basis provided by an extensive survey along the lines of the historical development of physics. On the other (...)
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  99. Stephan Hartmann (2000). James T. Cushing, Philosophical Concepts in Physics. The Historical Relation Between Philosophy and Scientific Theories. Erkenntnis 52 (1):133-137.
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  100. Stephan Hartmann (2000). Review of J. Cushing: Philosophical Concepts in Physics. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 52:133-137.
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  101. Stephan Hartmann & Jürgen Mittelstrass (2000). Physics is Part of Culture and the Basis of Technology. In DPG (ed.), Physics - Physics Research: Topics, Significance and Prospects. DPG.
    Fundamental aspects of modern life owe their existence to the achievements of scientific reason. In other words, science is an integral element of the modern world and simultaneously the epitome of the rational nature of a technical culture that makes up the essence of the modern world. Without science, the modern world would lose its very nature and modern society its future. Right from the start, physics forms the core of European scientific development. It is the original paradigm of science, (...)
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  102. Stephan Hartmann (1999). Models and Stories in Hadron Physics. In Margaret Morrison & Mary Morgan (eds.), Models as Mediators. 52--326.
    Fundamental theories are hard to come by. But even if we had them, they would be too complicated to apply. Quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a case in point. This theory is supposed to govern all strong interactions, but it is extremely hard to apply and test at energies where protons, neutrons and ions are the effective degrees of freedom. Instead, scientists typically use highly idealized models such as the MIT Bag Model or the Nambu Jona-Lasinio Model to account for phenomena (...)
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  103. Stephan Hartmann & Rainer Müller (1999). Kopenhagen Contra Bohm – Eine Herausforderung für den Realismus? Praxis der Naturwissenschaften - Physik 4:12-17.
    Der bedeutende amerikanische Logiker und Philosoph W.V.O. Quine hat die folgende Frage ins Zentrum seines Schaffens gestellt: "Wie kommen wir von unseren Sinnesdaten zu Theorien über die Welt?“ Bei der Beantwortung dieser Frage tritt ein grundlegendes Problem auf, das damit zusammenhängt, dass uns immer nur ein endlicher Satz an Informationen über die Welt zugänglich ist. Jedes Experiment liefert z. B. nur eine endliche Anzahl von Messpunkten.
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  104. Stephan Hartmann (1998). Idealization in Quantum Field Theory. In Niall Shanks (ed.), Idealization in Contemporary Physics. 99-122.
    This paper explores various functions of idealizations in quantum field theory. To this end it is important to first distinguish between different kinds of theories and models of or inspired by quantum field theory. Idealizations have pragmatic and cognitive functions. Analyzing a case-study from hadron physics, I demonstrate the virtues of studying highly idealized models for exploring the features of theories with an extremely rich structure such as quantum field theory and for gaining some understanding of the physical processes in (...)
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  105. Stephan Hartmann, Rainer Müller & Hartmut Wiesner (1998). Bose-Einstein-Kondensation Ultrakalter Atome. In W. Schneider (ed.), Wege in der Physikdidaktik, Band IV. Palm & Enke.
    Am 14. Juli 1995 berichteten die angesehene Wissenschaftszeitschrift Science sowie die berühmte amerikanische Tageszeitung New York Times – auf dem Titelblatt – gleichzeitig über die erstmalige experimentelle Erzeugung eines Bose-Einstein-Kondensates aus einem Gas schwach wechselwirkender Alkaliatome am Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophy- sics (JILA) in Boulder/Colorado (USA). Was war an dieser Leistung so bedeutsam, dass man sich entschloss, sie auf jene Weise bekannt zu geben?
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  106. Stephan Hartmann (1997). Verfolgt Die Elementarteilchenphysik Ein Reduktionistisches Programm? In Georg Meggle (ed.), Perspectives in Analytical Philosophy. de Gruyter.
    Die Elementarteilchenphysik gilt weithin als eine Teildisziplin der Physik, die ein reduktionistisches Programm par excellence verfolgt. In dieser Arbeit soll versucht werden, unter Berücksichtigung einer Analyse neuerer Methoden der Elementarteilchenphysik, die Berechtigung dieser Behauptung zu klären. Die Reduktionismusproblemtik läßt sich in ontologische, epistemologische und methodologische Aspekte untergliedern.
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  107. Stephan Hartmann (1996). The World as a Process: Simulations in the Natural and Social Sciences. In Rainer Hegselmann (ed.), Modelling and Simulation in the Social Sciences from the Philosophy of Science Point of View.
    Simulation techniques, especially those implemented on a computer, are frequently employed in natural as well as in social sciences with considerable success. There is mounting evidence that the "model-building era" (J. Niehans) that dominated the theoretical activities of the sciences for a long time is about to be succeeded or at least lastingly supplemented by the "simulation era". But what exactly are models? What is a simulation and what is the difference and the relation between a model and a simulation? (...)
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  108. Stephan Hartmann (1995). Models as a Tool for Theory Construction: Some Strategies of Preliminary Physics. In William Herfel et al (ed.), Theories and Models in Scientific Processes. Rodopi.
    Theoretical models are an important tool for many aspects of scientific activity. They are used, i.a., to structure data, to apply theories or even to construct new theories. But what exactly is a model? It turns out that there is no proper definition of the term "model" that covers all these aspects. Thus, I restrict myself here to evaluate the function of models in the research process while using "model" in the loose way physicists do. To this end, I distinguish (...)
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  109. Stephan Hartmann (1995). Modelle Und Forschungsdynamik: Strategien der Zeitgenössischen Physik. Praxis der Naturwissenschaften - Physik 1:33-41.
    An Beispielen aus der Entwicklung der Elementarteilchenphysik wird aufgezeigt, welche Rolle Modelle im Entstehungsprozess einer physikalischen Theorie spielen.
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  110. Stephan Hartmann (1995). Simulation. In Jürgen Mittelstrass (ed.), Enzyklopädie Philosophie und Wissenschaftstheorie, Vol. 3. Metzler.
    Simulation (von lat. simulare, engl. simulation, franz. simulation, ital. simulazione), Bezeichnung für die Nachahmung eines Prozesses durch einen anderen Prozeß. Beide Prozesse laufen auf einem bestimmten System ab. Simuliertes u. simulierendes System (der Simulator in der Kybernetik) können dabei auf gleichen oder unterschiedlichen Substraten realisiert sein.
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  111. Stephan Hartmann (1995). The Purpose of This Paper is to Motivate and Explicate the Following Three Theses: Thesis 1: Physics is Not Some Ready-Made Thing Hut a Dynamic Process. Thesis 2: This Dynamic Process is Exhihited in the Continuous Endeavour of Theory Construction. [REVIEW] In HerfelWilliam (ed.), Theories and Models in Scientific Processes. Rodopi. 44--49.
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  112. Stephan Hartmann (1995). Über die heuristische Funktion des Korrespondenzprinzips. In Jürgen Mittelstrass (ed.), Die Zunkunft des Wissens. Universitätsverlag Konstanz.
    Die Frage nach dem Verhältnis aufeinanderfolgender Theorien rückte spätestens mit der Publikation von T. S. Kuhns einflußreicher Schrift Die Struktur wissenschaftlicher Revolutionen im Jahre 1961 in den Brennpunkt wissenschaftsphilosophischer Untersuchungen. Dabei gibt es im wesentlichen zwei große Lager. Auf der einen Seite stehen Philosophen wie P. Feyerabend und T. S. Kuhn selbst, die den Aspekt der Diskontinuität...
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  113. S. Hartmann, Generalized Dicke States.
    Here P is the density operator of the system under consideration, and σ ± and σ 3 are the usual Pauli matrices, acting on atom i whose states are |1 > or |0 >, representing, respectively, the atom being in an excited state or in the ground state. B and C are appropriate decay constants and s has been called the pumping parameter [1]. It varies from s = 0 for pure damping to s = 1 for full laser action. (...)
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  114. Luc Bovens & Stephan Hartmann, Utilitarianism, Degressive Proportionality and the Constitution of a Federal Assembly.
    A federal assembly consists of a number of representatives for each of the nations (states, Länder, cantons,...) that make up the federation. How many representatives should each nation receive? What makes this issue worth quibbling about is that the model of representation that is instituted will have an impact on the welfare distribution over the nations in the federation that will ensue over due course. We will investigate what models of representation yield welfare distributions that score higher on a utilitarian (...)
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  115. Stephan Hartmann & Luc Bovens, The Variety-of-Evidence Thesis and the Reliability of Instruments: A Bayesian-Network Approach.
    The variety of evidence thesis in confirmation theory states that more varied supporting evidence confirms a hypothesis to a greater degree than less varied evidence. Under a very plausible interpretation of this thesis, positive test results from multiple independent instruments confirm a hypothesis to a greater degree than positive test results from a single instrument. We invoke Bayesian Networks to model confirmation on grounds of evidence that is obtained from less than fully reliable instruments and show that the variety of (...)
     
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  116. Roman Frigg & Stephan Hartmann, Introduction - Special Issue.
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  117. Stephan Hartmann & Rolf Haenni, Modeling Partially Reliable Information Sources: A General Approach Based on Dempster-Shafer Theory.
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  118. Stephan Hartmann, The Sun, the Genom and the Internet by F. Dyson (Book Review).
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  119. Stephan Hartmann & Luc Bovens, Bayesian Networks in Philosophy.
    There is a long philosophical tradition of addressing questions in philosophy of science and epistemology by means of the tools of Bayesian probability theory (see Earman (1992) and Howson and Urbach (1993)). In the late '70s, an axiomatic approach to conditional independence was developed within a Bayesian framework. This approach in conjunction with developments in graph theory are the two pillars of the theory of Bayesian Networks, which is a theory of probabilistic reasoning in artificial intelligence. The theory has been (...)
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