Peter R King Nottingham University
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  • Faculty, Nottingham University
  • PhD, Nottingham University, 2010.

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  1. Peter King, Boethius: The First of the Scholastics.
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  2. Peter King, Games and Pastimes.
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  3. Peter King (2013). Boethius on the Problem of Desert. Oxford Studies in Medieval Philosophy 1:1-22.
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  4. Peter King (2012). Dispassionate Passions. In Martin Pickavé & Lisa Shapiro (eds.), Emotion and Cognitive Life in Medieval and Early Modern Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 9.
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  5. Peter King (2012). The Cambridge History of Medieval Philosophy (Review). Journal of the History of Philosophy 50 (4):612-613.
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  6. Peter King (2011). Boethius's Anti—Realist Arguments. In Michael Frede, James V. Allen, Eyjólfur Kjalar Emilsson, Wolfgang-Rainer Mann & Benjamin Morison (eds.), Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy. Oxford University Press. 40.
     
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  7. Peter King (2011). Body and Soul. In John Marenbon (ed.), The Oxford Handbook to Medieval Philosophy. Oxford Up.
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  8. Peter King (2011). Emotions. In Brian Davies & Eleonore Stump (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Aquinas. Oxford University Press.
     
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  9. Peter King (2010). Mediaeval Intentionality and Pseudo-Intentionality. Quaestio 10 (1):25-44.
  10. Peter R. King (2010). Perception, Hallucination, and Illusion. Philosophical Psychology 23 (5):715-719.
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  11. P. S. Duggan, A. W. Siegel, D. M. Blass, H. Bok, J. T. Coyle, R. Faden, J. Finkel, J. D. Gearhart, H. T. Greely, A. Hillis, A. Hoke, R. Johnson, M. Johnston, J. Kahn, D. Kerr & P. King (2009). Unintended Changes in Cognition, Mood, and Behavior Arising From Cell-Based Interventions for Neurological Conditions: Ethical Challenges. American Journal of Bioethics 9 (5):31-36.
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  12. Peter King (2009). Abelard's Answers to Porphyry. Documenti E Studi 18:249-270.
    Mox de generibus et speciebus illud quidem siue subsistant siue in solis nudis purisque intellectibus posita sint siue ipsa subsistentia sint corporalia an incorporalia, et utrum separata an in sensibilibus et circa ea constantia, dicere recusabo. As regards genera and species, for the present I shall refuse to say whether they subsist or are postulated in understandings that are alone and bare and pure; or whether, if they subsist, they are corporeal or incorporeal; and whether they are separated from sensibles (...)
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  13. Peter King (2009). Emotion in Medieval Thought. In Peter Goldie (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Emotion. Oup Oxford.
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  14. Peter R. King (2009). B. Dainton: The Phenomenal Self. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 71 (2):283-288.
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  15. Peter King & Nathan Ballantyne (2009). Augustine on Testimony. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (2):pp. 195-214.
  16. Peter King & Nathan Ballantyne (2009). Augustine on Testimony. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 39 (2):195-214.
    Philosophical work on testimony has flourished in recent years. Testimony roughly involves a source affirming or stating something in an attempt to transfer information to one or more persons. It is often said that the topic of testimony has been neglected throughout most of the history of philosophy, aside from contributions by David Hume (1711–1776) and Thomas Reid (1710–1796).1 True as this may be, Hume and Reid aren’t the only ones who deserve a tip of the hat for recognizing the (...)
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  17. Peter King, Peter Abelard. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Peter Abelard (1079 – 21 April 1142) [‘Abailard’ or ‘Abaelard’ or ‘Habalaarz’ and so on] was the pre-eminent philosopher and theologian of the twelfth century. The teacher of his generation, he was also famous as a poet and a musician. Prior to the recovery of Aristotle, he brought the native Latin tradition in philosophy to its highest pitch. His genius was evident in all he did. He is, arguably, the greatest logician of the Middle Ages and is equally famous as (...)
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  18. Peter King (2008). The Inner Cathedral: Mental Architecture in High Scholasticism. Vivarium 46 (3):253-274.
    Contemporary philosophy of mind is much concerned with issues pertaining to ‘mental architecture’ — describing how mental processes are organized, typically by identifying sub-personal functional mechanisms which causally interact, often through the intermediary of a mental representation, thereby giving rise to psychological phenomena. Such internal mental mechanisms can be quite low-level and operate with a degree of relative independence; if so, they may be considered ‘modules’ or minimal centres of mental activity. A module or a set of modules may be (...)
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  19. Peter King (2008). The Inner Cathedral: Mental Architecture in High Scholasticism. Vivarium 46 (3):253-274.
    Mediaeval psychological theory was a “faculty psychology”: a confederation of semiautonomous sub-personal agents, the interaction of which constitutes our psychological experience. One such faculty was intellective appetite, that is, the will. On what grounds was the will taken to be a distinct faculty? After a brief survey of Aristotle's criteria for identifying and distinguishing mental faculties, I look in some detail at the mainstream mediaeval view, given clear expression by Thomas Aquinas, and then at the dissenting views of John Duns (...)
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  20. Peter King (2007). Abelard on Mental Language. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (2):169-187.
    I argue that Abelard was the author of the first theory of mental language in the Middle Ages, devising a “language of thought” to provide the semanticsfor ordinary languages, based on the idea that thoughts have linguistic character. I examine Abelard’s semantic framework with special attention to his principleof compositionality (the meaning of a whole is a function of the meanings of the parts); the results are then applied to Abelard’s distinction between complete andincomplete expressions, as well as the distinction (...)
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  21. Peter King (2007). Abelard on Mental Language. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 81 (2):169-187.
    I argue that Abelard was the author of the first theory of mental language in the Middle Ages, devising a “language of thought” to provide the semanticsfor ordinary languages, based on the idea that thoughts have linguistic character. I examine Abelard’s semantic framework with special attention to his principleof compositionality (the meaning of a whole is a function of the meanings of the parts); the results are then applied to Abelard’s distinction between complete andincomplete expressions, as well as the distinction (...)
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  22. Peter King (2007). Damaged Goods. Faith and Philosophy 24 (3):247-267.
    The Doctrine of Original Sin seems to require that human nature has literally undergone a change from its prelapsarian to its postlapsarian condition.It is not clear that this claim makes sense. How can human nature, the feature(s) in virtue of which human beings are what they are, change in time? (Think of the parallel claim about √2.) I consider three medieval attempts to resolve this problem: (1) Augustine’s two theories about shared human nature; (2) Anselm’s proposal that original sin is (...)
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  23. Peter King (2007). Damaged Goods. Faith and Philosophy 24 (3):247-267.
    The Doctrine of Original Sin seems to require that human nature has literally undergone a change from its prelapsarian to its postlapsarian condition.It is not clear that this claim makes sense. How can human nature, the feature(s) in virtue of which human beings are what they are, change in time? (Think of the parallel claim about √2.) I consider three medieval attempts to resolve this problem: (1) Augustine’s two theories about shared human nature; (2) Anselm’s proposal that original sin is (...)
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  24. Peter King (2005). Augustine's Encounter with Neoplatonism. Modern Schoolman 82 (3):213-226.
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  25. Peter King (ed.) (2005). Forming the Mind. Springer-Verlag.
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  26. Peter King (2005). Le rôle des concepts selon Ockham. Philosophiques 32 (2):435-447.
    Philosophiques 32 (2005), 435-447. [An English version is available here.].
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  27. Peter King (2005). Why Isn't the Mind-Body Problem Medieval? In , Forming the Mind. Springer-Verlag.
    One answer: Because medieval philosophy is just the continuation of ancient philosophy by other means—the Latin language and the Catholic Church— and, as Wallace Matson pointed out some time ago, the mind-body problem isn’t ancient.
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  28. Peter King (2004). Anselm's Philosophy of Language. In Brian Leftow (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Anselm. Cambridge Univ Pr. 85.
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  29. Peter King (2003). Parapsychology Without the 'Para' (or the Psychology). Think 3 (3):43-54.
    possible, your investigation is unlikely ever to get off the ground), there’s no such excuse for philosophers. The philosopher should be unrestricted by fashions in thought, including the unquestioning acceptance of whatever scientific theories are currently dominant. The fact is, however, that in this field and in the philosophy of mind, many.
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  30. Peter King (2003). 1 Scotus on Metaphysics. In Thomas Williams (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Duns Scotus. Cambridge University Press. 15.
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  31. Peter King (2003). Two Conceptions of Experience. Medieval Philosophy and Theology 11 (02):203-226.
  32. Peter King (2002). Aquinas on the Passions. In Brian Davies (ed.), Thomas Aquinas: Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives. Oup Usa.
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  33. Peter King (2002). Late Scholastic Theories of the Passions: Controversies in the Thomist Tradition. In Henrik Lagerlund & Mikko Yrjonsuri (eds.), Emotions and Choice From Boethius to Descartes. Kluwer. 229--258.
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  34. Peter King (2001). Duns Scotus on Possibilities, Powers, and the Possible. In Potentialitã¤T Und Possibilitã¤T. Fromann-Holzboog. 175-199.
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  35. Peter King (2001). Potentialitã¤T Und Possibilitã¤T. Fromann-Holzboog.
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  36. Peter King (2001). John Buridan’s Solution to the Problem of Universals. In J. M. M. H. Thijssen & Jack Zupko (eds.), The Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy of John Buridan. Brill. 1-28.
  37. Peter King (2000). The Problem of Individuation in the Middle Ages. Theoria 66 (2):159-184.
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  38. Peter King (1999). 10 Ockham's Ethical Theory. In P. V. Spade (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Cambridge. 227.
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  39. Peter King (1999). Ockham's Ethical Theory'. In P. V. Spade (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Ockham. Cambridge. 227--44.
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  40. Peter King (1998). Augustine on the Impossibility of Teaching. Metaphilosophy 29 (3):179-195.
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  41. Klaus Jacobi, Christian Strub & Peter King (1996). From Intellectus Verus/Falsus to the Dictum Propositionis: The Semantics of Peter Abelard and His Circle. Vivarium 34 (1):15-40.
  42. Peter King (1996). From Intellectus Verus/Falsus to the Dictum Propositionis: The Semantics of Peter Abelard and His Circle. Vivarium 34 (1):15-40.
    In his commentary on Aristotle’s Peri hermeneias,1 Abelard distinguishes the form of an expression2 (oratio) from what it says, that is, its content. The content of an expression is its understanding (intellectus). This distinction is surely the most well-known and central idea in Abelard’s commentary. It provides him with the opportunity to distinguish statements (enuntiationes) from other kinds of expressions without implying a diference in their content, since the ability of a statement to signify something true or false (verum vel (...)
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  43. Peter King (1995). Abelard's Intentionalist Ethics. Modern Schoolman 72 (2-3):213-231.
  44. Peter King (1994). Against Tolerance. Philosophy Now 11:23-24.
    I frequently have trouble with words that other people use with what seems to be blithe understanding (friends tell me that the problem is that I think too much about words, but I find that not thinking doesn't really seem to help). In the case of `tolerance', though, I have no trouble at all - it's a wishy-washy weasel, a mealy-mouthed mink of a word. I suppose I don't want to claim that it has no decent place in the language (...)
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  45. Peter King (1994). Buridan's Theory of Individuation. In Jorge J. E. Gracia (ed.), Individuation in Scholasticism. The Later Middle Ages and the Counter-Reformation, 1150-1650. 397-430.
    cause other than the very individual itself, and thus there is no ‘metaphysical’ problem of individuation at all—individuality, unlike generality, is primitive and needs no explanation. He supports this view in two ways. First, he argues that there are no nonindividual entities, whether existing in their own right or as metaphysical constituents either of things or in things, and hence that no real principle or cause of individuality (other than the individual itself) is required. Second, he offers a ‘semantic’ interpretation (...)
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  46. Peter King (1993). Postmodernist Porn. Philosophy Now 8:41-43.
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  47. Peter King (1992). Duns Scotus on the Common Nature and the Individual Differentia. Philosophical Topics 20 (2):51-76.
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  48. P. King (1989). Justifying Tolerance. History of Political Thought 10 (4):733-743.
     
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  49. Peter King (1987). Jean Buridan's Philosophy of Science. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 18 (2):109-132.
    introduced the concept of effective demand in the nascent science of economics; his discussions of astronomy were acute enough to raise Duhem’s interest. Neither are Buridan’s credentials as a nominalist in doubt, although investigation into his precise relation to William of Ockham continues: he rejected all abstract entities, whether universals, common natures, the complexe significabile, or types above and beyond tokens; for Buridan, every thing which exists is a concrete individual. His anti-realism included an epistemological component as well, for Buridan (...)
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  50. Peter King (1987). Towards a Theory of the General Will. History of Philosophy Quarterly 4 (1):33 - 51.
    each associate, and be means of which each unites himself to all, obeying only himself and still remaining as free as before. [The Solution]: Each of us puts in common his person and his entire power under the supreme direction of the general will (la..
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  51. Peter King (1984). Anselm's Intentional Argument. History of Philosophy Quarterly 1 (2):147 - 165.
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  52. Peter King (1983). St. Thomas Aquinas. International Philosophical Quarterly 23 (2):227-229.
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  53. P. King (1962). Religious Revolution in the Philippines. Augustinianum 2 (2):384-385.
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  54. Peter King, Offprint From.
    B      opens his discussion of the problem of universals, in his second commentary on Porphyry’s Isagoge, with a destructive dilemma: genera and species either exist or are concepts; but they can neither exist nor be soundly conceived; therefore the enquiry into them should be abandoned (In Isag. maior . ). Boethius’ strategy to get around this dilemma is well known. He follows the lead of Alexander of Aphrodisias, distinguishing several ways in which genera and species (...)
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  55. Peter King, Review: The Beatles Anthology. [REVIEW]
    For more than thirty-five years, the Beatles have credited their musical success to the long hours they spent playing in Hamburg, before they were discovered by Brian Epstein and then the rest of the world. Now it’s the official story: The Beatles Anthology (367 pp. Chronicle Books $60), the group’s collective ‘autobiography’ published October 5th, describes how their musical apprenticeship served on the Reeperbahn produced the sound that defined the 1960s and, arguably, popular music ever since. Told through the words (...)
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  56. Peter King, A Note on Susan James.
    Susan James, in her recent work Passion and Action: The Emotions in Seventeenth-Century Philosophy (Oxford: Clarendon 1997), prefaces her investigation of emotions in the seventeenth century with a series of remarks about the earlier career of the emotions, in particular their treatment in the Middle Ages. In brief, she takes the ‘new’ analyses of the passions put forward in the seventeenth century to be a philosophical sideshow to the main event: the dethronement of Aristotelian natural philosophy and metaphysics (22). She (...)
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  57. Peter King, Angelic Sin in Augustine and Anselm.
    Augustine and Anselm form a common tradition in mediæval thought about angelic sin, a tradition rooted in patristic thought and centred on their attempts to give a philosophically coherent account of moral choice. Augustine concentrates on the reasons and causes of angelic sin, especially in reference to free will; Anselm adopts Augustine’s analysis and extends it to issues about the rationality of sinful choice. Each takes Lucifer’s primal sin to be the paradigm case. Lucifer, undistracted by bodily desires and unencumbered (...)
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  58. Peter King, A (Very) Little About Me.
    I was born in Boston, Lincolnshire (actually in Wyberton West Hospital, which no longer exists), educated (if that's the word) first at St Mary's Primary School (run by nuns at the time, which probably explains a lot about my later career if you're a Freudian, which I'm not. Its new incarnation is here), then at Boston Grammar School . At the latter I successfully navigated 'O'-levels, but nearly half-way through my 'A'-levels I developed a number of extra-curricular interests which distracted (...)
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  59. Peter King, Democracy and Anti-Democrats.
    Over the last few years, events in countries like Algeria, whose free democratic elections were cancelled by army officers to prevent a probable Islamic fundamentalist victory, have drawn attention to a number of issues that are in urgent need of consideration. Apart from the fact that the political reverberations of the Algerian incident are still being felt throughout the region, the fact that it happened helped to focus attention on a thorny problem for democrats everywhere. Many people have found themselves (...)
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  60. Peter King, Did Marx Hold a Labor Theory of Value?
    In the first volume of Capital, Marx introduces a labor theory of value. The theory is supposed to form the basis of his “laying bare” the “inner workings” of capitalism. The theory rests on two claims, and at the outset Marx uses it to explain four features of capitalist production. Yet by the end of the final volume of Capital, he abandons both claims and offers alternative accounts of all four features of capitalism. We hold that Marx’s introduction of the (...)
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  61. Peter King, Duns Scotus on Singular Essences.
    Socrates, for example, has an essence that includes more than his human nature, which is his specific essence; he has an essence proper to himself alone, an essence that cannot be had by anyone else. Although Socrates does have singular (individualized) forms, his singular essence is not a form—there is no form Socrateity for the singular essence parallelling the form humanity for the specific essence. Instead, Socrates has his singular essence in consequence of being an individual, that is, in consequence (...)
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  62. Peter King, For Intolerance.
    In his response to my article `Against Tolerance', Jonathan Gorman misses my main point by an astonishingly wide margin, and throws in a number of herrings of a most vivid redness. I'll look briefly at the first of these flushed fish before going on to tackle his main misunderstanding.
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  63. Peter King, Hobbes: Leviathan 14–15.
    [14.18] But if there were to be a contract in which neither of the contractors is obliged to perform immediately, but rather at a definite future date, that covenant in the pure condition of nature (i. e. in war) is invalid if any suspicion about performance should intervene: in the commonwealth, not likewise. For he who performs first is, in the first case, uncertain whether the other will perform; in the commonwealth he is certain, since there is [something] to compel (...)
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  64. Peter King, Introduction.
    Augustine’s early works Against the Academicians (386) and The Teacher (389) belong together. In the former, which is directed at Cicero’s Academica, he defends the possibility of knowledge against the skeptical arguments of the New Academy;1 in the latter, directed at Plato’s Meno, he offers his theory of illumination to explain how knowledge is acquired. As a pair, they present Augustine’s alternative to the pose of ironical detachment fashionable among late Roman intellectuals.
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  65. Peter King, Morality & Religion: Dramatis Personae:.
    (A sunny town square somewhere in the Peloponnese. Anna Kalypsas and Mel Etitis are standing, holding open books; Kathy Merinos is watching and listening to them, also with an open book in front of her. Theo Logos appears and spots them. He stops to listen.).
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  66. Peter King, Philosophers: Hypatia.
    Hypatia was born in Alexandria in the fourth century CE (there's disagreement about her age at death, so that different scholars put her year of birth at either about 370 or about 355CE). The daughter of the mathematician and philosopher, Theon, who taught at the university of Alexandria, attached to the world-famous library, and who seems to have been responsible for Hypatia's education, though she might also have been taught by Plutarch the Younger in Athens. She helped her father with (...)
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  67. Peter King, Readings in African Philosophy.
    Some years ago I reviewed a collection of papers called African Philosophy: The Essential Readings , edited by Serequeberhan. My last comment in that review was the expression of the hope for collections of papers that would give an insight into what's going on in African philosophy, rather than into the debate over the existence and nature of African philosophy. My concern is echoed by the last line of a letter printed in the present volume of readings: "Hitherto most of (...)
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  68. Peter King, Siger of Brabant: The Eternity of the World.
    phers] to be a demonstration of the fact that the human species (and in every case the species of all generable and corruptible individuals) began to exist at a time when previously it had not existed at all, a question is raised: whether, following the Philosopher’s method, the human species (and in every case any given species of generable and corruptible [individuals]) began to exist at a time when previously it had not existed at all.
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  69. Peter King, Scotus's Rejection of Anselm.
    stance, Scotus adopts Anselm’s notion of a ‘(pure) perfection’ and elevates it to a fundamental principle of his metaphysics. Again, he distills Anselm’s Ontological Argument into something like its original Monologion components, and then treats each component part of the argument with a rigor and attention to detail far beyond anything Anselm suggested. In the case of Anselm’s so-called ‘two-wills’ theory, however, Scotus’s revisions are so extensive that they amount to a rejection of Anselm’s account, even though Scotus retains some (...)
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  70. Peter King, Thinking About Things: Singular Thought in the Middle Ages.
    In one corner Socrates; in the other, on the mat, his cat Felix. Socrates, of course, thinks (correctly) that Felix the Cat is on the mat. But there’s the rub. For Socrates to think that Felix is on the mat, he has to be able to think about Felix, that is, he has to have some sort of cognitive grasp of an individual — and not just any individual, but Felix himself. How is that possible? What is going on when (...)
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  71. Peter King, The Cambridge Companion to Duns Scotus.
    [1] In twelve quite demanding chapters, outstanding scholars provide an overall view of the key issues of Scotus’s philosophical thought. To this a very concise introduction is added, concerning the life and works of John Duns (very good, especially the survey of works and the information on critical editions etc.). Throughout the book, I find the information clear and the difficult topics well explained. Moreover, the volume gives a quick entrance to the vast literature. Among the topics discussed are: ‘Metaphysics’ (...)
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  72. Peter King, The Culture Card.
    There is a dangerous notion replicating itself around the world like a virus, reproducing without regard for its hosts' political views, and generally unnoticed except as a limited and purely local phenomenon. We've seen its effects in South Africa, where the brandishing of spears and shields in the streets has been defended on the grounds that such weapons are..
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  73. Peter King, Thomas Hobbes's Children.
    Children therefore, whether they be brought up and preserved by the father, or by the mother, or by whomsoever, are in most absolute subjection to him or her, that so bringeth them up, or preserveth them. And they may alienate them, that is, assign his or her dominion, by selling, or giving them, in adoption or servitude to others; or may pawn them for hostages, kill them for rebellion, or sacrifice them for peace, by the law of nature, when he (...)
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  74. Peter King, The History of Logic.
    Aristotle was the first thinker to devise a logical system. He drew upon the emphasis on universal definition found in Socrates, the use of reductio ad absurdum in Zeno of Elea, claims about propositional structure and negation in Parmenides and Plato, and the body of argumentative techniques found in legal reasoning and geometrical proof. Yet the theory presented in Aristotle’s five treatises known as the Organon—the Categories, the De interpretatione, the Prior Analytics, the Posterior Analytics, and the Sophistical Refutations—goes far (...)
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  75. Peter King, The Limits of Creation.
    Novelists and other producers of fiction can make many mistakes (including becoming novelists and other producers of fiction), but there are three kinds of mistake that stem from the writer's ignorance. First, there's the purely external mistake, which occurs in the..
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  76. Peter King, The Meaning of "Philosophy".
    I take "philosophy" to be an English word referring to a certain kind of thinking, a certain kind of approach to a certain kind of problem. To explain those "certain kind of"s would take a book; perhaps the best I can do here is gesture at what it is that English-language philosophers do.
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  77. Peter King, William of Ockham: Ordinatio 1 D. 2 Q.
    That it is: According to the Commentator, Met. 7 com. 11 ([Iuntina 8 fol. 76r]): The definition is the same as the substance of the thing. Hence it is in some way outside the soul, and consequently all its parts are in some way outside the soul. But the definition is composed of universals. Hence [the universal is outside the soul].
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