Roberto Casati Institut Jean Nicod
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  • Faculty, Institut Jean Nicod
  • PhD, University of Geneva, 1991.

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  1. R. Casati (forthcoming). Zahraj to znovu, K. Císař a P. Koťátko (eds.), Text a dílo: případ Menard. Filosofia.
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  2. Roberto Casati (forthcoming). Methodological Issues in the Study of the Depiction of Cast Shadows. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism.
    The relationships between art and cognition constitute a very wide set of largely unexplored and at times undefined or much too speculative problems. The field is narrowed down by imposing some constraints. It is proposed that the depiction of cast shadows, in its early history, could provide an ideal case study which conforms to the constraints. This paper addresses some methodological problems of the study of this case. A sample of relevant Renaissance images is discussed. A typology of depicted cast (...)
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  3. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi, Events. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A critical survey of the main philosophical theories about events and event talk, organized in three main sections: (i) Events and Other Categories (Events vs. Objects; Events vs. Facts; Events vs. Properties; Events vs. Times); (ii) Types of Events (Activities, Accomplishments, Achievements, and States; Static and Dynamic Events; Actions and Bodily Movements; Mental and Physical Events; Negative Events); (iii) Existence, Identity, and Indeterminacy.
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  4. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi, Holes. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A brief introduction to the main philosophical problems and theories about the nature of holes and such-like nothingnesses.
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  5. R. Casati, E. Di Bona & J. Dokic (2013). The Ockhamization of the Event Sources of Sound. Analysis 73 (3):462-466.
    There is one character too many in the triad sound, event source, thing source. As there are neither phenomenological nor metaphysical grounds for distinguishing sounds and sound sources, we propose to identify them.
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  6. Roberto Casati (2012). Towards a Synchretist Theory of Depiction (How to Account for the Illusionistic Aspect of Pictorial Mirrors, Illusions and Epistemic Innocence). In Clotilde Calabi (ed.), Perceptual Illusions: Philosophical and Psychological Essays.
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  7. R. Casati & G. Torrengo (2011). The Not so Incredible Shrinking Future. Analysis 71 (2):240-244.
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  8. Roberto Casati (2011). Introduction. The Interdisciplinary Study of Drawing. Rivista di Estetica 51 (47):3-8.
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  9. Roberto Casati (2011). Numerals and Word Sequences. In Anne Reboul (ed.), Philosophical Papers Dedicated to Kevin Mulligan. 000--000.
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  10. Roberto Casati (2011). On Publishing. Social Epistemology 24 (3):191-200.
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  11. Roberto Casati (2011). Prima Lezione di Filosofia. Laterza.
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  12. Roberto Casati (2010). Hallucinatory Pictures. Acta Analytica 25 (3):365-368.
    Hallucinatory pictures are yet to be found picture-like artifacts that induce a hallucination of their content that cannot be intuitively explained by a look at the structure of the pictorial vehicle. Different accounts of depiction make different predictions about the possibility that such artifacts be considered as pictures. Some cases are presented that point towards the intuitive acceptability of hallucinatory pictures.
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  13. Roberto Casati (2010). Trust, Secrecy and Accuracy in Voting Systems: The Case for Transparency. [REVIEW] Mind and Society 9 (1):19-23.
    If voting systems are to be trusted, they not only need to preserve both secrecy (if requested) and accuracy, but the mechanisms that preserve these features should be transparent, in the sense of being both cognitively understandable and accessible. Electronic voting systems, much as they promise accuracy in counting, and on top of being criticized for their insufficient protection of secrecy, violate the transparency requirement.
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  14. Roberto Casati & Marco Bertamini (2010). False Beliefs and Naive Beliefs: They Can Be Good for You. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (6):512-513.
    Naive physics beliefs can be systematically mistaken. They provide a useful test-bed because they are common, and also because their existence must rely on some adaptive advantage, within a given context. In the second part of the commentary we also ask questions about when a whole family of misbeliefs should be considered together as a single phenomenon.
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  15. Dario Taraborelli, Roberto Casati, Paul Egré & Christophe Heintz (2010). Preface: The Review of Philosophy and Psychology. [REVIEW] Review of Philosophy and Psychology 1 (1):1-3.
    Preface: The Review of Philosophy and Psychology Content Type Journal Article Pages 1-3 DOI 10.1007/s13164-010-0024-1 Authors Dario Taraborelli, University of Surrey Centre for Research in Social Simulation Guilford GU2 7XH United Kingdom Roberto Casati, Institut Jean Nicod, Ecole Normale Supérieure 29 rue d’Ulm 75005 Paris France Paul Egré, Institut Jean Nicod, Ecole Normale Supérieure 29 rue d’Ulm 75005 Paris France Christophe Heintz, Central European University Budapest Hungary Journal Review of Philosophy and Psychology Online ISSN 1878-5166 Print ISSN 1878-5158 Journal Volume (...)
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  16. Lucy Allais, Louise Antony, Elizabeth Barnes, John Bigelow, Alexander Bird, Ross P. Cameron, John Campbell & Roberto Casati (2009). Notes on The. In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. Routledge.
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  17. Roberto Casati (2009). Does Topological Perception Rest on a Misconception About Topology? Philosophical Psychology 22 (1):77 – 81.
    In this article I assess some results that purport to show the existence of a type of 'topological perception', i.e., perceptually based classification of topological features. Striking findings about perception in insects appear to imply that (1) configural, global properties can be considered as primitive perceptual features, and (2) topological features in particular are interesting as they are amenable to formal treatment. I discuss four interrelated questions that bear on any interpretation of findings about the perception of topological properties: what (...)
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  18. Roberto Casati (2009). Minor Entities : Surfaces, Holes, and Shadows. In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. Routledge.
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  19. Roberto Casati (2009). Surfaces, Holes, Shadows. In Robin Le Poidevin (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Metaphysics. Routledge. 382--388.
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  20. Roberto Casati & Jérôme Dokic (2009). Some Varieties of Spatial Hearing. In Matthew Nudds & Casey O'Callaghan (eds.), Sounds and Perception: New Philosophical Essays. Oup Oxford.
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  21. Roberto Casati, Events. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  22. Roberto Casati, Holes. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  23. Roberto Casati, Sounds. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  24. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2008). Event Concepts. In Thomas F. Shipley & Jeff Zacks (eds.), Understanding Events: From Perception to Action. Oxford University Press. 31�54.
    Events are center stage in several fields of psychological research. There is a long tradition in the study of event perception, event recognition, event memory, event conceptualization and segmentation. There are studies devoted to the description of events in language and to their representation in the brain. There are also metapsychological studies aimed at assessing the nature of mental events or the grounding of intentional action. Outside psychology, the notion of an event plays a prominent role in various areas of (...)
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  25. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2008). Voti e altri buchi elettorali. Rivista di Estetica 48 (37):169-194.
    A philosophical dialogue on the functioning, the limits, and the paradoxes of our electoral practices, dealing with such basic questions as: What is a vote? How do we count votes? And do votes really count?
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  26. Roberto Casati & Elena Pasquinelli (2007). How Can You Be Surprised? The Case for Volatile Expectations. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 6 (1-2):171-183.
    Surprise has been characterized has an emotional reaction to an upset belief having a heuristic role and playing a criterial role for belief ascription. The discussion of cases of diachronic and synchronic violations of coherence suggests that surprise plays an epistemic role and provides subjects with some sort of phenomenological access to their subpersonal doxastic states. Lack of surprise seems not to have the same epistemic power. A distinction between belief and expectation is introduced in order to account for some (...)
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  27. Roberto Casati & Alessandro Pignocchi (2007). Mirror and Canonical Neurons Are Not Constitutive of Aesthetic Responses. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11 (10):000-000.
    The alleged neural basis of empathic responses to artworks is only of marginal relevance for aesthetics and for cognitive theories of art.
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  28. Roberto Casati, Achille Varzi Insurmountable Simplicities & Thirty-Nine Philosophical (2007). Luciano Canfora. Democracy in Europe: A History (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2006), Vi+ 302 Pp.£ 40.00 Cloth. David Brion Davis. Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006), Xvi+ 440 Pp.£ 17.99 Cloth. Richard Dawkins. The Selfish Gene. (Oxford: Oxford University Press. [REVIEW] The European Legacy 12 (4):545-547.
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  29. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2007). Foreword to ''Lesser Kinds''. The Monist 90 (3):331-332.
    This issue of The Monist is devoted to the metaphysics of lesser kinds, which is to say those kinds of entity that are not generally recognized as occupying a prominent position in the categorial structure of the world. Why bother? We offer two sorts of reason. The first is methodological. In mathematics, it is common practice to study certain functions (for instance) by considering limit cases: What if x = 0? What if x is larger than any assigned value? Physics, (...)
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  30. Margaret A. Boden, Roberto Casati & Achille Varzi (2006). Appearance in This List Neither Guarantees nor Precludes a Future Review of the Book. Mind 115:460.
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  31. Roberto Casati (2006). Philosophy: What is to Be Done? [REVIEW] Topoi 25 (1-2):25-28.
    If, as it is assumed here, philosophy is pervasive and continuous with non-philosophical disciplines, if consequently this dialogue is above all highly interdisciplinary, tends to align itself with the standards of scientific disciplines, and generates strongly contextualised and localised philosophical problems, and if a certain social role is part of the nature of philosophy, then we can expect in decades to come increasingly articulated and interesting interactions between philosophers and non-philosophers that will be manifested in new professional figures.
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  32. Roberto Casati (2006). Sull'ontologia Del Telefonino. Iride 19 (2):377-384.
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  33. Roberto Casati (2006). The Cognitive Science of Holes and Cast Shadows. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10 (2):54-55.
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  34. Roberto Casati (2005). Commonsense, Philosophical and Theoretical Notions of an Object. The Monist 88 (4):571-599.
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  35. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2005). Esercizi di attenzione. Riga 24:398–403.
    A brief study of Saul Steinberg’s works on shadows and reflections, and of the seemingly paradoxical world that emerges from such works.
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  36. Roberto Casati (2004). Is the Object Concept Formal? Dialectica 58 (3):383–394.
    This review article explores several senses in which it can be held that the (actual, psychological) concept of an object is a formal concept, as opposed, here, to being a sortal concept. Some recent positions both from the philosophical and psychological literature are analyzed: Object-sortalism (Xu), quasi-sortalist reductive strategies (Bloom), qualified sortalism (Wiggins), demonstrative theories (Fodor), and anti-sortalism (Ayers).
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  37. Roberto Casati (2004). Methodological Issues in the Study of the Depiction of Cast Shadows: A Case Study in the Relationships Between Art and Cognition. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 62 (2):163–174.
  38. Roberto Casati (2004). The Shadow Knows: A Primer on the Informational Structure of Cast Shadows. In Robert Schwartz (ed.), Perception. Malden Ma: Blackwell Publishing. 33--1.
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  39. Roberto Casati (2004). Vantaggi rappresentazionali. Rivista di Estetica 44 (26):203-216.
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  40. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2004). Counting the Holes. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):23 – 27.
    Argle claimed that holes supervene on their material hosts, and that every truth about holes boils down to a truth about perforated things. This may well be right, assuming holes are perforations. But we still need an explicit theory of holes to do justice to the ordinary way of counting holes--or so says Cargle.
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  41. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2004). Counting the Holes. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):23 – 27.
    Argle claimed that holes supervene on their material hosts, and that every truth about holes boils down to a truth about perforated things. This may well be right, assuming holes are perforations. But we still need an explicit theory of holes to do justice to the ordinary way of counting holes--or so says Cargle.
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  42. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2004). Counting the Holes. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):23 – 27.
    Argle claimed that holes supervene on their material hosts, and that every truth about holes boils down to a truth about perforated things. This may well be right, assuming holes are perforations. But we still need an explicit theory of holes to do justice to the ordinary way of counting holes--or so says Cargle.
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  43. Roberto Casati (2003). Ontologia dell'arte. Rivista di Estetica 43 (23):3-159.
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  44. Roberto Casati (2003). Qualia Domesticated. In Amita Chatterjee (ed.), Perspectives on Consciousness. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal.
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  45. Roberto Casati (2003). Representational Advantages. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 103 (3):281–298.
    Descriptive metaphysics investigates our naïve ontology as this is articulated in the content of our perception or of our pre-reflective thought about the world. But is access to such content reliable? Sceptics about the standard modes of access (introspection, or language-driven intuitions) may think that investigations in descriptive metaphysics can be aided by the controlled findings of cognitive science. Cognitive scientists have studied a promising range of representational advantages, that is, ways in which cognition favours one type of entity over (...)
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  46. Roberto Casati (2003). The Unity of the Kind Artwork. Rivista di Estetica 23 (43):3-31.
    A defence of a meta-representational theory of artworks, accounting for the unity of the kind. Artworks are surmised to be artefacts that are produced with the intention of being recognised as having been produced with the intention of eliciting a conversation.
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  47. Roberto Casati (2003). XIII-Representational Advantages. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 103 (1):281-298.
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  48. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2003). Sfondo e figura. Rivista di Estetica 43 (24):38-40.
    A dialogue between a figure and its background, illustrating that the perceptual conditions that determine which is which are not as clear as standard Gestalt theory dictates.
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  49. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2002). Un Altro Mondo? Rivista di Estetica 19 (1):131-159.
    Alexandre Koyré wrote that Newton and the science that followed led to a splitting of the world: on the one hand is the “world of qualities and of sensible perceptions”, on the other is the “world of quantities and of reified geometry”. A comparison between facts held true by common sense and false by the scientific image of the world (or vice versa) seems to confirm this view. But is the dichotomy a real one? Is the world of common sense (...)
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  50. Roberto Casati (2001). Cognitive Aspects of Gerrymandering. Topoi 20 (2):203-212.
    Some philosochical and cognitive aspects of political gerrymandering are investigated. The basic assumption of gerrymandering practices is that regions be connected. This assumption is questioned, as it seems to result for a cognitive bias for connectedness (a preference for unitary objects).
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  51. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2000). Topological Essentialism. Philosophical Studies 100 (3):217-236.
    Considering topology as an extension of mereology, this paper analyses topological variants of mereological essentialism (the thesis that an object could not have different parts than the ones it has). In particular, we examine de dicto and de re versions of two theses: (i) that an object cannot change its external connections (e.g., adjacent objects cannot be separated), and (ii) that an object cannot change its topological genus (e.g., a doughnut cannot turn into a sphere). Stronger forms of structural essentialism, (...)
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  52. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2000). All the Things You Are. In Gabriele Usberti (ed.), Modi dell’oggettività. Bompiani. 77–85.
    An imaginary dialogue between Andrea Bonomi and Gonzalo Pirobutirro (the main character of Gadda’s novel La cognizione del dolore) aiming to challenge Bonomi’s tenet that a work of fiction defines a domain of objects which is closed with respect to the actual world.
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  53. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2000). True and False: An Exchange. In André Chapuis & Anil Gupta (eds.), Circularity, Definition, and Truth. Indian Council of Philosophical Research. 365-370.
    Classically, truth and falsehood are opposite, and so are logical truth and logical falsehood. In this paper we imagine a situation in which the opposition is so pervasive in the language we use as to threaten the very possibility of telling truth from falsehood. The example exploits a suggestion of Ramsey’s to the effect that negation can be expressed simply by writing the negated sentence upside down. The difference between ‘p’ and ‘~~p’ disappears, the principle of double negation becomes trivial, (...)
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  54. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1999). Parts and Places. The Structures of Spatial Representation. The Mit Press.
    Thinking about space is thinking about spatial things. The table is on the carpet; hence the carpet is under the table. The vase is in the box; hence the box is not in the vase. But what does it mean for an object to be somewhere? How are objects tied to the space they occupy? This book is concerned with these and other fundamental issues in the philosophy of spatial representation. Our starting point is an analysis of the interplay between (...)
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  55. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1999). I trabocchetti della rappresentazione spaziale. Sistemi Intelligent 11 (1):7–28.
    This is a position article summarizing our approach to the philosophy of space and spatial representation. Our concern is mostly methodological: above all, we argue that a number of philosophical puzzles that arise in this field—puzzles concerning the nature of spatial entities, their material and mereological constitution, their relationship with the space that they occupy—stem from a confusion between semantic issues and true metaphysical concerns.
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  56. Hyun-Soo Ahn, Lilli Alanen, Raphael Cohen Almagor, David M. Armstrong, Rudolph Bernet, Paul Blum, Miles Burnyeat, Alan Carter, Neus Torbisco Casals & Roberto Casati (1998). Visiting Professors From Abroad, 1998-99. Review of Metaphysics 52:249-257.
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  57. R. Casati & J. Dokic (1998). Lo spazio Del suono. Rivista di Estetica 38 (9):35-40.
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  58. Roberto Casati (ed.) (1998). European Review of Philosophy, Volume 3: Response-Dependence. Stanford: CSLI Publications.
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  59. Roberto Casati (1998). Review Of: Diego Marconi, Lexical Competence, MIT Press. [REVIEW] Iride 24.
    A critical notice of Diego Marconi's book 'Lexical Competence'.
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  60. Roberto Casati, Carlo Penco & Timothy Williamson (1998). Discussione su "Lexical Competence" di Diego Marconi. Iride 11 (2):389-402.
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  61. Roberto Casati, Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (1998). Ontological Tools for Geographic Representation. In Nicola Guarino (ed.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS). Ios Press. 77--85.
    This paper is concerned with certain ontological issues in the foundations of geographic representation. It sets out what these basic issues are, describes the tools needed to deal with them, and draws some implications for a general theory of spatial representation. Our approach has ramifications in the domains of mereology, topology, and the theory of location, and the question of the interaction of these three domains within a unified spatial representation theory is addressed. In the final part we also consider (...)
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  62. Christine Tappolet & Roberto Casati (1998). Response-Dependence. European Review of Philosophy 3:227.
    Some concepts, such as colour concepts or value concepts, seem to bear traces of the mind's own make-up. For instance, the character of perceptually-determined colour concepts seems in some sense derivative from the character of the visual system. Thus, it has seemed plausible to claim that the corresponding colour properties are dispositions to elicit certain visual experiences in normal observers under suitable conditions. Much the same has been suggested for value concepts. An extreme position would be that colours and values (...)
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  63. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1997). Perché i buchi sono importanti. Problemi di rappresentazione spaziale. Sapere 63 (2):38–43.
    The methodological anarchy that characterizes much recent research in artificial intelligence and other cognitive sciences has brought into existence (sometimes resumed) a large variety of entities from a correspondingly large variety of (sometimes dubious) ontological categories. Recent work in spatial representation and reasoning is particularly indicative of this trend. Our aim in this paper is to suggest some ways of reconciling such a luxurious proliferation of entities with the sheer sobriety of good philosophy.
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  64. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1997). Spatial Entities. In Oliviero Stock (ed.), Spatial and Temporal Reasoning. Kluwer. 73–96.
    Ordinary reasoning about space—we argue—is first and foremost reasoning about things or events located in space. Accordingly, any theory concerned with the construction of a general model of our spatial competence must be grounded on a general account of the sort of entities that may enter into the scope of the theory. Moreover, on the methodological side the emphasis on spatial entities (as opposed to purely geometrical items such as points or regions) calls for a reexamination of the conceptual categories (...)
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  65. Roberto Casati (ed.) (1996). Shadows and Socio-Economic Units. Foundations of Formal Geography. Technical University of Vienna.
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  66. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1996). The Structure of Spatial Localization. Philosophical Studies 82 (2):205 - 239.
    What are the relationships between an entity and the space at which it is located? And between a region of space and the events that take place there? What is the metaphysical structure of localization? What its modal status? This paper addresses some of these questions in an attempt to work out at least the main coordinates of the logical structure of localization. Our task is mostly taxonomic. But we also highlight some of the underlying structural features and we single (...)
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  67. Roberto Casati (ed.) (1994). Philosophy and Cognitive Sciences: Proceedings of the 16th International Wittgenstein Symposium (Kirchberg Am Wechsel, Austria 1993). [REVIEW] Wien: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky.
  68. Roberto Casati, Barry Smith & Graham White (eds.) (1994). Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences: Proceedings of the 16th International Wittgenstein Symposium, 15-22 August 1993, Kirchberg Am Wechsel (Austria). [REVIEW] Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky.
  69. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1994). Holes and Other Superficialities. MIT Press.
    Holes are a good example of the sort of entity that down-to-earth philosophers would be inclined to expel from their ontological inventory. In this work we argue instead in favor of their existence and explore the consequences of this liberality—odd as they might appear. We examine the ontology of holes, their geometry, their part-whole relations, their identity and their causal role, the ways we perceive them. We distinguish three basic kinds of holes: blind hollows, perforating tunnels, and internal cavities, treating (...)
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  70. Barry Smith & Roberto Casati (1994). Naive Physics. Philosophical Psychology 7 (2):227 – 247.
    The project of a 'naive physics' has been the subject of attention in recent years above all in the artificial intelligence field, in connection with work on common-sense reasoning, perceptual representation and robotics. The idea of a theory of the common-sense world is however much older than this, having its roots not least in the work of phenomenologists and Gestalt psychologists such as K hler, Husserl, Schapp and Gibson. This paper seeks to show how contemporary naive physicists can profit from (...)
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  71. G. White, B. Smith & R. Casati (eds.) (1994). Philosophy and the Cognitive Sciences. Proceedings of the 16th International Wittgenstein Symposium. Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky.
  72. Roberto Casati (1993). Colour Predicates and Vagueness. Acta Analytica 10 (10):129-134.
     
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  73. Roberto Casati & Graham White (eds.) (1993). Papers of the 16th International Wittgenstein Symposium, Vol. I. The Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society.
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  74. Roberto Casati (1992). De «re» et «de corpore». Revue de Théologie Et de Philosophie 124 (3):271-289.
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  75. Roberto Casati & Jérôme Dokic (1991). Brains in a Vat, Language and Metalanguage. Analysis 51 (2):91 - 93.
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  76. Roberto Casati (1990). What is Wrong in Inverting Spectra? Teoria 10:183-6.
     
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  77. Roberto Casati & B. Kienzle (1990). Primary and Secondary Qualities: A Reply to Kienzle. Studia Leibnitiana 22 (2):194-202.
     
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  78. R. Casati (1989). Critical Observations on Husserl Philosophy of Sound. Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 44 (4):725-743.
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  79. Roberto Casati (1989). Considerazioni critiche sulla filosofia del suono di Husserl. Rivista di Storia Della Filosofia 44:725-743.
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  80. Roberto Casati & Giuliano Torrengo, The Identity of Indiscernibles and the Principle of No Co-Location.
    we propose a revised version of Black's original argument against the principle of identity of indiscernibles. Our aim is to examine a puzzle regarding the intuitiveness of arguments, by showing that the revised version is clearly less intuitive than Black's original one, and appears to be unjustified by our ordinary means of assessment of intuitions.
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  81. Roberto Casati, Mirrors, Illusions and Epistemic Innocence.
    I examine some accounts that articulate the content of perception that occurs by means of a mirror. The defended account entails that a right hand seen in the mirror does not "become" a left hand.
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  82. Roberto Casati, L'immagine.
    I defend a cognitive theory of pictures, according to which the central paradigm of our concept of a picture is the representational picture, i.e., the one which induces recognitional abilities in the perceiver. I show how to classify different pictorial styles in terms of their distance from the paradigm, and I criticize alternative accounts.
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  83. Roberto Casati, Maurizio Ferraris & Achille Varzi, Il Paradigma Dell'oggetto.
    Sarà capitato anche a voi, in treno, di cercare di aprire la porta tra un vagone e l’altro con l’espressivissima maniglia e, solo dopo non esserci riusciti, di aver notato il meno eloquente pulsante sulla destra. Il fenomeno non è troppo diverso da quando, non avendo capito qualcosa, chiediamo di farci un esempio. La convinzione —falsa—che parlare possa essere surrogato dall’indicare degli oggetti nasconde l’idea –vera– che gli oggetti parlino, e che alcuni parlino meglio di altri. Per capirlo, non c’è (...)
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