Pauline Kleingeld University of Groningen
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  1. Pauline Kleingeld & Joel Anderson (2014). Justice as a Family Value: How a Commitment to Fairness is Compatible with Love. Hypatia 29 (2):320-336.
    Many discussions of love and the family treat issues of justice as something alien. On this view, concerns about whether one's family is internally just are in tension with the modes of interaction that are characteristic of loving families. In this essay, we challenge this widespread view. We argue that once justice becomes a shared family concern, its pursuit is compatible with loving familial relations. We examine four arguments for the thesis that a concern with justice is not at home (...)
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  2. Pauline Kleingeld (2011). Een Kantiaanse verdediging van de vrije wil. Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Wijsbegeerte 103 (3):183-200.
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  3. Pauline Kleingeld (2011). Kant and Cosmopolitanism: The Philosophical Ideal of World Citizenship. Cambridge University Press.
    Machine generated contents note: Acknowledgments; Abbreviations; Introduction; 1. World citizens in their own country: Wieland and Kant on moral cosmopolitanism and patriotism; 2. Universal republic of world citizens or international federation?: Cloots and Kant on global peace; 3. Global hospitality: Kant's concept of cosmopolitan right; 4. Hierarchy or diversity?: Forster and Kant on race, culture, and cosmopolitanism; 5. International trade and justice: Hegewisch and Kant on cosmopolitanism and globalization; 6. Cosmopolitanism and feeling: Novalis and Kant on the development of a (...)
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  4. Pauline Kleingeld (2011). Repliek. Algemeen Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Wijsbegeerte 103 (3):227.
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  5. Pauline Kleingeld (2010). Moral Consciousness and the 'Fact of Reason'. In Andrews Reath & Jens Timmermann (eds.), Kant's Critique of Practical Reason: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press.
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  6. P. Kleingeld (2009). Kant's Changing Cosmopolitanism. In Amélie Rorty & James Schmidt (eds.), Kant's Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Aim: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press. 171--186.
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  7. Pauline Kleingeld, Cosmopolitanism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    The word ‘cosmopolitan’, which derives from the Greek word kosmopolitês (‘citizen of the world’), has been used to describe a wide variety of important views in moral and socio political philosophy. The nebulous core shared by all cosmopolitan views is the idea that all human beings, regardless of their political affiliation, do (or at least can) belong to a single community, and that this community should be cultivated. Different versions of cosmopolitanism envision this community in different ways, some focusing on (...)
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  8. Pauline Kleingeld (2008). Kant on Historiography and the Use of Regulative Ideas. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 39 (4):523-528.
  9. Pauline Kleingeld (2008). Romantic Cosmopolitanism: Novalis's “Christianity or Europe”. Journal of the History of Philosophy 46 (2):pp. 269-284.
    German Romanticism is commonly associated with nationalism rather than cosmopolitanism. Against this standard picture, I argue that the early German romantic author, Novalis (Georg Philipp Friedrich von Hardenberg, 1772–1801) holds a decidedly cosmopolitan view. Novalis’s essay “Christianity or Europe” has been the subject of much dispute and puzzlement ever since he presented it to the Jena romantic circle in the fall of 1799. On the basis of an account of the philosophical background of Novalis’s romanticism, I show that the image (...)
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  10. Pauline Kleingeld (2007). Kant's Second Thoughts on Race. Philosophical Quarterly 57 (229):573–592.
    During the 1780s, as Kant was developing his universalistic moral theory, he published texts in which he defended the superiority of whites over non-whites. Whether commentators see this as evidence of inconsistent universalism or of consistent inegalitarianism, they generally assume that Kant's position on race remained stable during the 1780s and 1790s. Against this standard view, I argue on the basis of his texts that Kant radically changed his mind. I examine his 1780s race theory and his hierarchical conception of (...)
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  11. Pauline Kleingeld (2006). Defending the Plurality of States: Cloots, Kant, and Rawls. Social Theory and Practice 32 (4):559-578.
  12. Pauline Kleingeld (ed.) (2006). Immanuel Kant, ‘Toward Perpetual Peace’ and Other Writings on Politics, Peace, and History. Yale University Press.
  13. Pauline Kleingeld (2006). Kant’s Theory of Peace. In Paul Guyer (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Kant and Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
  14. Pauline Kleingeld (2004). Approaching Perpetual Peace: Kant’s Defence of a League of States and His Ideal of a World Federation. European Journal of Philosophy 12 (3):304-325.
    There exists a standard view of Kant’s position on global order and this view informs much of current Kantian political theory. This standard view is that Kant advocates a voluntary league of states and rejects the ideal of a federative state of states as dangerous, unrealistic, and conceptually incoherent. This standard interpretation is usually thought to fall victim to three equally standard objections. In this essay, I argue that the standard interpretation is mistaken and that the three standard objections miss (...)
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  15. Pauline Kleingeld (2003). Kant’s Cosmopolitan Patriotism. Kant-Studien 94 (3):299-316.
    Patriotism and cosmopolitanism are often presumed to be mutually exclusive, but Immanuel Kant defends both. Although he is best known for his moral and political cosmopolitanism, in several texts he defends the claim that we have a duty of patriotism, claiming that cosmopolitans ought to be patriotic. In this paper, I examine Kant’s different accounts of the duty of patriotism. I argue that Kant’s defense of nationalist patriotism fails, but that his argument for a duty of civic patriotism succeeds.
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  16. Pauline Kleingeld (2001). Nature or Providence? On the Theoretical and Moral Importance of Kant’s Philosophy of History. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 75 (2):201-219.
    Kant’s use of the terms ‘Nature’ and ‘Providence’ in his essays on history has long puzzled commentators. Kant personifies Nature and Providence in a curious way, by speaking of them as “deciding” to give humankind certain predispositions, “wanting” these to be developed, and “knowing” what is best for humans Moreover, he leaves the relationship between the two terms unclear. In this essay, I argue that Kant’s use of ‘Nature’ and ‘Providence’ can be clarified and explained. Moreover, I show that Kant’s (...)
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  17. Pauline Kleingeld (2000). Kantian Patriotism. Philosophy and Public Affairs 29 (4):313–341.
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  18. Pauline Kleingeld (1999). Kant, History, and the Idea of Moral Development. History of Philosophy Quarterly 16 (1):59-80.
    I examine the consistency of Kant's notion of moral progress as found in his philosophy of history. To many commentators, Kant's very idea of moral development has seemed inconsistent with basic tenets of his critical philosophy. This idea has seemed incompatible with his claims that the moral law is unconditionally and universally valid, that moral agency is noumenal and atemporal, and that all humans are equally free. Against these charges, I argue not only that Kant's notion of moral development is (...)
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  19. Pauline Kleingeld (1999). Six Varieties of Cosmopolitanism in Late Eighteenth-Century Germany. Journal of the History of Ideas 60 (3):505-524.
    Cosmopolitanism is not a single encompassing idea but rather comes in at least six different varieties, which have often been conflated in previous literature. This is shown on the basis of the discussion in late eighteenth-century Germany (roughly, 1780-1800). The six varieties are: (1) moral cosmopolitanism, the view that all humans belong to a single moral community; political cosmopolitanism, which advocates (2) reform of the international political and legal order or (3) a strong notion of human rights; (4) cultural cosmopolitanism, (...)
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  20. Pauline Kleingeld (1998). Just Love? Marriage and the Question of Justice. Social Theory and Practice 24 (2):261-281.
    I argue that promoting justice within marriage requires a cultural reconceptualiza¬tion of marriage itself as not merely a relationship of love, but as also a commitment to justice. I argue that it is insufficient to combat injustice in marriage with progressive laws and policies, even when combined with smart planning and bargaining on the part of women. Also necessary is a change in the way marriage itself is viewed. In addition to being regarded as an emotional commitment, it should also (...)
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  21. Pauline Kleingeld (1998). Kant's Cosmopolitan Law: World Citizenship for a Global Order. Kantian Review 2:72-90.
    Kant's unduly neglected concept of cosmopolitan law suggests a third sphere of public law -- in addition to constitutional law and international law -- in which both states and individuals have rights, and where individuals have these rights as ‛citizens of the earth' rather than as citizens of particular states. I critically examine Kant's view of cosmopolitan law, discussing its addressees, content, justification, and institutionalization. I argue that Kant's conception of ‛world citizenship' is neither merely metaphorical nor dependent on an (...)
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  22. Pauline Kleingeld (1998). Kant on the Unity of Theoretical and Practical Reason. Review of Metaphysics 52 (2):500-528.
    In his critical works of the 1780's, Kant claims, seemingly inconsistently, that (1) theoretical and practical reason are one and the same reason, applied differently, (2) that he still needs to show that they are, and (3) that theoretical and practical reason are united. I first argue that current interpretations of Kant's doctrine of the unity of reason are insufficient. But rather than concluding that Kant’s doctrine becomes coherent only in the Critique of Judgment, I show that the three statements (...)
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  23. Pauline Kleingeld (1998). The Conative Character of Reason in Kant's Philosophy. Journal of the History of Philosophy 36 (1):77-97.
  24. Pauline Kleingeld (1995). What Do the Virtuous Hope For?: Re-Reading Kant's Doctrine of the Highest Good. In Hoke Robinson (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Kant Congress, Memphis 1995. Marquette University Press.
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  25. Pauline Kleingeld (1994). A Peculiar Fate. Review of Metaphysics 47 (4):808-810.
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  26. Pauline Kleingeld (1993). The Problematic Status of Gender-Neutral Language in the History of Philosophy: The Case of Kant. Philosophical Forum 25:134-150.
    The increasingly common use of inclusive language (e.g., "he or she") in representing past philosophers' views is often inappropriate. Using Immanuel Kant's work as an example, I compare his use of terms such as "human race" and "human being" with his views on women to show that his use of generic terms does not prove that he includes women. I then discuss three different approaches to this issue, found in recent Kant-literature, and show why each of them is insufficient. I (...)
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