Joseph Raz Columbia University
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  1. Joseph Raz (2013). Death in Our Life. Journal of Applied Philosophy 30 (1):1-11.
    This paper examines a central aspect of the relations between duration and quality of life by considering the moral right to voluntary euthanasia, and some aspects of the moral case for a legal right to euthanasia. Would widespread acceptance of a right to voluntary euthanasia lead to widespread changes in attitudes to life and death? Many of its advocates deny that, seeing it as a narrow right enabling people to avoid ending their life in great pain or total dependence, or (...)
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  2. Joseph Raz (2013). Value: A Menu of Questions. In John Keown & Robert P. George (eds.), Reason, Morality, and Law: The Philosophy of John Finnis. Oxford University Press. 13.
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  3. Joseph Raz (2012). Agency and Luck. In Ulrike Heuer & Gerald Lang (eds.), Luck, Value, and Commitment: Themes From the Ethics of Bernard Williams. Oxford University Press, Usa.
  4. Joseph Raz (2011). From Normativity to Responsibility. OUP Oxford.
    What are our duties or rights? How should we act? What are we responsible for? How do we determine the answers to these questions? Joseph Raz examines and explains the philosophical issues underlying these everyday quandaries. He explores the nature of normativity--namely, the fact that we believe and feel we should behave in certain ways, the reasoning behind certain beliefs and emotions, and various basic features of making decisions about what to do. He goes on to consider when we are (...)
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  5. Joseph Raz (2010). Being in the World. Ratio 23 (4):433-452.
    Actions for which we are responsible constitute our engagement with the world as rational agents. What is the relationship between such actions and our capacities for rational agency? I take this to be a question about responsibility in a particular use of that term, which I shall call ‘responsibility2’. We are not responsible2 for all our intentional actions (actions under hypnosis, for example), but we can nevertheless be responsible2 for actions we do not adequately control, for negligent actions, and for (...)
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  6. Joseph Raz (2010). Human Rights Without Foundations. In J. Tasioulas & S. Besson (eds.), The Philosphy of International Law. Oxford University Press.
    Using the accounts of Gewirth and Griffin as examples, the article criticises accounts of human rights as those are understood in human rights practices, which regard them as rights all human beings have in virtue of their humanity. Instead it suggests that (with Rawls) human rights set the limits to the sovereignty of the state, but criticises Rawls conflation of sovereignty with legitimate authority. The resulting conception takes human rights, like other rights, to be contingent on social conditions, and in (...)
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  7. Joseph Raz (2010). On Respect, Authority, and Neutrality: A Response. Ethics 120 (2):279-301.
  8. Joseph Raz (2010). Responsibility and the Negligence Standard. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 30 (1):1-18.
    The paper has dual aim: to analyse the structure of negligence, and to use it to offer an explanation of responsibility (for actions, omissions, consequences) in terms of the relations which must exist between the action (omission, etc.) and the agents powers of rational agency if the agent is responsible for the action. The discussion involves reflections on the relations between the law and the morality of negligence, the difference between negligence and strict liability, the role of excuses and the (...)
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  9. Joseph Raz (2010). Reason, Reasons and Normativity. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics, Volume 5. Oup Oxford.
  10. Joseph Raz (2010). Responsibility and the Negligence Standard. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 30 (1):1-18.
    The paper has dual aim: to analyse the structure of negligence, and to use it to offer an explanation of responsibility (for actions, omissions, consequences) in terms of the relations which must exist between the action (omission, etc.) and the agents powers of rational agency if the agent is responsible for the action. The discussion involves reflections on the relations between the law and the morality of negligence, the difference between negligence and strict liability, the role of excuses and the (...)
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  11. Joseph Raz (2010). Susan Wolf on the Meaning of Life: A Review. Ethics 121 (1).
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  12. Joseph Raz (2010). Susan Wolf, The Meaning of Life and Why It Matters. Ethics 121 (1):232.
     
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  13. Joseph Raz (2010). Wolf , Susan . The Meaning of Life and Why It Matters . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2010. Pp. 160. $24.95 (Cloth). [REVIEW] Ethics 121 (1):232-236.
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  14. Joseph Raz (2009). Between Authority and Interpretation: On the Theory of Law and Practical Reason. Oxford University Press.
    Can there be a theory of law? -- Two views of the nature of the theory of law : a partial comparison -- On the nature of law -- The problem of authority : revisiting the service conception -- About morality and the nature of law -- Incorporation by law -- Reasoning with rules -- Why interpret? -- Interpretation without retrieval -- Intention in interpretation -- Interpretation : pluralism and innovation -- On the authority and interpretation of constitutions : some (...)
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  15. Joseph Raz (2009). On the Value of Distributional Equality. In Stephen De Wijze, Matthew H. Kramer & Ian Carter (eds.), Hillel Steiner and the Anatomy of Justice: Themes and Challenges. Routledge.
    The paper returns to the question whether equality in distribution is valuable in itself, or, if you like, whether it is intrinsically valuable. Its bulk is an examination of two familiar arguments against the intrinsic value of distributional equality: the levelling down objection and the objection that equality violates some person-affecting condition, in that its realisation does not improve the lot of people.
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  16. Joseph Raz (2009). Reasons : Explanatory and Normative. In Constantine Sandis (ed.), New Essays on the Explanation of Action. Palgrave Macmillan.
    A thesis familiar by being as often disputed as defended has it that intentional action is action for a reason. The present paper contributes to the defence of a weaker version of it, namely: Acting with an intention or a purpose is acting (as things appear to one) for a reason.
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  17. Joseph Raz (2009). Reasons : Practical and Adaptive. In David Sobel & Steven Wall (eds.), Reasons for Action. Cambridge University Press.
    The paper argues that normative reasons are of two fundamental kinds, practical which are value related, and adaptive, which are not related to any value, but indicate how our beliefs and emotions should adjust to fit how things are in the world. The distinction is applied and defended, in part through an additional distinction between standard and non-standard reasons (for actions, intentions, emotions or belief).
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  18. Joseph Raz (2006). Darwall on Rational Care. Utilitas 18 (4):400-414.
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  19. Joseph Raz (2006). Review: The Trouble with Particularism (Dancy's Version). [REVIEW] Mind 115 (457):99 - 120.
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  20. Joseph Raz (2006). The Trouble with Particularism (Dancy's Version). [REVIEW] Mind 115 (457):99-120.
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  21. Joseph Raz (2005). Can There Be a Theory of Law? In Martin P. Golding & William A. Edmundson (eds.), The Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Law and Legal Theory. Blackwell Pub..
    The paper deals with the possibility of a theory of the nature of law as such, a theory which will be necessarily true of all law. It explores the relations between explanations of concepts and of the things they are concepts of, the possibility that the law has essential properties, and the possibility that the law changes its nature over time, and that what is law at a given place and time depends on the culture and concepts of that place (...)
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  22. Joseph Raz (2005). The Myth of Instrumental Rationality. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy 1 (1):28.
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  23. Joseph Raz (2004). Incorporation by Law. Legal Theory 10 (1):1-17.
    My purpose here is to examine the question of how the law can be incorporated within morality and how the existence of the law can impinge on our moral rights and duties, a question (or questions) which is a central aspect of the broad question of the relation between law and morality. My conclusions cast doubts on the incorporation thesis, that is, the view that moral principles can become part of the law of the land by incorporation.
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  24. Joseph Raz (2004). Personal Practical Conflicts. In Peter Baumann & Monika Betzler (eds.), Practical Conflicts: New Philosophical Essays. Cambridge. 172--196.
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  25. Joseph Raz (2004). Speaking with One Voice : On Dworkinian Integrity and Coherence. In Ronald Dworkin & Justine Burley (eds.), Dworkin and His Critics: With Replies by Dworkin. Blackwell Pub.. 285--290.
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  26. Joseph Raz (2004). The Force of Numbers. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 54:245-264.
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  27. Joseph Raz (2004). The Role of Well‐Being. Philosophical Perspectives 18 (1):269–294.
    "Well-being" signifies the good life, the life which is good for the person whose life it is. I have argued that well-being consists in a wholehearted and successful pursuit of valuable relationships and goals. This view, a little modified, is defended , but the main aim of the article is to consider the role of well-being in practical thought. In particular I will examine a suggestion which says that when we care about people, and when we ought to care about (...)
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  28. Bruce Ackerman, Richard J. Arneson, Ronald Dworkin, Gerald F. Gaus, Kent Greenawalt, Vinit Haksar, Thomas Hurka, George Klosko, Charles Larmore, Stephen Macedo, Thomas Nagel, John Rawls, Joseph Raz & George Sher (2003). Perfectionism and Neutrality: Essays in Liberal Theory. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  29. Joseph Raz (2003). About Morality and the Nature of Law. American Journal of Jurisprudence 48 (1):1-15.
    In support of my longstanding claim that the traditional divide between natural law and legal positivist theories of law, the present paper explores a variety of necessary connections between law and morality which are consistent with theories of law traditionally identified as positivist.
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  30. Joseph Raz (2003). Aspects of Reason. Mind 112 (447):543-545.
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  31. Joseph Raz (2003). Numbers, with and Without Contractualism. Ratio 16 (4):346–367.
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  32. Joseph Raz (2003). Review: Aspects of Reason. [REVIEW] Mind 112 (447):543-545.
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  33. Joseph Raz (2003). The Practice of Value - Reply. In Jay Wallace (ed.), The Practice of Value. Oxford University Press.
    The privilege of having three sets of extensive and hard-hitting comments on one's work is as welcome as it is rare, and especially so on this occasion as the lectures were, for me, but thefirst (well, not entirely first) stab at a subject I hope to explore at greater length. The reflectionsthat follow will respond to some of the criticisms, but will not be a point by point reply. I will use the occasion to clarify some obscurities in the lectures, (...)
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  34. Joseph Raz (2003). The Practice of Value. Oxford University Press.
    The Practice of Value explores the nature of value and its relation to the social and historical conditions under which human agents live. At the core of the book are the Tanner Lectures delivered at Berkeley in 2001 by Joseph Raz, who has been one of the leading figures in moral and legal philosophy since the 1970's. Raz argues that values depend importantly on social practices, but that we can make sense of this dependence without falling back on cultural relativism. (...)
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  35. Joseph Raz (2002). On Frankfurt's Explanation of Respect for People. In Sarah Buss & Lee Overton (eds.), Contours of Agency: Essays on Themes From Harry Frankfurt. Mit Press, Bradford Books.
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  36. Joseph Raz (2001). Incommensurability and Agency. In Engaging Reason. Oxford University Press.
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  37. Joseph Raz (2001). Liberty and Trust. In Robert George (ed.), Natural Law, Liberalism, and Morality: Contemporary Essays. Oup Oxford.
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  38. Joseph Raz (2001). Sorensen: Vagueness has No Function in Law. Legal Theory 7 (4):417-419.
    There is much in the paper that I agree with, much that I do not understand and am probably not competent to understand, and some which I am puzzled by. I will concentrate on the last. Both regarding puzzles, and regarding points of agreement and incomprehension, I will be selective and touch on only a few.
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  39. Joseph Raz (2001). Value, Respect, and Attachment. Cambridge University Press.
    The book is a contribution to the study of values, as they affect both our personal and our public life. It defends the view that values are necessarily universal, on the ground that that is a condition of their intelligibility. It does, however, reject most common conceptions of universality, like those embodied in the writings on human rights. It aims to reconcile the universality of value with (a) the social dependence of value and (b) the centrality to our life of (...)
     
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  40. Joseph Raz (2001). When We Are Ourselves. In Engaging Reason. Oxford University Press.
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  41. Joseph Raz (2000). The Central Conflict: Morality and Self-Interest. In Roger Crisp & Brad Hooker (eds.), Well-Being and Morality: Essays in Honour of James Griffin. Clarendon Press. 209--238.
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  42. Joseph Raz (2000). The Truth in Particularism. In Brad Hooker & Margaret Olivia Little (eds.), Moral Particularism. Oxford University Press. 48--78.
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  43. Joseph Raz (1999). Explaining Normativity: On Rationality and the Justification of Reason. Ratio 12 (4):354–379.
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  44. Joseph Raz (1999). Engaging Reason: On the Theory of Value and Action. Oxford University Press.
    Joseph Raz presents a penetrating exploration of the interdependence of value, reason, and the will. The essays illuminate a wide range of questions concerning fundamental aspects of human thought and action. The book is a summation of many years of original, compelling, and influential work by a major contemporary philosopher.
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  45. Joseph Raz (1999). The Purity of the Pure Theory. In Stanley L. Paulson (ed.), Normativity and Norms: Critical Perspectives on Kelsenian Themes. Oup Oxford.
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  46. Leslie Green, Kent Greenawalt, Nancy J. Hirschmann, George Klosko, Mark C. Murphy, John Rawls, Joseph Raz, Rolf Sartorius, A. John Simmons, M. B. E. Smith, Philip Soper, Jeremy Waldron, Richard A. Wasserstrom & Robert Paul Wolff (1998). The Duty to Obey the Law: Selected Philosophical Readings. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
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  47. J. Raz (1998). Disagreement in Politics. American Journal of Jurisprudence 43 (1):25-52.
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  48. Joseph Raz (1998). Multiculturalism. Ratio Juris 11 (3):193-205.
  49. Joseph Raz (1998). On the Authority and Interpretation of Constitutions: Some Preliminaries. In Larry Alexander (ed.), Constitutionalism: Philosophical Foundations. Cambridge University Press. 152--153.
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  50. Joseph Raz (1998). Postema on Law's Autonomy and Public Practical Reasons: A Critical Comment. Legal Theory 4 (1):1-20.
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  51. Joseph Raz (1998). Two Views of the Nature of the Theory of Law: A Partial Comparison. Legal Theory 4 (3):249-282.
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  52. Joseph Raz (1997). The Active and the Passive: Joseph Raz. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 71 (1):211–228.
  53. J. Raz & A. E. Raz (1996). `America' Meets `Japan': A Journey for Real Between Two Imaginaries. Theory, Culture and Society 13 (3):153-178.
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  54. Joseph Raz (1996). ¿ Por qué interpretar? Isonomía 5:25-40.
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  55. Joseph Raz (1996). Why Interpret? Ratio Juris 9 (4):349-363.
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  56. Joseph Raz (1995). Multikulturalismus: eine liberale Perspektive. Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie 43 (2):307-327.
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  57. Joseph Raz (1994). Ethics in the Public Domain: Essays in the Morality of Law and Politics. Oxford University Press.
    In the past twenty years Joseph Raz has consolidated his reputation as one of the most acute, inventive, and energetic scholars currently at work in analytic moral and political theory. This new collection of essays forms a representative selection of his most significant contributions to a number of important debates, including the extent of political duty and obligation, and the issue of self-determination. He also examines aspects of the common (and ancient) theme of the relations between law and morality. This (...)
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  58. Joseph Raz (1994). Legal Rights'(1984). Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 4:1.
     
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  59. Joseph Raz (1994). Moral Change and Social Relativism. Social Philosophy and Policy 11 (1):139-158.
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  60. Joseph Raz (1993). H. L. A. Hart (1907–1992). Utilitas 5 (02):145-.
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  61. Joseph Raz (1993). Hart Noted That Much of the Writing of Legal Philosophers Was Apparently Concerned with the Definition of a Small Number of Key Notions, Such As' Law','Rights','Duties','Legal Persons'. Many Philoso-Phical Battles Were Fought Over the Adequacy of Such Definitions. Hart Regarded Such Warfare as Unproductive for Two Reasons. First, The. [REVIEW] Utilitas 5 (2).
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  62. Joseph Raz (1993). On the Autonomy of Legal Reasoning. Ratio Juris 6 (1):1-15.
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  63. Joseph Raz (1992). Formalism and the Rule of Law. In Robert P. George (ed.), Natural Law Theory: Contemporary Essays. Oxford University Press. 309--340.
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  64. Joseph Raz (1992). Rights and Individual Well-Being. Ratio Juris 5 (2):127-142.
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  65. Joseph Raz (1991). Morality as Interpretation:Interpretation and Social Criticism. Michael Walzer. Ethics 101 (2):392-.
    Review of Walzer on morality as interpretation.
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  66. Joseph Raz (1991). Free Expression and Personal Idenification. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 11 (3):303-324.
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  67. Joseph Raz (1991). Review: Morality as Interpretation. [REVIEW] Ethics 101 (2):392 - 405.
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  68. Joseph Raz & James Griffin (1991). Mixing Values. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 65:83 - 118.
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  69. Avishai Margalit & Joseph Raz (1990). National Self-Determination. Journal of Philosophy 87 (9):439-461.
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  70. Joseph Raz (1990). Facing Diversity: The Case of Epistemic Abstinence. Philosophy and Public Affairs 19 (1):3-46.
  71. Joseph Raz (1990). The Politics of the Rule of Law. Ratio Juris 3 (3):331-339.
    The article reviews several books on the rule of law, including "International Justice in Rwanda and the Balkans: Virtual Trials and the Struggle for State Cooperation," by Victor A. Peskin, "Civil War and the Rule of Law: Security, Development, Human Rights," edited by Agnes Hurwitz and Reyko Huang, and "Plunder: When the Rule of Law Is Illegal," by Ugo Mattei and Laura Nader.
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  72. Joseph Raz (1989). Liberating Duties. Law and Philosophy 8 (1):3 - 21.
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  73. Joseph Raz (1989). The Contemporary Perception of the Centrality of Rights Exemplifies Both the Influence of Locke and the Way Our Moral Ideas Have Been Affected by Our Political Principles. Locke is a Key Figure in the Rise of" Rights" to a Place of Preeminence in Liberal Culture. 2 Natural Law, Having Been Traditionally Understood as the Doctrine of People's Duties. [REVIEW] Law and Philosophy 8:3-21.
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  74. Joseph Raz (1986). The Morality of Freedom. Oxford University Press.
    Ranging over central issues of morals and politics and the nature of freedom and authority, this study examines the role of value-neutrality, rights, equality, ...
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  75. Joseph Raz (1985). Authority and Justification. Philosophy and Public Affairs 14 (1):3-29.
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  76. Joseph Raz (1985). Authority, Law and Morality. The Monist 68 (3):295-324.
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  77. Joseph Raz (1985). Value Incommensurability: Some Preliminaries. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 86:117 - 134.
    Part I defines the notion, Distinguishing between it an equality of value, And analysing some of the sources of incommensurability. Part ii argues that not only the roughly equal can be incommensurate, And for the possibility of significant incommensurabilities. Part iii argues that the common denial of the comparability of various options provides sufficient evidence that they are so.
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  78. J. Raz (1984). Hart on Moral Rights and Legal Duties. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 4 (1):123-131.
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  79. J. Raz (1984). Legal Rights. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 4 (1):1-21.
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  80. J. Raz (1984). On the Nature of Rights. Mind 93 (370):194-214.
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  81. Joseph Raz (1982). Liberalism, Autonomy, and the Politics of Neutral Concern. Midwest Studies in Philosophy 7 (1):89-120.
  82. Joseph Raz (1982). The Claims of Reflective Equilibrium. Inquiry 25 (3):307 – 330.
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  83. Joseph Raz (1980). The Concept of a Legal System: An Introduction to the Theory of Legal System. Oxford University Press.
    What does it mean to assert or deny the existence of a legal system? How can one determine whether a given law belongs to a certain legal system? What kind of structure do these systems have, that is--what necessary relations obtain between their laws? The examination of these problems in this volume leads to a new approach to traditional jurisprudential question, though the conclusions are based on a critical appraisal, particularly those of Bentham, Austin, Kelsen, and Hart.
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  84. Alan R. White & J. Raz (1980). The Authority of Law. Philosophical Quarterly 30 (120):278.
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  85. Joseph Raz (1979). The Authority of Law: Essays on Law and Morality. Oxford University Press.
    Legitimate authority -- The claims of law -- Legal positivism and the sources of law -- Legal reasons, sources, and gaps -- The identity of legal systems -- The institutional nature of law -- Kelsen's theory of the basic norm -- Legal validity -- The functions of law -- Law and value in adjudication -- The rule of law and its virtue -- The obligation to obey the law -- Respect for law -- A right to dissent? : civil disobedience (...)
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  86. J. Raz (1978). Principles of Equality. Mind 87 (347):321-342.
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  87. Joseph Raz (ed.) (1978). Practical Reasoning. Oxford University Press.
     
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  88. A. R. White, P. M. S. Hacker & J. Raz (1978). Law, Morality and Society. Philosophical Quarterly 28 (111):181.
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  89. P. M. S. Hacker & Joseph Raz (eds.) (1977). Law, Morality and Society: Essays in Honour of H.L.A Hart. OUP Oxford.
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  90. H. L. A. Hart, P. M. S. Hacker & Joseph Raz (eds.) (1977). Law, Morality, and Society: Essays in Honour of H. L. A. Hart. Clarendon Press.
    Hacker, P. M. S. Hart's philosophy of law.--Baker, G. P. Defeasibility and meaning.--Dworkin, R. M. No right answer?-Lucas, J. R. The phenomenon of law.--Honoré, A. M. Real laws.--Summers, R. S. Naïve instrumentalism and the law.--Marshall, G. Positivism, adjudication, and democracy.--Cross, R. The House of Lords and the rules of precedent.--Kenny, A. J. P. Intention and mens rea in murder.--Mackie, J. L. The grounds of responsibility.--MacCormick, D. N. Rights in legislation.--Raz, J. Promises and obligations.--Foot, P. R. Approval and disapproval.--Finnis, J. M. (...)
     
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  91. J. Raz (1977). Thinking and Doing: The Philosophical Foundations of Institutions, by Hector-Neri Castañeda. Philosophical Books 18 (2):81-83.
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  92. J. Raz (1976). Hans Kelsen, Essay in Legal and Moral Philosophy. Philosophia 6 (3-4):495-504.
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  93. John Bacon, Alan R. White, M. Glouberman, Lawrence H. Davis, Gershon Weiler, Michael Ruse, Jeffrey Bub, Ilkka Niiniluoto, Yehuda Melzer, Zeev Levy, S. Biderman, Joseph Raz & Irwin C. Lieb (1975). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Philosophia 5 (3):319-384.
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  94. J. Raz (1975). Reasons for Action, Decisions and Norms. Mind 84 (336):481-499.
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  95. Joseph Raz (1975). Permissions and Supererogation. American Philosophical Quarterly 12 (2):161 - 168.
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  96. Joseph Raz (1975). Practical Reason and Norms. Hutchinson.
    Joseph Raz answers these three questions by taking reasons as the basic normative concept, and showing the distinctive role reasons have in every case, thus ...
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  97. Joseph Raz (1974). Kelsen's Theory of the Basic Norm. American Journal of Jurisprudence 19 (1):94-111.
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  98. Neil MacCormick & Joseph Raz (1972). Voluntary Obligations and Normative Powers. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 46:59 - 102.
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  99. J. Raz (1972). Professor A. Ross and Some Legal Puzzles. Mind 81 (323):415-421.
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  100. Joseph Raz (1970). On Lawful Governments. Ethics 80 (4):296-305.
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  101. Joseph Raz (1970). The Concept of a Legal System. Oxford,Clarendon Press.
     
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  102. Joseph Raz, Is There a Reason to Keep Promises.
    If promises are binding there must be a reason to do as one promised. The paper is motivated by belief that there is a difficulty in explaining what that reason is. It arises because the reasons that promising creates are content-independent. Similar difficulties arise regarding other content-independent reasons, though their solution need not be the same. -/- Section One introduces an approach to promises, and outlines an account of them that I have presented before. It forms the backdrop for the (...)
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  103. Joseph Raz, On the Guise of the Good.
    I will provisionally take the Guise of the Good thesis to consist of three propositions: (1) Intentional actions are actions performed for reasons, as those are seen by the agents. (2) Specifying the intention which makes an action intentional identifies central features of the reason(s) for which the action is performed. (3) Reasons for action are such reasons by being facts which establish that the action has some value. From these it is said to follow that (4) Intentional actions are (...)
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  104. Joseph Raz, Rescuing Jerry From (Basic) Principles.
    I will say something on two or three related but distinct topics. First, something on the grounding of normative beliefs, a topic – as I see it – in moral epistemology, and then after a brief remark on explanation, something against a certain understanding of basic principles. My observations were prompted by reflection on Jerry’s desire to rescue justice from the facts.
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  105. Joseph Raz, Reasoning with Rules.
    What is special about legal reasoning? In what way is it distinctive? How does it differ from reasoning in medicine, or engineering, physics, or everyday life? The answers range from the very ambitious to the modest. The ambitious claim that there is a special and distinctive legal logic, or legal ways of reasoning, modes of reasoning which set the law apart from all other disciplines. Opposing them are the modest, who claim that there is nothing special to legal reasoning, that (...)
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  106. Joseph Raz, The Argument From Justice, or How Not to Reply to Legal Positivism.
    Professor Robert Alexy wrote a book whose avowed purpose is to refute the basic tenets of a type of legal theory which 'has long since been obsolete in legal science and practice'. The quotation is from the German Federal Constitutional Court in 1968. The fact that Prof Alexy himself mentions no writings in the legal positivist tradition [in English] later than Hart's The Concept of Law (1961) may suggest that he shares the court's view. The book itself may be evidence (...)
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  107. Joseph Raz, The Problem of Authority: Revisiting the Service Conception.
    The problem I have in mind is the problem of the possible justification of subjecting one's will to that of another, and of the normative standing of demands to do so. The account of authority that I offered, many years ago, under the title of the service conception of authority, addressed this issue, and assumed that all other problems regarding authority are subsumed under it. Many found the account implausible. It is thin, relying on very few ideas. It may well (...)
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