Gary Hatfield University of Pennsylvania
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  1.  24
    Gary Hatfield (2016). The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680–1760. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Philosophy 24 (1):181-185.
    Review of: Stephen Gaukroger: The Collapse of Mechanism and the Rise of Sensibility: Science and the Shaping of Modernity, 1680-1760. Oxford: Clarendon, 2010, pp. ix+505. £47.00 (hb). ISBN 9780199594931. This volume is the second of a projected six-volume work on the shaping of modern cognitive values through the emergence of a scientific culture, a phenomenon that Gaukroger takes to be specific to the West. The volume ranges from Newton’s initial publications on optics to the French Enlightenment and the publication of (...)
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  2.  29
    Gary Hatfield (2015). Natural Geometry in Descartes and Kepler. Res Philosophica 92 (1):117-148.
    According to Kepler and Descartes, the geometry of the triangle formed by the two eyes when focused on a single point affords perception of the distance to that point. Kepler characterized the processes involved as associative learning. Descartes described the processes as a “ natural geometry.” Many interpreters have Descartes holding that perceivers calculate the distance to the focal point using angle-side-angle, calculations that are reduced to unnoticed mental habits in adult vision. This article offers a purely psychophysiological interpretation of (...)
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  3.  9
    Gary Hatfield (2015). On Natural Geometry and Seeing Distance Directly in Descartes. In Vincenzo De Risi (ed.), Mathematizing Space: The Objects of Geometry from Antiquity to the Early Modern Age. Birkhäuser 157-91.
    As the word “optics” was understood from antiquity into and beyond the early modern period, it did not mean simply the physics and geometry of light, but meant the “theory of vision” and included what we should now call physiological and psychological aspects. From antiquity, these aspects were subject to geometrical analysis. Accordingly, the geometry of visual experience has long been an object of investigation. This chapter examines accounts of size and distance perception in antiquity (Euclid and Ptolemy) and the (...)
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  4.  32
    Gary Hatfield (2015). Objectifying the Phenomenal in Experimental Psychology: Titchener and Beyond. Philosophia Scientiae 19 (3):73-94.
    This paper examines the origins and legacy of Titchener’s notion of stimulus error in the experimental study of sensory experience. It places Titchener’s introspective methods into the intellectual world of early experimental psychology. It follows the subsequent development of perceptual experimentation primarily in the American literature, with notice to British and German studies as needed. Subsequent investigators transformed the specific notion of a “stimulus error” into experimental questions in which subjects’ attitudes toward their perceptual tasks became independent variables to be (...)
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  5.  29
    Gary Hatfield (2015). Perception in Philosophy and Psychology in the 19th and Early 20th Centuries. In Mohan Matthen (ed.), Oxford Handbook of the Philosophy of Perception. Oxford University Press 100–117.
    The chapter begins with a sketch of the empirical, theoretical, and philosophical background to nineteenth-century theories of perception, focusing on visual perception. It then considers German sensory physiology and psychology in the nineteenth century and its reception. This section gives special attention to: assumptions about nerve–sensation relations; spatial perception; the question of whether there is a two-dimensional representation in visual experience; psychophysics; size constancy; and theories of colour perception. The chapter then offers a brief look at the interaction between perceptual (...)
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  6.  74
    Gary Hatfield (2015). Radical Empiricism, Critical Realism, and American Functionalism: James and Sellars. Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 5 (1):129-53.
    As British and American idealism waned, new realisms displaced them. The common background of these new realisms emphasized the problem of the external world and the mind-body problem, as bequeathed by Reid, Hamilton, and Mill. During this same period, academics on both sides of the Atlantic recognized that the natural sciences were making great strides. Responses varied. In the United States, philosophical response focused particularly on functional psychology and Darwinian adaptedness. This article examines differing versions of that response in William (...)
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  7.  21
    Gary Hatfield (2014). Activity and Passivity in Theories of Perception: Descartes to Kant. In José Filipe Silva & Mikko Yrjönsuuri (eds.), Active Perception in the History of Philosophy: From Plato to Modern Philosophy. Springer 275–89.
    In the early modern period, many authors held that sensation or sensory reception is in some way passive and that perception is in some way active. The notion of a more passive and a more active aspect of perception is already present in Aristotle: the senses receive forms without matter more or less passively, but the “primary sense” also recognizes the salience of present objects. Ibn al-Haytham distinguished “pure sensation” from other aspects of sense perception, achieved by “discernment, inference and (...)
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  8.  5
    Gary Hatfield (2014). Cognition. In Lawrence Shapiro (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Embodied Cognition. Routledge 361–73.
    What is cognition? What makes a process cognitive? These questions have been answered differently by various investigators and theoretical traditions. Even so, there are some commonalities, allowing us to specify a few contrasting answers to these questions. The main commonalities involve the notion that cognition is information processing that explains intelligent behavior. The differences concern whether early perceptual processes are cognitive, whether representations are needed to explain cognition, what makes something a representation, and whether cognitive processes are limited to the (...)
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  9.  11
    Gary Hatfield (2014). Cartesian Psychology of Antoine Le Grand. In Mihnea Dobre & Tammy Nyden (eds.), Cartesian Empiricisms. Springer 251-274.
    In the Aristotelian curriculum, De anima or the study of the soul fell under the rubric of physics. This area of study covered the vital (“vegetative”), sensitive, and rational powers of the soul. Descartes’ substance dualism restricted reason or intellect, and conscious sensation, to human minds. Having denied mind to nonhuman animals, Descartes was required to explain all animal behavior using material mechanisms possessing only the properties of size, shape, position, and motion. Within the framework of certainty provided by the (...)
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  10.  7
    Gary Hatfield (2014). Kant on the Phenomenology of Touch and Vision. In Alix Cohen (ed.), Kant's Lectures on Anthropology: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Pres 38–56.
    This chapter deals with Immanuel Kant's remarks on touch and vision in the context of his pragmatic anthropology, by considering his views of the scope, aims, and methods of that fledgling discipline. Kant supports his discussion with appeals to observation and experience that form a kind of everyday phenomenology of sensory experience. The chapter considers Kant's notion of the relation between the pragmatic and the theoretical, including his remarks that a pragmatic anthropology does not present theoretical or scholastic knowledge but (...)
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  11. Gary Hatfield (2014). Psychological Experiments and Phenomenal Experience in Size and Shape Constancy. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):940-953.
    Some experiments in perceptual psychology measure perceivers’ phenomenal experiences of objects versus their cognitive assessments of object properties. Analyzing such experiments, this article responds to Pizlo’s claim that much work on shape constancy before 1985 confused problems of shape ambiguity with problems of shape constancy. Pizlo fails to grasp the logic of experimental designs directed toward phenomenal aspects of shape constancy. In the domain of size perception, Granrud’s studies of size constancy in children and adults distinguish phenomenal from cognitive factors.
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  12.  11
    Gary Hatfield (2014). The Emergence of Psychology. In W. J. Mander (ed.), Oxford Handbook of British Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century. Oxford University Press 324–4.
    This chapter challenges the view that psychology emerged from philosophy about 1900, when each found its own proper sphere with little relation to the other. It begins by considering the notion of a discipline, defined as a distinct branch of learning. Psychology has been a discipline from the time of Aristotle, though with a wider ambit, to include phenomena of both life and mind. Empirical psychology in a narrower sense arose in the eighteenth century, through the application (in Britain and (...)
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  13.  7
    Gary Hatfield (2014). The Routledge Guidebook to Descartes' Meditations. Routledge.
    Descartes is widely regarded to be the father of modern philosophy and his Meditations is among the most important philosophical texts ever written. _The Routledge Guidebook to Descartes’ Meditations_ introduces the major themes in Descartes’ great book and acts as a companion for reading this key work, examining: The context of Descartes’ work and the background to his writing; Each separate part of the text in relation to its goals, meanings and impact; The reception the book received when first seen (...)
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  14.  20
    Gary Hatfield (2013). Descartes on Sensory Representation, Objective Reality, and Material Falsity. In Karen Detlefsen (ed.), Descartes' Meditations: A Critical Guide. Cambridge University Press 127–150.
    Descartes’ accounts of sensory perception have long troubled his interpreters, for their lack of clear and explicit statements on some fundamental issues. His readers have wondered whether he allows spatial sensory ideas (spatial qualia); whether sensory ideas such as color or pain are representations and, if so, what they represent; and what cognitive value Descartes attributed to sense perception. Recent discussions take differing stands on the questions just mentioned, and also disagree over Descartes’ account of the externalization of sensory qualities, (...)
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  15.  9
    Gary Hatfield (2013). Introduction: The Evolution of Mind, Brain, and Culture. In Gary Hatfield & Holly Pittman (eds.), Evolution of Mind, Brain, and Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press 1-44.
    This introductory chapter surveys some basic findings on primate evolution and the evolution of mind; examines socially transmitted traditions in relation to the concept of culture; recounts the sources of evidence regarding the evolution of mind and culture; charts the history of evolutionary approaches to mind and behavior since Darwin; reviews several prominent theoretical syntheses concerning the evolution of the human mind and behavior; and, along the way, introduces the specific questions examined in the individual chapters.
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  16.  22
    Gary Hatfield (2013). Perception and Sense Data. In Michael Beaney (ed.), Oxford Handbook of the History of Analytical Philosophy. Oxford University Press 948-974.
    Analytic philosophy arose in the early decades of the twentieth century, with Bertrand Russell and G. E. Moore leading the way. Although some accounts emphasize the role of logic and language in the origin of analytic philosophy, of equal importance is the theme of perception, sense data, and knowledge, which dominated systematic philosophical discussion in the first two decades of the twentieth century in both Britain and America. This chapter examines work on perception and sense data as well as the (...)
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  17. Gary Hatfield (2013). Psychology, Epistemology, and the Problem of the External World : Russell and Before. In Erich H. Reck (ed.), The Historical Turn in Analytic Philosophy. Palgrave Macmillan
    This chapter examines Russell’s appreciation of the relevance of psychology for the theory of knowledge, especially in connection with the problem of the external world, and the background for this appreciation in British philosophy of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Russell wrote in 1914 that “the epistemological order of deduction includes both logical and psychological considerations.” Indeed, the notion of what is “psychologically derivative” played a crucial role in his epistemological analysis from this time. His epistemological discussions engage psychological factors (...)
     
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  18.  31
    Gary Hatfield (2013). Russell's Progress: Spatial Dimensions, the From-Which, and the At-Which. In Dina Emundts (ed.), Self, World, and Art: Metaphysical Topics in Kant and Hegel. De Gruyter 321–44.
    The chapter concerns some aspects of Russell’s epistemological turn in the period after 1911. In particular, it focuses on two aspects of his philosophy in this period: his attempt to render material objects as constructions out of sense data, and his attitude toward sense data as “hard data.” It examines closely Russell’s “breakthrough” of early 1914, in which he concluded that, viewed from the standpoint of epistemology and analytic construction, space has six dimensions, not merely three. Russell posits a three-dimensional (...)
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  19.  9
    Gary Hatfield & Holly Pittman (eds.) (2013). The Evolution of Mind, Brain, and Culture. University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Descartes boldly claimed: "I think, therefore I am." But one might well ask: Why do we think? How? When and why did our human ancestors develop language and culture? In other words, what makes the human mind human? _Evolution of Mind, Brain, and Culture_ offers a comprehensive and scientific investigation of these perennial questions. Fourteen essays bring together the work of archaeologists, cultural and physical anthropologists, psychologists, philosophers, geneticists, a neuroscientist, and an environmental scientist to explore the evolution of the (...)
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  20.  41
    Gary Hatfield (2012). Koffka, Köhler, and the “Crisis” in Psychology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 43 (2):483-492.
    This paper examines the claims of the Gestalt psychologists that there was a crisis in experimental psychology ca. 1900, which arose because the prevailing sensory atomism excluded meaning from among psychological phenomena. The Gestaltists claim that a primary motivation of their movement was to show, against the speculative psychologists and philosophers and Verstehen historians, that natural scientific psychology can handle meaning. Purportedly, they revealed this motivation in their initial German-language presentations but in English emphasized their scientific accomplishments for an American (...)
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  21. Gary Hatfield (ed.) (2012). Kant: Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics: With Selections From the Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant is the central figure of modern philosophy. He sought to rebuild philosophy from the ground up, and he succeeded in permanently changing its problems and methods. This new translation of the Prolegomena, which is the best introduction to his philosophy, presents his thought clearly by paying careful attention to his original language. Also included are selections from the Critique of Pure Reason, which fill out and explicate some of Kant's central arguments, and in which Kant himself explains his special (...)
     
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  22.  5
    Gary Hatfield (2012). Review: Friedman and Nordmann (Eds.), The Kantian Legacy in Nineteenth-Century Science. [REVIEW] Hopos: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 2 (1):172-177.
  23.  8
    Gary Hatfield (2012). Mechanizing the Sensitive Soul. In Gideon Manning (ed.), Matter and Form in Early Modern Science and Philosophy. Brill 151–86.
    Descartes set for himself the ambitious program of accounting for the functions of the Aristotelian vegetative and sensitive souls without invoking souls or the faculties or powers of souls in his explanations. He rejects the notion that the soul is hylomorphically present in the organs of the body so as to carry out vital and sensory functions. Rather, the body’s organs operate in a purely mechanical fashion. That is what is involved in “mechanizing” these phenomena. The role of the soul (...)
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  24.  5
    Gary Hatfield (2012). Psychology. In Allen W. Wood & Songsuk Susan Hahn (eds.), The Cambridge History of Philosophy in the Nineteenth Century (1790-1870). Cambridge University Press 241-262.
    The quantitative experimental scientific psychology that became prominent by the turn of the twentieth century grew from three main areas of intellectual inquiry. First and most directly, it arose out of the traditional psychology of the philosophy curriculum, as expressed in theories of mind and cognition. Second, it adopted the attitudes of the new natural philosophy of the scientific revolution, attitudes of empirically driven causal analysis and exact observation and experimentation. Third, it drew upon investigations of the senses. Natural philosophical (...)
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  25.  27
    Gary Hatfield (2012). Phenomenal and Cognitive Factors in Spatial Perception. In Gary Hatfield & Sarah Allred (eds.), Visual Experience: Sensation, Cognition, and Constancy. OUP Oxford 35.
    This chapter provides an overview of the phenomenology of size perception and the use of instructions to tease apart phenomenal and cognitive aspects. It develops his own recent proposals concerning the geometry of visual space. The chapter proposes that visual space is contracted along the lines of sight. This contraction would explain the apparent convergence of railway tracks, but without invoking a “proximal mode” experience. Parallel railway tracks receding into the distance project converging lines onto the retinas. A true proximal (...)
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  26.  2
    Gary Hatfield (2012). Review: Hyder, David, The Determinate World: Kant and Helmholtz on the Physical Meaning of Geometry. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 103:769-770.
  27.  28
    Gary Hatfield & Sarah Allred (eds.) (2012). Visual Experience: Sensation, Cognition, and Constancy. Oxford University Press.
    Seeing happens effortlessly and yet is endlessly complex. Among the most fascinating aspects of visual perception is its stability and constancy. As we shift our gaze or move about the world, the light projected onto the retinas is constantly changing. Yet the surrounding objects appear stable in their properties. Psychologists have long been interested in the constancies. They have asked questions such as: How good is constancy? Is constancy a fact about how things look, or is it a product of (...)
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  28.  3
    Gary Hatfield & William Epstein (2012). Epilogue: Advances and Open Questions. In Gary Hatfield & Sarah Allred (eds.), Visual Experience: Sensation, Cognition, and Constancy. OUP Oxford 232-241.
    The term “perceptual constancy” was used by the Gestalt theorists in the early part of the twentieth century (e.g., Koffka 1935, 34, 90) to refer to the tendency of perception to remain invariant over changes of viewing distance, viewing angle, and conditions of illumination. This tendency toward constancy is remarkable: every change in the viewing distance, position, and illumination is necessarily accompanied by a change in the local proximal (retinal) stimulation, and yet perception remains relatively stable. The tendency toward perceptual (...)
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  29.  13
    Gary Hatfield (2011). Good Gestalt: Metzger on Seeing. [REVIEW] Metascience 20 (1):81-85.
    Review of Wolfgang Metzger, Laws of Seeing, trans. Lothar Spillman, Steven Lehar, Mimsey Stromeyer, and Michael Wertheimer. MIT Press, 2006; paperback, 2009. Pp. xxv+203. £18.95 PB. Original German edition published in 1936.
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  30.  24
    Gary Hatfield (2011). Kant and Helmholtz on Primary and Secondary Qualities. In Lawrence Nolan (ed.), Primary and Secondary Qualities: The Historical and Ongoing Debate. Oxford University Press 304-338.
    This chapter finds two versions of the distinction between primary and secondary qualities in Galileo, Descartes, Boyle, and Locke. Although agreeing that primary qualities are physically basic properties of extended particles (including size, shape, position, and motion), these authors differed on whether secondary qualities such as color exist only in the mind as sensations or belong to bodies as powers to cause sensations. Kant was initially a metaphysical realist about primary qualities as spatialized forces (vs. bare extended particles), before placing (...)
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  31.  75
    Gary Hatfield (2011). Philosophy of Perception and the Phenomenology of Visual Space. Philosophic Exchange 42:31-66.
    In the philosophy of perception, direct realism has come into vogue. Philosophical authors assert and assume that what their readers want, and what anyone should want, is some form of direct realism. There are disagreements over precisely what form this direct realism should take. The majority of positions in favor now offer a direct realism in which objects and their material or physical properties constitute the contents of perception, either because we have an immediate or intuitive acquaintance with those objects (...)
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  32.  91
    Gary Hatfield (2011). Transparency of Mind: The Contributions of Descartes, Leibniz, and Berkeley to the Genesis of the Modern Subject. In Hubertus Busche (ed.), Departure for Modern Europe: A Handbook of Early Modern Philosophy (1400-1700). Felix Meiner Verlag 361–375.
    The chapter focuses on attributions of the transparency of thought to early modern figures, most notably Descartes. Many recent philosophers assume that Descartes believed the mind to be “transparent”: since all mental states are conscious, we are therefore aware of them all, and indeed incorrigibly know them all. Descartes, and Berkeley too, do make statements that seem to endorse both aspects of the transparency theses (awareness of all mental states; incorrigibility). However, they also make systematic theoretical statements that directly countenance (...)
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  33. Henry E. Allison, Peter Heath, Gary Hatfield & Michael Friedman (eds.) (2010). Theoretical Philosophy After 1781. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume, originally published in 2002, assembles the historical sequence of writings that Kant published between 1783 and 1796 to popularize, summarize, amplify and defend the doctrines of his masterpiece, the Critique of Pure Reason of 1781. The best known of them, the Prolegomena, is often recommended to beginning students, but the other texts are also vintage Kant and are important sources for a fully rounded picture of Kant's intellectual development. As with other volumes in the series there are copious (...)
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  34. Gary Hatfield (2010). Mandelbaum's Critical Realism. In Ian Verstegen (ed.), Maurice Mandelbaum and American Critical Realism. Routledge
    Mandelbaum adopted a middle course between physicalistic scientific realism and phenomenalistic "ordinary language" direct realism. He affirmed the relevance of scientific knowledge for epistemology, but did not attempt to reduce the content of perception to physical properties. Rather, he developed a critical direct realism, according to which we see bodies by means of having phenomenal experience. This phenomenal experience was not, however, to be equated with the sense-data of the usual representative realism. Rather, it was a perception of material objects (...)
     
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  35.  8
    Gary Hatfield (2010). Psychology and Philosophy. In Dean Moyar (ed.), Routledge Companion to Nineteenth Century Philosophy. Routledge 522-53.
    This chapter first discusses psychology in the eighteenth century as the background to nineteenth-century psychology. It then recounts developments within German psychology, British psychology, evolutionary psychology, and American psychology, followed by a discussion of introspective methods in the laboratory. The final three sections discuss conflicting opinions on the existence of unconscious mental states, review relations between philosophy and psychology, and survey the state of psychology in the early twentieth century.
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  36.  21
    Gary Hatfield (2010). Review of John Bickle (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Neuroscience. [REVIEW] Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews 2010 (5).
  37. Gary Hatfield (2009). Getting Objects for Free (Or Not): The Philosophy and Psychology of Object Perception. In Perception and Cognition: Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology. Clarendon Press 212-255.
  38.  24
    Gary Hatfield (2009). Hume, Space, and the Self. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Philosophy 17 (5):1011 – 1019.
    Review of: Marina Frasca-Spada: Space and the Self in Hume’s Treatise. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. pp. xiii + 220. £26.99, $43.00, pbk. ISBN 9780521891622.
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  39.  14
    Gary Hatfield (2009). On Perceptual Constancy. In Perception and Cognition: Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology. Clarendon Press 178-211.
    This chapter reconsiders the notion of perceptual constancy from the ground up. It distinguishes the phenomenology of perceptual constancy and stability from a functional characterization of perception as aiming at full constancy. Drawing on this distinction, we can attend to the phenomenology of constancy itself, and ask to what extent human perceivers attain constancy, as usually defined. Within this phenomenology, I distinguish phenomenal presentations of spatial features and color properties from categorizations, conceptualizations, and judgments that underlie verbal or other responses (...)
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  40.  7
    Gary Hatfield (2009). Psychology in Philosophy: Historical Perspectives. In Sara Heinamaa & Martina Reuter (eds.), Psychology and Philosophy: Inquiries into the Soul from Late Scholasticism to Contemporary Thought. Springer 1-25.
    The chapter examines some common assumptions regarding the shape of the history of theories of mind. It questions the conception that the Scientific Revolution resulted in placing the mind “outside of nature.” During the seventeenth century, the followers of Descartes routinely placed study of the mind, or, at least, mind–body interaction, within “physics” considered as a science of nature in general (and so including physics in the narrow sense, biology, and psychology). By the end of the eighteenth century, many authors (...)
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  41.  18
    Gary Hatfield (2009). Rationalist Roots of Modern Psychology. In John Symons & Paco Calvo (eds.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology. Routledge 3--21.
    The philosophers René Descartes (1596–1650), Nicolas Malebranche (1638–1715), Benedict Spinoza (1632–77), and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646–1716) are grouped together as rationalists because they held that human beings possess a faculty of reason that produces knowledge independently of the senses. In this regard, they contrast with empiricist philosophers, such as John Locke and David Hume, who believed that all knowledge arises from the senses. The rationalists contended that proper use of reason would yield the first principles of metaphysics, the most basic (...)
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  42.  9
    Gary Hatfield (2009). The Sixth Meditation: Mind-Body Relation, External Objects, and Sense Perception. In Andreas Kemmerling (ed.), René Descartes: Meditationen über die erste Philosophie (Klassiker Auslegen 37). Akademie 123-146.
    Descartes entitled the Sixth Meditation "The existence of material things, and the real distinction between mind and body." But these topics take up only two paragraphs, about one-third of the way into the Sixth Meditation (which is the longest of the six). The other topics in the Meditation partly pertain to the cognitive faculties that a seeker after knowledge must employ: senses, imagination, and intellect. They also concern the mind–body relation: not only is it to be shown that mind and (...)
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  43. Gary Hatfield (2009). What Can the Mind Tell Us About the Brain? Psychology, Neurophysiology, and Constraint. In Perception and Cognition: Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology. Clarendon Press 434-55.
    This chapter examines the relations between psychology and neuroscience. There is a strong philosophical intuition that direct study of the brain can and will constrain the development of psychological theory. When this intuition is tested against case studies from the psychology of perception and memory, it turns out that psychology has led the way toward knowledge of neurophysiology. The chapter presents an abstract argument to show that psychology can and must lead the way in neuroscientific study of mental function. The (...)
     
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  44.  51
    Gary C. Hatfield (2009). Perception and Cognition: Essays in the Philosophy of Psychology. Oxford University Press.
    Representation and content in some (actual) theories of perception -- Representation in perception and cognition : task analysis, psychological functions, and rule instantiation -- Perception as unconscious inference -- Representation and constraints : the inverse problem and the structure of visual space -- On perceptual constancy -- Getting objects for free (or not) : the philosophy and psychology of object perception -- Color perception and neural encoding : does metameric matching entail a loss of information? -- Objectivity and subjectivity revisited (...)
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  45.  46
    Gary Hatfield (2008). Animals. In Janet Broughton & John Carriero (eds.), Companion to Descartes. Blackwell 404–425.
    This chapter considers philosophical problems concerning non-human (and sometimes human) animals, including their metaphysical, physical, and moral status, their origin, what makes them alive, their functional organization, and the basis of their sensitive and cognitive capacities. I proceed by assuming what most of Descartes’s followers and interpreters have held: that Descartes proposed that animals lack sentience, feeling, and genuinely cognitive representations of things. (Some scholars interpret Descartes differently, denying that he excluded sentience, feeling, and representation from animals, and I consider (...)
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  46.  37
    Gary Hatfield (2008). Descartes: A Biography; Cogito, Ergo Sum: The Life of René Descartes. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 99 (1):177-178.
    Review of Desmond M. Clarke. Descartes: A Biography. xi + 507 pp., apps., figs., bibl., index. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. $40 (cloth).; Richard Watson, Cogito, Ergo Sum: The Life of René Descartes. viii + 375 pp., figs., bibl., index. Boston: David R. Godine, 2002. $35 (cloth).
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  47. Gary Hatfield (2008). Mental Acts and Mechanistic Psychology in Descartes' Passions. In Neil Robertson, Gordon McOuat & Tom Vinci (eds.), Descartes and the Modern. Cambridge Scholars Publishing 49-71.
    This chapter examines the mechanistic psychology of Descartes in the _Passions_, while also drawing on the _Treatise on Man_. It develops the idea of a Cartesian “psychology” that relies on purely bodily mechanisms by showing that he explained some behaviorally appropriate responses through bodily mechanisms alone and that he envisioned the tailoring of such responses to environmental circumstances through a purely corporeal “memory.” An animal’s adjustment of behavior as caused by recurring patterns of sensory stimulation falls under the notion of (...)
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  48.  22
    Gary Hatfield (2008). René Descartes. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    This version has been superseded by the one published in Spring, 2014, which is marked [2] below.
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  49. Gary Hatfield (2007). Did Descartes Have a Jamesian Theory of the Emotions? Philosophical Psychology 20 (4):413-440.
    Rene Descartes and William James had "body first" theories of the passions or emotions, according to which sensory stimulation causes a bodily response that then causes an emotion. Both held that this bodily response also causes an initial behavioral response (such as flight from a bear) without any cognitive intervention such as an "appraisal" of the object or situation. From here they differ. Descartes proposed that the initial processes that produce fear and running are entirely mechanical. Even human beings initially (...)
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  50.  91
    Gary Hatfield (2007). The Passions of the Soul and Descartes's Machine Psychology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 38 (1):1-35.
    Descartes developed an elaborate theory of animal physiology that he used to explain functionally organized, situationally adapted behavior in both human and nonhuman animals. Although he restricted true mentality to the human soul, I argue that he developed a purely mechanistic (or material) ‘psychology’ of sensory, motor, and low-level cognitive functions. In effect, he sought to mechanize the offices of the Aristotelian sensitive soul. He described the basic mechanisms in the Treatise on man, which he summarized in the Discourse. However, (...)
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  51. Gary Hatfield (2007). The Reality of Qualia. Erkenntnis 66 (1-2):133--168.
    This paper argues for the reality of qualia as aspects of phenomenal experience. The argument focuses on color vision and develops a dispositionalist, subjectivist account of what it is for an object to be colored. I consider objections to dispositionalism on epistemological, metaphysical, and 'ordinary' grounds. I distinguish my representative realism from sense-data theories and from recent 'representational' or 'intentional' theories, and I argue that there is no good reason to adopt a physicalist stance that denies the reality of qualia (...)
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  52.  72
    Gary Hatfield (2006). Review: Descartes's Method of Doubt. [REVIEW] Mind 115 (458):394-399.
    Review of _Descartes’s Method of Doubt_, by Janet Broughton. Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2002. Pp. xv + 217. H/b £22.95, P/b £10.95. The review characterizes Broughton's book on Cartesian doubt as a work that attends to the philosophical significance of Descartes's work while taking seriously his own aims and the historical context of his arguments. The review considers her extensive examination of the method of doubt and her notion of "dependence arguments" as a way of overcoming the doubt. (...)
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  53.  14
    Gary Hatfield (2006). Reviewed Work: Consciousness and Persons: Unity and Identity, by Michael Tye. [REVIEW] Review of Metaphysics 59 (3):687-688.
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  54.  30
    Gary Hatfield (2006). Kant on the Perception of Space (and Time). In Paul Guyer (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Kant and Modern Philosophy. Cambridge University Press 61--93.
    Although the “Transcendental Aesthetic” is the briefest part of the first Critique, it has garnered a lion's share of discussion. This fact reflects the important implications that Kant drew from his arguments there. He used the arguments concerning space and time to display examples of synthetic a priori cognition, to secure his division between intuitions and concepts, and to support transcendental idealism. Earlier, in the years around 1770, Kant's investigations into space and time had facilitated his turn toward “critical” philosophy. (...)
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  55. Gary Hatfield (2006). The Cartesian Circle. In Stephen Gaukroger (ed.), Blackwell Guide to Descartes’ Meditations. Wiley-Blackwell 122--141.
    The problem of the Cartesian circle, as it is called, has sparked ongoing debate, which intersects several important themes of the Meditations. Discussions of the circle must address questions about the force and scope of the famous method of doubt introduced in Meditation I, and they must examine the intricate arguments for the existence of God and the avoidance of error in Meditations III to V. These discussions raise questions about the possibility of overturning skepticism, once a skeptical doubt has (...)
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  56.  10
    Gary Hatfield (2005). Descartes's Theory of Mind. [REVIEW] International Philosophical Quarterly 45 (1):124-127.
    Review of Desmond Clarke's _Descartes's Theory of Mind_. Focuses on Clarke's discussions of animal sentience, substance dualism, and the relation of metaphysics to natural philosophy in Descartes.
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  57.  26
    Gary Hatfield (2005). Force and Mind–Body Interaction. In Juan Jose Saldana (ed.), Science and Cultural Diversity: Proceedings of the XXIst International Congress of the History of Science. Autonomous National University of Mexico 3074-3089.
    This article calls into question the notion that seventeenth-century authors such as Descartes and Leibniz straightforwardly conceived the mind as something "outside" nature. Descartes indeed did regard matter as distinct from mind, but the question then remains as to whether he equated the natural world, and the world of laws of nature, with the material world. Similarly, Leibniz distinguished a kingdom of final causes (pertaining to souls) and a kingdom of efficient causes (pertaining to bodies and motions), but the question (...)
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  58. Gary Hatfield (2005). Introspective Evidence in Psychology. In P. Achinstein (ed.), Scientific Evidence: Philosophical Theories & Applications. The Johns Hopkins University Press
    In preparation for examining the place of introspective evidence in scientific psychology, the chapter begins by clarifying what introspection has been supposed to show, and why some concluded that it couldn't deliver. This requires a brief excursus into the various uses to which introspection was supposed to have been put by philosophers and psychologists in the modern period, together with a summary of objections. It then reconstructs some actual uses of introspection (or related techniques, differently monikered) in the early days (...)
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  59.  27
    Gary Hatfield (2005). Rationalist Theories of Sense Perception and Mind-Body Relation. In Alan Nelson (ed.), A Companion to Rationalism (Blackwell Companions to Philosophy). Blackwell 31-60.
    This chapter compares rationalist theories of sense perception to previously held theories of perception (especially of vision) and examines rationalist accounts of sensory qualities and sensory representation, of the role of the sense-based passions in guiding behavior, of the epistemological benefits and dangers of sense perception, and of mind–body relations. Each section begins with Descartes, the first major rationalist of the seventeenth century. The other major rationalists, Malebranche, Spinoza, and Leibniz, and also lesser known figures such as Pierre Regis, Jacques (...)
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  60.  46
    Gary Hatfield (2005). The History of Philosophy as Philosophy. In Tom Sorell & G. A. J. Rogers (eds.), Analytic Philosophy and History of Philosophy. Oxford University Press 82-128.
    The chapter begins with an initial survey of ups and downs of contextualist history of philosophy during the twentieth century in Britain and America, which finds that historically serious history of philosophy has been on the rise. It then considers ways in which the study of past philosophy has been used and is used in philosophy, and makes a case for the philosophical value and necessity of a contextually oriented approach. It examines some uses of past texts and of history (...)
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  61. Gary Hatfield (ed.) (2004). Immanuel Kant: Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics: That Will Be Able to Come Forward as Science: With Selections From the Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press.
    Kant is the central figure of modern philosophy. He sought to rebuild philosophy from the ground up, and he succeeded in permanently changing its problems and methods. This revised edition of the Prolegomena, which is the best introduction to the theoretical side of his philosophy, presents his thought clearly by paying careful attention to his original language. Also included are selections from the Critique of Pure Reason, which fill out and explicate some of Kant's central arguments, and in which Kant (...)
     
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  62.  32
    Gary Hatfield (2004). Seeing-Dretske. Philosophical Studies 120 (1-3):19 - 35.
    A commentary on Dretske, "Change Blindness" (same journal issue). Dretske analyzes standard cases of change blindness as properly being difference blindness, since the eye is in saccade when the change occurs and so the change itself (the event of the change) is not seen. He considers two models of the phenomenon, the object model and the fact model, preferring the latter. In previous work, he had affirmed the object model. I reconsider its merits, first looking more closely at the notion (...)
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  63. Gary Hatfield (2004). Sense-Data and the Mind–Body Problem. In Ralph Schumacher (ed.), Perception and Reality: From Descartes to the Present. Mentis 305--331.
  64.  5
    Gary Hatfield (ed.) (2004). Immanuel Kant: Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Come Forward as Science: With Selections From the Critique of Pure Reason. Cambridge University Press.
    This new, revised edition of Kant's Prolegomena, the best introduction to the theoretical side of his philosophy, presents his thought clearly through careful attention to his original language. Also included are selections from the Critique of Pure Reason, which fill out and explicate some of Kant's central arguments (including famous sections of the Schematism and Analogies), and in which Kant himself explains his special terminology. The first reviews of the Critique, to which Kant responded in the Prolegomena, are included in (...)
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  65.  98
    Gary Hatfield (2003). Behaviourism and Psychology. In Thomas Baldwin (ed.), Cambridge History of Philosophy, 1870–1945. Cambridge University Press 640-48.
    Behaviorism was a peculiarly American phenomenon. As a school of psychology it was founded by John B. Watson (1878-1958) and grew into the neobehaviorisms of the 1920s, 30s and 40s. Philosophers were involved from the start, prefiguring the movement and endeavoring to define or redefine its tenets. Behaviorism expressed the naturalistic bent in American thought, which came in response to the prevailing philosophical idealism and was inspired by developments in natural science itself. There were several versions of naturalism in American (...)
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  66.  17
    Gary Hatfield (2003). Objectivity and Subjectivity Revisited: Colour as a Psychobiological Property. In Rainer Mausfeld & Dieter Heyer (eds.), Colour Perception: Mind and the Physical World. Oxford University Press 187--202.
    This chapter focuses on the notion of color as a property of the surfaces of objects. It considers three positions on what colors are: objectivist, subjectivist, and relationalist. Examination of the arguments of the objectivists will help us understand how they seek to reduce color to a physical property of object surfaces. Subjectivists, by contrast, seek to argue that no such reduction is possible, and hence that color must be wholly subjective. This chapter argues that when functional considerations are taken (...)
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  67.  90
    Gary Hatfield (2003). Psychology Old and New. In Thomas Baldwin (ed.), Cambridge History of Philosophy, 1870–1945. Cambridge University Press 93–106.
    During the period 1870-1914 the existing discipline of psychology was transformed. British thinkers including Spencer, Lewes, and Romanes allied psychology with biology and viewed mind as a function of the organism for adapting to the environment. British and German thinkers called attention to social and cultural factors in the development of individual human minds. In Germany and the United States a tradition of psychology as a laboratory science soon developed, which was called a 'new psychology' by contrast with the old, (...)
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  68. Gary Hatfield (2003). Representation and Constraints: The Inverse Problem and the Structure of Visual Space. Acta Psychologica 114:355-378.
    Visual space can be distinguished from physical space. The first is found in visual experience, while the second is defined independently of perception. Theorists have wondered about the relation between the two. Some investigators have concluded that visual space is non-Euclidean, and that it does not have a single metric structure. Here it is argued that visual space exhibits contraction in all three dimensions with increasing distance from the observer, that experienced features of this contraction are not the same as (...)
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  69.  36
    Gary Hatfield (2003). What Were Kant's Aims in the Deduction? Philosophical Topics 31 (1/2):165-198.
    This article argues that many (often Anglophone) interpreters of the Deduction have mistakenly identified Kant's aim as vindicating ordinary knowledge of objects and as refuting Hume's (alleged) skepticism about such knowledge. Instead, the article contends that Kant's aims were primarily negative. His primary mission (in the Deduction) was not to justify application of the categories to experience, but to show that any use beyond the domain of experience could not be justified. To do this, he needed to show that their (...)
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  70. Gary C. Hatfield (2003). Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Descartes and the Meditations. Routledge.
    Descartes' Meditations is one of the most widely read philosophical texts and has marked the beginning of what we now consider as modern philosophy. It is the first text that most students of philosophy are introduced to and this Guidebook will be an indispensable introduction to what is undeniably one of the most important texts in the history of philosophy. Gary Hatfield offers a clear and concise introduction to Descartes' background, a careful reading of the Meditations and a methodological investigation (...)
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  71.  11
    Henry E. Allison, Peter Heath, Gary Hatfield & Michael Friedman (eds.) (2002). Theoretical Philosophy After 1781. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume, originally published in 2002, assembles the historical sequence of writings that Kant published between 1783 and 1796 to popularize, summarize, amplify and defend the doctrines of his masterpiece, the Critique of Pure Reason of 1781. The best known of them, the Prolegomena, is often recommended to beginning students, but the other texts are also vintage Kant and are important sources for a fully rounded picture of Kant's intellectual development. As with other volumes in the series there are copious (...)
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  72. Henry E. Allison, Peter Heath, Gary Hatfield & Michael Friedman (eds.) (2002). Theoretical Philosophy After 1781. Cambridge University Press.
    This volume, originally published in 2002, assembles the historical sequence of writings that Kant published between 1783 and 1796 to popularize, summarize, amplify and defend the doctrines of his masterpiece, the Critique of Pure Reason of 1781. The best known of them, the Prolegomena, is often recommended to beginning students, but the other texts are also vintage Kant and are important sources for a fully rounded picture of Kant's intellectual development. As with other volumes in the series there are copious (...)
     
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  73.  8
    Gary Hatfield (2002). Transl of Immanuel Kant: Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics That Will Be Able to Come Forward as Science. In Henry Allison & Peter Heath (eds.), Immanuel Kant: Theoretical Philosophy after 1781. Cambridge University Press 29-169, 465-484.
    This edition of the Prolegomena presents Kant's thought clearly by paying careful attention to his original language. An extensive translator's introduction considers the origin and purpose of the Prolegomena, examines Kant's use of the analytic method, compares the structure of the Prolegomena to that of the Critique of Pure Reason, examines Kant's relation to Hume as expressed in this work, briefly surveys the work's reception, and offers a note on texts and translation. Detailed scholarly notes accompany the translation itself.
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  74. Gary Hatfield (2002). Perception as Unconscious Inference. In Dieter Heyer & Rainer Mausfeld (eds.), Perception and the Physical World: Psychological and Philosophical Issues in Perception. John Wiley and Sons Ltd 113--143.
    In this chapter I examine past and recent theories of unconscious inference. Most theorists have ascribed inferences to perception literally, not analogically, and I focus on the literal approach. I examine three problems faced by such theories if their commitment to unconscious inferences is taken seriously. Two problems concern the cognitive resources that must be available to the visual system (or a more central system) to support the inferences in question. The third problem focuses on how the conclusions of inferences (...)
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  75. Gary Hatfield (2002). Psychology, Philosophy, and Cognitive Science: Reflections on the History and Philosophy of Experimental Psychology. Mind and Language 17 (3):207-232.
    This article critically examines the views that psychology first came into existence as a discipline ca. 1879, that philosophy and psychology were estranged in the ensuing decades, that psychology finally became scientific through the influence of logical empiricism, and that it should now disappear in favor of cognitive science and neuroscience. It argues that psychology had a natural philosophical phase (from antiquity) that waxed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, that this psychology transformed into experimental psychology ca. 1900, that philosophers (...)
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  76. Gary Hatfield (2002). Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Descartes and the Meditations. Routledge.
    Rene Descartes is generally accepted as the "father of modern philosophy", and his _Meditations_ is perhaps the most famous philosophical text ever written. In this Routledge Philosophy GuideBook, Gary Hatfield guides the reader through the text of the _Meditations_, providing commentary and analysis throughout. He assesses Descartes' importance in the history of philosophy and his continuing relevance to contemporary thought. _Descartes and the Meditations_ will be essential reading for all students of philosophy, and for anyone coming to Descartes for the (...)
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  77.  93
    Gary Hatfield (2002). Sense-Data and the Philosophy of Mind: Russell, James, and Mach. Principia 6 (2):203-230.
    The theory of knowledge in early twentieth-century Anglo American philosophy was oriented toward phenomenally described cognition. There was a healthy respect for the mind-body problem, which meant that phenomena in both the mental and physical domains were taken seriously. Bertrand Russell's developing position on sense-data and momentary particulars drew upon, and ultimately became like, the neutral monism of Ernst Mach and William James. Due to a more recent behaviorist and physicalist inspired "fear of the mental", this development has been down-played (...)
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  78.  5
    Gary Hatfield (2002). Vorlesungsverzeichnisse der Universität Königsberg. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 93 (4):693-694.
    Review of Michael Oberhausen; Riccardo Pozzo (Editors). Vorlesungsverzeichnisse der Universitaet Koenigsberg (1720–1804). (Forschungen und Materialen zur Universitaetsgeschichte, 1.) 2 volumes. lxviii, 778 pp., illus., indexes. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzboog, 1999.
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  79. Gary Hatfield (2001). Epistemology and Science in the Image of Modern Philosophy: Rorty on Descartes and Locke. In Juliet Floyd & Sanford Shieh (eds.), Future Pasts: Reflections on the History and Nature of Analytic Philosophy. Oxford University Press 393–413.
    In Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature (1979), Richard Rorty locates the perceived ills of modern philosophy in the "epistemological turn" of Descartes and Locke. This chapter argues that Rorty's accounts of Descartes' and Locke's philosophical work are seriously flawed. Rorty misunderstood the participation of early modern philosophers in the rise of modern science, and he misdescribed their examination of cognition as psychological rather than epistemological. His diagnostic efforts were thereby undermined, and he missed Descartes' original conception of a general (...)
     
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  80. Gary Hatfield (2001). René Descartes. In Steven M. Emmanuel (ed.), The Blackwell Guide to the Modern Philosophers: From Descartes to Nietzsche. Blackwell 1-27.
    An introduction to Descartes as a philosopher. Situates his philosophy within the context of Descartes' efforts to forge a new natural philosophy, including original work on the theory of the senses and the passions and emotions.
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  81.  10
    Gary Hatfield (2001). The Prolegomena and the Critiques of Pure Reason. In Volker Gerhardt, Rolf-Peter Horstmann & Ralph Schumacher (eds.), Kant Und Die Berliner Aufklärung: Akten des IX Internationalen Kant-Kongresses. Walter de Gruyter 185-208.
    This chapter considers Kant's relation to Hume as Kant himself understood it when he wrote the Critique of Pure Reason and the Prolegomena. It first seeks to refine the question of Kant's relation to Hume's skepticism, and it then considers the evidence for Kant's attitude toward Hume in three works: the A Critique, Prolegomena, and B Critique. It argues that in the A Critique Kant viewed skepticism positively, as a necessary reaction to dogmatism and a spur toward critique. In his (...)
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  82.  16
    Gary Hatfield (2000). Descartes' Naturalism About the Mental. In Stephen Gaukroger, John Schuster & John Sutton (eds.), Descartes' Natural Philosophy. Routledge 630–658.
    The chapter advances two theses involving Descartes and the mind. The first concerns Descartes' conception of mental faculties, particularly the intellect. As I read the _Meditations_, a fundamental aim of that work is to make the reader aware of the deliverances of the pure intellect, perhaps for the first time. Descartes' project is to alter the reader's Aristotelian beliefs about the faculty of the intellect and its relation to the senses, while at the same time coaxing her to use the (...)
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  83. Gary Hatfield (2000). The Brain's 'New' Science: Psychology, Neurophysiology, and Constraint. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):388-404.
    There is a strong philosophical intuition that direct study of the brain can and will constrain the development of psychological theory. When this intuition is tested against case studies on the neurophysiology and psychology of perception and memory, it turns out that psychology has led the way toward knowledge of neurophysiology. An abstract argument is developed to show that psychology can and must lead the way in neuroscientific study of mental function. The opposing intuition is based on mainly weak arguments (...)
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  84.  19
    Gary Hatfield (1999). Mental Functions as Constraints on Neurophysiology: Biology and Psychology of Vision. In V. Harcastle (ed.), Where Biology Meets Psychology. 251--71.
    This chapter examines a question at the intersection of the mind-body problem and the analysis of mental representation: the question of the direction of constraint between psychological fact and theory and neurophysiological or physical fact and theory. Does physiology constrain psychology? Are physiological facts more basic than psychological facts? Or do psychological theories, including representational analyses, guide and constrain physiology? Despite the antireductionist bent of functionalist positions, it has generally been assumed that physics or physiology are more basic than, and (...)
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  85.  18
    Gary Hatfield (1998). Attention in Early Scientific Psychology. In Richard D. Wright (ed.), Visual Attention. Oxford University Press 3-25.
    Attention only "recently"--i.e. in the eighteenth century--achieved chapter status in psychology textbooks in which psychology is conceived as a natural science. This report first sets this entrance, by sketching the historical contexts in which psychology has been considered to be a natural science. It then traces the construction of phenomenological descriptions of attention from antiquity to the seventeenth century, noting various aspects of attention that were marked for discussion by Aristotle, Lucretius, Augustine, and Descartes. The chapter goes on to compare (...)
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  86. Gary Hatfield (1998). The Cognitive Faculties. In Daniel Garber & Michael Ayers (eds.), The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy. Cambridge University Press 953–1002.
    During the seventeenth century the major cognitive faculties--sense, imagination, memory, and understanding or intellect--became the central focus of argument in metaphysics and epistemology to an extent not seen before. The theory of the intellect, long an important auxiliary to metaphysics, became the focus of metaphysical dispute, especially over the scope and powers of the intellect and the existence of a `pure' intellect. Rationalist metaphysicians such as Descartes, Spinoza, and Malebranche claimed that intellectual knowledge, gained independently of the senses, provides the (...)
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  87.  43
    Gary Hatfield (1997). The Workings of the Intellect: Mind and Psychology. In Patricia Easton (ed.), Logic and the Workings of the Mind: The Logic of Ideas and Faculty Psychology in Early Modern Philosophy. Ridgeview Publishing Co 21-45.
    Two stories have dominated the historiography of early modern philosophy: one in which a seventeenth century Age of Reason spawned the Enlightenment, and another in which a skeptical crisis cast a shadow over subsequent philosophy, resulting in ever narrower "limits to knowledge." I combine certain elements common to both into a third narrative, one that begins by taking seriously seventeenth-century conceptions of the topics and methods central to the rise of a "new" philosophy. In this revisionist story, differing approaches to (...)
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  88. Gary Hatfield (1997). Wundt and Psychology as Science: Disciplinary Transformations. Perspectives on Science 5 (3):349-382.
    Challenges the revised standard historiography on Wundt as a psychologist. Considers the concept of psychology as a natural science. Examines the relations between psychology and philosophy before and after 1900. Reflects on the notion of disciplinehood as it affects historical narratives.
     
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  89.  9
    Gary C. Hatfield (1997). Descartes and His Contemporaries: Meditations, Objections, and Replies. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Philosophy 35 (4):624-626.
    Review of Roger Ariew and Marjorie Grene, editors, _Descartes and His Contemporaries: Meditations, Objections, and Replies_. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995. Pp. vii + 261. Cloth, $45.00. Paper, $17.95.
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  90. Gordon G. Brittan Jr & Gary Hatfield (1997). The Natural and the Normative: Theories of Spatial Perception From Kant to Helmholtz. Philosophical Review 106 (3):432.
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  91.  45
    Gary Hatfield (1996). Review Essay: The Importance of the History of Science for Philosophy in General. [REVIEW] Synthese 106 (1):113 - 138.
    Essay review of Daniel Garber, 1992, Descartes' Metaphysical Physics, University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London, xiv + 389 pp., and Michael Friedman,: 1992, Kant and the Exact Sciences, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., and London, xvii + 357 pp. These two books display the historical connection between science and philosophy in the writings of Descartes and Kant. They show the place of science in, or the scientific context of, these authors' central metaphysical doctrines, pertaining to substance and its properties, (...)
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  92. Gary Hatfield (1996). Was the Scientific Revolution Really a Revolution in Science? In Jamil Ragep & Sally Ragep (eds.), Tradition, Transmission, Transformation. Brill 489–525.
    This chapter poses questions about the existence and character of the Scientific Revolution by deriving its initial categories of analysis and its initial understanding of the intellectual scene from the writings of the seventeenth century, and by following the evolution of these initial categories in succeeding centuries. This project fits the theme of cross cultural transmission and appropriation -- a theme of the present volume -- if one takes the notion of a culture broadly, so that, say, seventeenth and eighteenth (...)
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  93.  55
    Gary Hatfield (1995). In the Eye's Mind: Vision and the Helmholtz-Hering Controversy by R. Steven Turner. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 86 (4):664-665.
    Review of: R. Steven Turner, In the Eye's Mind: Vision and the Helmholtz-Hering Controversy. xiv + 338 pp., frontis., illus., figs., tables, bibl., index. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1994.
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  94. Gary Hatfield (1995). Remaking the Science of Mind: Psychology as a Natural Science. In Christopher Fox, Roy Porter & Robert Wokler (eds.), Inventing Human Science: Eighteenth Century Domains. University of California Press 184–231.
    Psychology considered as a natural science began as Aristotelian "physics" or "natural philosophy" of the soul, conceived as an animating power that included vital, sensory, and rational functions. C. Wolff restricted the term " psychology " to sensory, cognitive, and volitional functions and placed the science under metaphysics, coordinate with cosmology. Near the middle of the eighteenth century, Krueger, Godart, and Bonnet proposed approaching the mind with the techniques of the new natural science. At nearly the same time, Scottish thinkers (...)
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  95.  90
    William M. Epstein & Gary Hatfield (1994). Gestalt Psychology and the Philosophy of Mind. Philosophical Psychology 7 (2):163-181.
    The Gestalt psychologists adopted a set of positions on mind-body issues that seem like an odd mix. They sought to combine a version of naturalism and physiological reductionism with an insistence on the reality of the phenomenal and the attribution of meanings to objects as natural characteristics. After reviewing basic positions in contemporary philosophy of mind, we examine the Gestalt position, characterizing it m terms of phenomenal realism and programmatic reductionism. We then distinguish Gestalt philosophy of mind from instrumentalism and (...)
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  96.  50
    Gary Hatfield (1994). Psychology as a Natural Science in the Eighteenth Century. Revue de Synthèse 115 (3-4):375-391.
    Psychology considered as a natural science began as Aristotelian "physics" or "natural philosophy" of the soul. C. Wolff placed psychology under metaphysics, coordinate with cosmology. Scottish thinkers placed it within moral philosophy, but distinguished its "physical" laws from properly moral laws (for guiding conduct). Several Germans sought to establish an autonomous empirical psychology as a branch of natural science. British and French visual theorists developed mathematically precise theories of size and distance perception; they created instruments to test these theories and (...)
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  97.  90
    Gary Hatfield (1994). Philosophy of Psychology as Philosophy of Science. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:19 - 23.
    This paper serves to introduce the papers from the symposium by the same title, by describing the sort of work done in philosophy of psychology conceived as a branch of the philosophy of science, distinguishing it from other discussions of psychology in philosophy, and criticizing the claims to set limits on scientific psychology in the largely psychologically uninformed literatures concerning "folk psychology' and "wide" and "narrow" content. Philosophy of psychology as philosophy of science takes seriously and analyzes the explanatory structures, (...)
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  98.  50
    Gary Hatfield (1993). Book Review:Historical Roots of Cognitive Science: The Rise of a Cognitive Theory of Perception From Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century Theo C. Meyering. [REVIEW] Philosophy of Science 60 (4):662-666.
    Review of THEO C. MEYERING, Historical Roots of Cognitive Science : The Rise of a Cognitive Theory of Perception from Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century. Boston: Kluwer, xix + 250 pp. $69.00. Examines the author's interpretation of Aristotelian theories of perceptual cognition, early modern theories, and Helmholtz's theory.
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  99.  15
    Gary Hatfield (1993). Helmholtz and Classicism: The Science of Aesthetics and the Aesthetics of Science. In David Cahan (ed.), Hermann von Helmholtz and the Foundations of Nineteenth-Century Science. University of California Press 522--58.
    This chapter examines the Helmholtz's changing conceptions of the relation between scientific cognition (the thought processes of the investigator) and artistic cognition. It begins with two case studies: Helmholtz's application of sensory physiology and psychology respectively to music and to painting. Consideration of these concrete cases leads to Helmholtz's account of the methodology of aesthetics, and specifically to his formulation of the distinction between the *Geisteswissenschaften* and *Naturwissenschaften*. It then examines the development of his comparative account of the thought processes (...)
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  100.  9
    Gary Hatfield (1993). Reason, Nature, and God in Descartes. In Stephen Voss (ed.), Essays on the Philosophy and Science of Rene Descartes. Oxford University Press 259–287.
    Recent Cartesian scholarship postulates two Descartes, separating Descartes into a scientist and a metaphysician. The purpose varies, but one has been to show that the metaphysical Descartes, of the Meditations, is less genuine than the scientific Descartes. Accordingly, discussion of God and the soul, the evil demon, and the non-deceiving God were elements of rhetorical strategy to please theologians, not of serious philosophical argumentation. I agree in finding two Descartes, but the two I identify are not scientist and philosopher, but (...)
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  101.  43
    Gary Hatfield (1993). William Whewell: A Composite Portrait by Menachem Fisch; Simon Schaffer. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 84:811-811.
    Review of: Menachem Fisch; Simon Schaffer (Editors). William Whewell: A Composite Portrait. xiv + 403 pp., bibl., index. Oxford: Clarendon Press of Oxford University Press, 1991. $98.
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  102. Gary Hatfield (1992). Color Perception and Neural Encoding: Does Metameric Matching Entail a Loss of Information? In David Hull & Mickey Forbes (eds.), PSA 1992: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, Volume One: Contributed Papers. Philosophy of Science Association 492-504.
    It seems intuitively obvious that metameric matching of color samples entails a loss of information, for spectrophotometrically diverse materials appear the same. This intuition implicitly relies on a conception of the function of color vision and on a related conception of how color samples should be individuated. It assumes that the function of color vision is to distinguish among spectral energy distributions, and that color samples should be individuated by their physical properties. I challenge these assumptions by articulating a different (...)
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  103.  34
    Gary Hatfield (1992). Descartes' Physiology and its Relation to His Psychology. In John Cottingham (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Descartes. Cambridge University Press 335--370.
    Descartes understood the subject matter of physics (or natural philosophy) to encompass the whole of nature, including living things. It therefore comprised not only nonvital phenomena, including those we would now denominate as physical, chemical, minerological, magnetic, and atmospheric; it also extended to the world of plants and animals, including the human animal (with the exception of those aspects of the human mind that Descartes assigned to solely to thinking substance: pure intellect and will). Descartes wrote extensively on physiology and (...)
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  104.  26
    Gary Hatfield (1992). Die Philosophie des 17. Jahrhunderts. Volume 3: England by Jean-Pierre Schobinger. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 83 (1):126-128.
    Review of: Jean-Pierre Schobinger (Editor). Die Philosophie des 17. Jahrhunderts. Volume 3: England. 2 half-volumes. xxxiv + 874 pp., bibls., index. Basel: Schwabe, 1988. SFr 160, DM 195.
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  105.  45
    Gary Hatfield (1992). Empirical, Rational, and Transcendental Psychology: Psychology as Science and as Philosophy. In Paul Guyer (ed.), Cambridge Companion to Kant. Cambridge University Press 200–227.
    The chapter places Kant's discussions of empirical and rational psychology in the context of previous discussions in Germany. It also considers the status of what might be called his "transcendental psychology" as an instance of a special kind of knowledge: transcendental philosophy. It is divided into sections that consider four topics: the refutation of traditional rational psychology in the Paralogisms; the contrast between traditional empirical psychology and the transcendental philosophy of the Deduction; Kant's appeal to an implicit psychology in his (...)
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  106. Gary Hatfield (1991). Il Dualismo da Cartesio a Leibniz: Cartesio, Cordemoy, La Forge, Malebranche, Leibniz by Salvatore Nicolosi. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 82:136-137.
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  107. Gary Hatfield (1991). Representation and Rule-Instantiation in Connectionist Systems. In Terence E. Horgan & John L. Tienson (eds.), Connectionism and the Philosophy of Mind. Kluwer
    There is disagreement over the notion of representation in cognitive science. Many investigators equate representations with symbols, that is, with syntactically defined elements in an internal symbol system. In recent years there have been two challenges to this orthodoxy. First, a number of philosophers, including many outside the symbolist orthodoxy, have argued that "representation" should be understood in its classical sense, as denoting a "stands for" relation between representation and represented. Second, there has been a growing challenge to orthodoxy under (...)
     
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  108.  9
    Gary Hatfield (1991). Representation in Perception and Cognition: Connectionist Affordances. In William Ramsey, Stephen P. Stich & D. Rumelhart (eds.), Philosophy and Connectionist Theory. Lawrence Erlbaum 163--95.
    There is disagreement over the notion of representation in cognitive science. Many investigators equate representations with symbols, that is, with syntactically defined elements in an internal symbol system. In recent years there have been two challenges to this orthodoxy. First, a number of philosophers, including many outside the symbolist orthodoxy, have argued that "representation" should be understood in its classical sense, as denoting a "stands for" relation between representation and represented. Second, there has been a growing challenge to orthodoxy under (...)
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  109.  89
    Gary Hatfield (1991). The Natural and the Normative: Theories of Spatial Perception From Kant to Helmholtz. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Gary Hatfield examines theories of spatial perception from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century and provides a detailed analysis of the works of Kant and Helmholtz, who adopted opposing stances on whether central questions about spatial perception were fully amenable to natural-scientific treatment. At stake were the proper understanding of the relationships among sensation, perception, and experience, and the proper methodological framework for investigating the mental activities of judgment, understanding, and reason issues which remain at the core of philosophical psychology (...)
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  110.  30
    Gary Hatfield (1990). Gibsonian Representations and Connectionist Symbol-Processing: Prospects for Unification. Psychological Research 52:243-52.
    Not long ago the standard view in cognitive science was that representations are symbols in an internal representational system or language of thought and that psychological processes are computations defined over such representations. This orthodoxy has been challenged by adherents of functional analysis and by connectionists. Functional analysis as practiced by Marr is consistent with an analysis of representation that grants primacy to a stands for conception of representation. Connectionism is also compatible with this notion of representation; when conjoined with (...)
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  111.  9
    Gary Hatfield (1990). Metaphysics and the New Science. In David Lindberg & Robert Westman (eds.), Reappraisals of the Scientific Revolution, ed. by and (Cambridge:. Cambridge University Press 93–166.
    An understanding of the relationship between metaphysics and natural philosophy - or, as we might now say, between philosophy and science - is fundamental to understanding the rise of the "new science" of the seventeenth century. Twentieth-century scholarship on this relationship has been dominated by the thoughbt of Ernst Cassirer, E. A. Burtt, A. N. Whitehead, and Alexandre Koyre. These authors found a common core in the mathematization of nature, which they ascribed to a common Platonic or Pythagorean metaphysical presupposition, (...)
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  112.  33
    Gary Hatfield (1990). Scottish Common Sense in Germany, 1768-1800: A Contribution to the History of Critical Philosophy by Manfred Kuehn. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 81 (3):574-575.
    A review of: Manfred Kuehn. Scottish Common Sense in Germany, 1768-1800: A Contribution to the History of Critical Philosophy. (McGill-Queen's Studies in the History of Ideas.) xiv + 300 pp., app., bibl., index. Kingston, Ont./Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1987. $35.
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  113.  1
    Gary Hatfield (1990). Theories at Work: On the Structure and Functioning of Theories in Science, in Particular During the Copernican Revolution by Marinus Dirk Stafleu. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 81 (2):340-341.
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  114.  19
    Gary Hatfield (1989). Computation, Representation and Content in Noncognitive Theories of Perception. In Stuart Silvers (ed.), ReRepresentation. Kluwer
  115.  2
    Gary Hatfield (1989). Reason, Nature, and God in Descartes. Science in Context 3 (1).
    This journal article has been superseded by a revised version, published in the collection _Essays on the Philosophy and Science of Rene Descartes_, ed. by Stephen Voss (Oxford University Press, 1993), 259–287.
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  116. Gary Hatfield & Alvin I. Goldman (1989). Epistemology and Cognition. Philosophical Review 98 (3):386.
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  117.  2
    Gary Hatfield (1988). Neurophilosophy Meets Psychology: Reduction, Autonomy, and Empirical Constraints. Cognitive Neuropsychology 5:723-46.
    A commentary on Neurophilosophy: Toward a unified science of the mind/brain, by Patricia Smith Churchland. Cambridge, Mass.: The M.I.T. Press/Bradford, 1986, pp. xi + 546, $27.50, ISBN 0-262-03116-7.
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  118.  26
    Gary Hatfield (1988). Representation and Content in Some (Actual) Theories of Perception. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 19 (2):175-214.
    Recent discussions in the philosophy of psychology have examined the use and legitimacy of such notions as “representation”, “content”, “computation”, and “inference” within a scientific psychology. While the resulting assessments have varied widely, ranging from outright rejection of some or all of these notions to full vindication of their use, there has been notable agreement on the considerations deemed relevant for making an assessment. The answer to the question of whether the notion of, say, representational content may be admitted into (...)
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  119. Gary Hatfield (1988). Science, Certainty, and Descartes. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1988:249 - 262.
    During the 1630s Descartes recognized that he could not expect all legitimate claims in natural science to meet the standard of absolute certainty. The realization resulted from a change in his physics, which itself arose not through methodological reflections, but through developments in his substantive metaphysical doctrines. Descartes discovered the metaphysical foundations of his physics in 1629-30; as a consequence, the style of explanation employed in his physical writings changed. His early methodological conceptions, as preserved in the Rules and sketched (...)
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  120. Gary Hatfield (1986). A Theory Of Method By Husain Sarkar. [REVIEW] Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 77 (1):125-125.
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  121.  30
    Gary Hatfield (1986). Cognition and Epistemic Reliability: Comments on Goldman. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1987:312 - 318.
    The paper provisionally accepts the goal of Goldman's primary epistemics, which is to seek reliability values for basic cognitive processes, and questions whether such values may plausibly be expected. The reliability of such processes as perception and memory is dependent on other aspects of cognitive structure, and especially on one's "conceptual scheme," the evaluation of which goes beyond primary epistemics (and its dependence on cognitive science) to social epistemics, or indeed to traditional epistemology and philosophy of science. Two general arguments (...)
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  122. Gary Hatfield (1986). The Senses and the Fleshless Eye: The Meditations as Cognitive Exercises. In Amelie Rorty (ed.), Essays on Descartes' Meditations. University of California Press 45–76.
    According to the reading offered here, Descartes' use of the meditative mode of writing was not a mere rhetorical device to win an audience accustomed to the spiritual retreat. His choice of the literary form of the spiritual exercise was consonant with, if not determined by, his theory of the mind and of the basis of human knowledge. Since Descartes' conception of knowledge implied the priority of the intellect over the senses, and indeed the priority of an intellect operating independently (...)
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  123.  12
    Gary Hatfield (1985). Descartes's Meditations as Cognitive Exercises. Philosophy and Literature 9 (1):41-58.
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  124.  42
    Gary Hatfield (1985). First Philosophy and Natural Philosophy in Descartes. In A. J. Holland (ed.), Philosophy, its History and Historiography. Reidel 149-164.
    Descartes was both metaphysician and natural philosopher. He used his metaphysics to ground portions of his physics. However, as should be a commonplace but is not, he did not think he could spin all of his physics out of his metaphysics a priori, and in fact he both emphasized the need for appeals to experience in his methodological remarks on philosophizing about nature and constantly appealed to experience in describing his own philosophy of nature. During the 1630s, he offered empirical (...)
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  125.  15
    Gary Hatfield & William Epstein (1985). The Status of the Minimum Principle in the Theoretical Analysis of Visual Perception. Psychological Bulletin 97 (2):155–186.
    We examine a number of investigations of perceptual economy or, more specifically, of minimum tendencies and minimum principles in the visual perception of form, depth, and motion. A minimum tendency is a psychophysical finding that perception tends toward simplicity, as measured in accordance with a specified metric. A minimum principle is a theoretical construct imputed to the visual system to explain minimum tendencies. After examining a number of studies of perceptual economy, we embark on a systematic analysis of this notion. (...)
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  126. Gary Hatfield (1984). Spatial Perception and Geometry in Kant and Helmholtz. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1984:569 - 587.
    This paper examines Helmholtz's attempt to use empirical psychology to refute certain of Kant's epistemological positions. Particularly, Helmholtz believed that his work in the psychology of visual perception showed Kant's doctrine of the a priori character of spatial intuition to be in error. Some of Helmholtz's arguments are effective, but this effectiveness derives from his arguments to show the possibility of obtaining evidence that the structure of physical space is non-Euclidean, and these arguments do not depend on his theory of (...)
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  127.  18
    Stephen M. Kosslyn & Gary Hatfield (1984). Representation Without Symbol Systems. Social Research 51:1019-1045.
    The concept of representation has become almost inextricably bound to the concept of symbol systems. the concepts is nowhere more prevalent than in descriptions of "internal representations." These representations are thought to occur in an internal symbol system that allows the brain to store and use information. In this paper we explore a different approach to understanding psychological processes, one that retains a commitment to representations and computations but that is not based on the idea that information must be stored (...)
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  128.  23
    Gary C. Hatfield (1983). A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, 2nd Ed. [REVIEW] Teaching Philosophy 6 (1):76-78.
    Review of: John Losee, A Historical Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. 258 pages.
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  129.  64
    Gary C. Hatfield (1979). Force (God) in Descartes' Physics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 10 (2):113-140.
    It is difficult to evaluate the role of activity - of force or of that which has causal efficacy - in Descartes’ natural philosophy. On the one hand, Descartes claims to include in his natural philosophy only that which can be described geometrically, which amounts to matter (extended substance) in motion (where this motion is described kinematically).’ Yet on the other hand, rigorous adherence to a purely geometrical description of matter in motion would make it difficult to account for the (...)
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  130.  89
    Gary Hatfield & William Epstein (1979). The Sensory Core and the Medieval Foundations of Early Modern Perceptual Theory. Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 70:363-384.
    In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the majority of theories of visual perception were built upon the view that during the process of vision there occur two conscious states with quite different phenomenal properties. The first state is a mental representation of the two-dimensional retinal image. The second is our experience of the “visual world” of objects distributed in depth. According to the then commonly accepted theory, the mental correlate of the retinal image is the truly immediate component of perception, (...)
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  131.  20
    William Epstein, Gary Hatfield & Gerard Muise (1977). Perceived Shape at a Slant as a Function of Processing Time and Processing Load. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 3:473–483.
    Shape and slant judgments of rotated or frontoparallel ellipses were elicited from three groups of 10 subjects. A masking stimulus was introduced to control processing time. Backward masking trials were presented with interstimulus intervals of 0, 25, and 50 msec, Reduction of processing time altered shape judgments in the direction of projective shape and slant judgments in the direction of frontoparallelness. This finding is consistent with the shape-slant invariance hypothesis. In order to study the effects of processing load, one group (...)
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