James Franklin University of New South Wales
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  • Faculty, University of New South Wales

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I am the author of Corrupting the Youth: A History of Philosophy in Australia (2003), The Science of Conjecture: Evidence and Probability Before Pascal (2001) and What Science Knows: And How It Knows It (2009). I am a professor of mathematics in Sydney, Australia.
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  1. James Franklin & S. Sisson, Assessment of Strategies for Evaluating Extreme Risks.
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  2. James Franklin (2014). Aristotelian Realist Philosophy of Mathematics. Palgrave MacMillan.
    An Aristotelian Philosophy of Mathematics breaks the impasse between Platonist and nominalist views of mathematics. Neither a study of abstract objects nor a mere language or logic, mathematics is a science of real aspects of the world as much as biology is. For the first time, a philosophy of mathematics puts applied mathematics at the centre. Quantitative aspects of the world such as ratios of heights, and structural ones such as symmetry and continuity, are parts of the physical world and (...)
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  3. James Franklin (2013). Arguments Whose Strength Depends on Continuous Variation. Informal Logic 33 (1):33-56.
    Both the traditional Aristotelian and modern symbolic approaches to logic have seen logic in terms of discrete symbol processing. Yet there are several kinds of argument whose validity depends on some topological notion of continuous variation, which is not well captured by discrete symbols. Examples include extrapolation and slippery slope arguments, sorites, fuzzy logic, and those involving closeness of possible worlds. It is argued that the natural first attempts to analyze these notions and explain their relation to reasoning fail, so (...)
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  4. James Franklin (2013). Non-Deductive Logic in Mathematics: The Probability of Conjectures. In. In Andrew Aberdein & Ian J. Dove (eds.), The Argument of Mathematics. Springer. 11--29.
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  5. James Franklin (2012). Global Justice: An Anti-Collectivist and Pro-Causal Ethic. Solidarity 2 (1).
    Both philosophical and practical analyses of global justice issues have been vitiated by two errors: a too-high emphasis on the supposed duties of collectives to act, and a too-low emphasis on the analysis of causes and risks. Concentrating instead on the duties of individual actors and analysing what they can really achieve reconfigures the field. It diverts attention from individual problems such as poverty or refugees or questions on what states should do. Instead it shows that there are different duties (...)
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  6. James Franklin (2012). Science by Conceptual Analysis. Studia Neoaristotelica 9 (1):3-24.
    The late scholastics, from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries, contributed to many fields of knowledge other than philosophy. They developed a method of conceptual analysis that was very productive in those disciplines in which theory is relatively more important than empirical results. That includes mathematics, where the scholastics developed the analysis of continuous motion, which fed into the calculus, and the theory of risk and probability. The method came to the fore especially in the social sciences. In legal theory (...)
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  7. Anne Newstead & James Franklin (2012). Indispensability Without Platonism. In Alexander Bird, Brian Ellis & Howard Sankey (eds.), Properties, Powers and Structures. Routledge.
    According to Quine’s indispensability argument, we ought to believe in just those mathematical entities that we quantify over in our best scientific theories. Quine’s criterion of ontological commitment is part of the standard indispensability argument. However, we suggest that a new indispensability argument can be run using Armstrong’s criterion of ontological commitment rather than Quine’s. According to Armstrong’s criterion, ‘to be is to be a truthmaker (or part of one)’. We supplement this criterion with our own brand of metaphysics, 'Aristotelian (...)
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  8. John Bigelow, Raymond D. Bradley, Andrew Brennan, Tony Coady, Peter Forrest, James Franklin, Karen Green, Russell Grigg, Matthew Sharpe, Jeanette Kennett, Neil Levy, Catriona Mackenzie, Gary Malinas, Chris Mortensen, Robert Nola, Paul Patton, Charles R. Pidgen, Val Plumwood, Graham Priest, Greg Restall, Jack Reynolds, Paul Thom & Michelle Boulous Walker (2011). The Antipodean Philosopher: Public Lectures on Philosophy in Australia and New Zealand. Lexington Books.
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  9. James Franklin (2011). Aristotelianism in the Philosophy of Mathematics. Studia Neoaristotelica 8 (1):3-15.
    Modern philosophy of mathematics has been dominated by Platonism and nominalism, to the neglect of the Aristotelian realist option. Aristotelianism holds that mathematics studies certain real properties of the world – mathematics is neither about a disembodied world of “abstract objects”, as Platonism holds, nor it is merely a language of science, as nominalism holds. Aristotle’s theory that mathematics is the “science of quantity” is a good account of at least elementary mathematics: the ratio of two heights, for example, is (...)
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  10. James Franklin (2011). Caritas in Veritate: Economic Activity as Personal Encounter and the Economy of Gratuitousness. Solidarity 1 (1).
    We first survey the Catholic social justice tradition, the foundation on which Caritas in Veritate builds. Then we discuss Benedict’s addition of love to the philosophical virtues (as applied to economics), and how radical a change that makes to an ethical perspective on economics. We emphasise the reality of the interpersonal aspects of present-day economic exchanges, using insights from two disciplines that have recognized that reality, human resources and marketing. Finally, we examine the prospects for an economics of gratuitousness at (...)
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  11. James Franklin (2011). Philosophy in Sydney. In G. Oppy & N. Trakakis (eds.), The Antipodean Philosopher. Lexington Books. 61-66.
    Let me tell you what philosophy is about, then about how Sydney does it in its own special way. Does life have a meaning, and if so what is it? What can I be certain of, and how should I act when I am not certain? Why are the established truths of my tribe better than the primitive superstitions of your tribe? Why should I do as I’m told? Those are questions it’s easy to avoid, in the rush to acquire (...)
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  12. James Franklin, Australian Philosophy. Sydney Philosophy Forum.
    Greek, Latin and Ancient History. Instead, after a good result in mathematics, I decided to pursue that instead. That left me with an extra subject to choose to fill up first year. What was this "Philosophy" on offer? I couldn't understand where there was something in the spectrum of knowledge for philosophy to be about. Biology was about cats, English was about language and literature, mathematics was about numbers (I was not yet philosophically smart enough to realise there was a (...)
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  13. James Franklin (2009). Aristotelian Realism. In A. Irvine (ed.), The Philosophy of Mathematics (Handbook of the Philosophy of Science series). North-Holland Elsevier.
    Aristotelian, or non-Platonist, realism holds that mathematics is a science of the real world, just as much as biology or sociology are. Where biology studies living things and sociology studies human social relations, mathematics studies the quantitative or structural aspects of things, such as ratios, or patterns, or complexity, or numerosity, or symmetry. Let us start with an example, as Aristotelians always prefer, an example that introduces the essential themes of the Aristotelian view of mathematics. A typical mathematical truth is (...)
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  14. James Franklin (2009). Evidence Gained From Torture: Wishful Thinking, Checkability, and Extreme Circumstances. Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law 17:281-290.
    "Does torture work?" is a factual rather than ethical or legal question. But legal and ethical discussions of torture should be informed by knowledge of the answer to the factual question of the reliability of torture as an interrogation technique. The question as to whether torture works should be asked before that of its legal admissibility—if it is not useful to interrogators, there is no point considering its legality in court.
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  15. James Franklin (2009). Calwell, Catholicism and the Origins of Multicultural Australia. Proceedings of the Australian Catholic Historical Society Conference.
    The large Eastern European migration program to Australia in the late 1940s was driven not only by Australia's need for migrants, but by Catholic views on the rights of refugees and an international Cold War plan to resettle the million people who had fled the Red Army.
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  16. James Franklin (2009). Is Philosophy Irrelevant to Science? Philosopher's Zone (ABC Radio National).
    Scientists get on with the job – they do stuff with test tubes or with computers – but can philosophers help them? Do they need help and, if so, do they think they need help? This week, we examine what philosophers of science talk about and what effect it might have on what scientists actually do.
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  17. James Franklin (2009). The Lure of Philosophy in Sydney. Quadrant 53 (10):76-79.
    Does life have a meaning, and if so what is it? What can I be certain of, and how should I act when I am not certain? Why are the established truths of my tribe better than the primitive superstitions of your tribe? Why should I do as I'm told? Those are questions it is easy to avoid, in the rush to acquire goods and prestige. Even for many of a more serious outlook, they are questions easy to dismiss with (...)
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  18. James Franklin (2009). What Science Knows: And How It Knows It. Encounter Books.
    In What Science Knows, the Australian philosopher and mathematician James Franklin explains in captivating and straightforward prose how science works its magic ...
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  19. James Franklin (2008). 'Social Justice': Utopian Fantasy or Foundation of Prosperity? Online Opinion.
    publication and Now, it may well be that some wet-behind-the-ears bishops with little understanding of economics do use the term Governments relies on the “social justice” to give a colour of moral dignity to views that are a touch socialist. But what was missing in Abbott’s cannot pick winners generosity of its..
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  20. James Franklin, Mark Burgman, Scott Sisson & J. K. Martin (2008). Evaluating Extreme Risks in Invasion Ecology: Learning From Banking Compliance. Diversity and Distributions 14:581-591.
    methods that have shown promise for improving extreme risk analysis, particularly for assessing the risks of invasive pests and pathogens associated with international trade. We describe the legally inspired regulatory regime for banks, where these methods have been brought to bear on extreme ‘operational risks’. We argue that an ‘advocacy model’ similar to that used in the Basel II compliance regime for bank operational risks and to a lesser extent in biosecurity import risk analyses is ideal for permitting the diversity (...)
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  21. Anne Newstead & James Franklin (2008). On the Reality of the Continuum. Philosophy 83:117-28.
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  22. Anne Newstead & James Franklin (2008). On the Reality of the Continuum Discussion Note: A Reply to Ormell, 'Russell's Moment of Candour', "Philosophy&Quot;. Philosophy 83 (323):117 - 127.
    This paper discusses an argument for the reality of the classical mathematical continuum. An inference to the best explanation type of argument is used to defend the idea that real numbers exist even when they cannot be constructively specified as with the "indefinable numbers".
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  23. James Franklin, Accountancy and the Quantification of Rights: Giving Moral Values Legal Teeth. Centre for an Ethical Society Papers.
    If a company’s share price rises when it sacks workers, or when it makes money from polluting the environment, it would seem that the accounting is not being done correctly. Real costs are not being paid. People’s ethical claims, which in a smaller-scale case would be legally enforceable, are not being measured in such circumstances. This results from a mismatch between the applied ethics tradition and the practice of the accounting profession. Applied ethics has mostly avoided quantification of rights, while (...)
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  24. James Franklin (2007). Introduction. In , Life to the Full: Rights and Social Justice in Australia. Connor Court.
    The late twentieth century saw two long-term trends in popular thinking about ethics. One was an increase in relativist opinions, with the “generation of the Sixties” spearheading a general libertarianism, an insistence on toleration of diverse moral views (for “Who is to say what is right? – it’s only your opinion.”) The other trend was an increasing insistence on rights – the gross violations of rights in the killing fields of the mid-century prompted immense efforts in defence of the “inalienable” (...)
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  25. James Franklin (2007). International Compliance Regimes: A Public Sector Without Restraints. Australian Journal of Professional and Applied Ethics 9 (2):86-95.
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  26. James Franklin (ed.) (2007). Life to the Full: Rights and Social Justice in Australia. Connor Court.
    In this collection, experts consider the full range of rights that go to make up a free society fit for a full human life.
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  27. James Franklin & Scott Sisson, Assessment of Strategies for Evaluating Extreme Risks. Australian Centre of Excellence for Risk Analysis Reports.
    The report begins by outlining several case studies with varying levels of data, examining the role for extreme event risk analysis. The case studies include BA’s analysis of fire blight and New Zealand apples, bank operational risk and several technical failures. The report then surveys recent developments in methods relevant to evaluating extreme risks and evaluates their properties. These include methods for fraud detection in banks, formal extreme value theory, Bayesian approaches, qualitative reasoning, and adversary and advocacy models. The document (...)
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  28. James Franklin (2006). Artifice and the Natural World: Mathematics, Logic, Technology. In K. Haakonssen (ed.), Cambridge History of Eighteenth-Century Philosophy. Cambridge University Press.
    If Tahiti suggested to theorists comfortably at home in Europe thoughts of noble savages without clothes, those who paid for and went on voyages there were in pursuit of a quite opposite human ideal. Cook's voyage to observe the transit of Venus in 1769 symbolises the eighteenth century's commitment to numbers and accuracy, and its willingness to spend a lot of public money on acquiring them. The state supported the organisation of quantitative researches, employing surveyors and collecting statistics to..
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  29. James Franklin (2006). Review of N. Wildberger, Divine Proportions: Rational Trigonometry to Universal. [REVIEW] Mathematical Intelligencer 28 (3):73-74.
    Reviews Wildberger's account of his rational trigonometry project, which argues for a simpler way of doing trigonometry that avoids irrationals.
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  30. James Franklin (2006). Australia's Wackiest Postmodernists. MercatorNet.
    Postmodernism is not so much a theory as an attitude. It is an attitude of suspicion – suspicion about claims of truth and about appeals to rational argument. Its corrupting effects must be answered by finding a better alternative, which must include a defence of the objecvity of both reason and ethics. Natural law thinking is necessary for the latter.
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  31. James Franklin (2006). Uncertainty. Encounter (ABC Radio National).
    Postmodernism is an attitude of suspicion, indeed of unteachable suspicion, in the face of evidence.
     
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  32. James Franklin (2006). Traditional Catholic Philosophy: Baby and Bathwater. In M. Whelan (ed.), Issues for Church and Society in Australia. St Pauls.
    The teaching of the Aquinas Academy in its first thirty years was based on the scholastic philosophy of Thomas Aquinas, then regarded as the official philosophy of the Catholic Church. That philosophy has not been so much heard of in the last thirty years, but it has a strong presence below the surface. Its natural law theory of ethics, especially, still informs Vatican pronouncements on moral topics such as contraception and euthanasia. It has also been important in Australia in the (...)
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  33. James Franklin (2005). A “Professional Issues and Ethics in Mathematics” Course. Australian Mathematical Society Gazette 32:98-100.
    Some courses achieve existence, some have to create Professional Issues and Ethics in existence thrust upon them. It is normally Mathematics; but if you don’t do it, we will a struggle to create a course on the ethical be.” I accepted. or social aspects of science or mathematics. The gift of a greenfield site and a bull- This is the story of one that was forced to dozer is a happy occasion, undoubtedly. But exist by an unusual confluence of outside (...)
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  34. James Franklin (2005). A “Professional Issues” Course: Grounding Philosophy in Workplace Realities. In N. Sanitt (ed.), Motivating Science: Science Communication from a Philosophical, Educational and Cultural Perspective. Pantaneto Press.
    Some courses achieve existence, some have existence thrust upon them. It is normally a struggle to create in a scientific academic community a course on the philosophical or social aspects of science, but just occasionally a confluence of outside circumstances causes one to exist, irrespective of the wishes of the scientists. It is an opportunity, and taking advantage of it requires a slightly different approach from what is appropriate to the normal course of events, where a “social” course needs a (...)
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  35. James Franklin (2005). Case Comment: Quantification of the ‘Proof Beyond Reasonable Doubt’ Standard. Law, Probability and Risk 6:159-165.
    Argues for a minimal level of quantification for the "proof beyond reasonable doubt" standard of criminal law: if a jury asks "Is 60% enough?", the answer should be "No.".
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  36. James Franklin (2005). Probability Theory: The Logic of Science. [REVIEW] Mathematical Intelligencer 27 (2):83-85.
    A standard view of probability and statistics centers on distributions and hypothesis testing. To solve a real problem, say in the spread of disease, one chooses a “model”, a distribution or process that is believed from tradition or intuition to be appropriate to the class of problems in question. One uses data to estimate the parameters of the model, and then delivers the resulting exactly specified model to the customer for use in prediction and classification. As a gateway to these (...)
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  37. James Franklin (2005). Risk-Driven Global Compliance Regimes in Banking and Accounting: The New Law Merchant. Law, Probability and Risk 4 (4):237-250.
    Powerful, technically complex international compliance regimes have developed recently in certain professions that deal with risk: banking (the Basel II regime), accountancy (IFRS) and the actuarial profession. The need to deal with major risks has acted as a strong driver of international co-operation to create enforceable international semilegal systems, as happened earlier in such fields as international health regulations. This regulation in technical fields contrasts with the failure of an international general-purpose political and legal regime to develop. We survey the (...)
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  38. Scott Campbell & James Franklin (2004). Randomness and the Justification of Induction. Synthese 138 (1):79 - 99.
    In 1947 Donald Cary Williams claimed in The Ground of Induction to have solved the Humean problem of induction, by means of an adaptation of reasoning first advanced by Bernoulli in 1713. Later on David Stove defended and improved upon Williams’ argument in The Rational- ity of Induction (1986). We call this proposed solution of induction the ‘Williams-Stove sampling thesis’. There has been no lack of objections raised to the sampling thesis, and it has not been widely accepted. In our (...)
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  39. E. Corazza, H. Douglas, J. L. Dowell, J. Franklin, A. S. Gillies, S. C. Goldberg, D. K. Heikes, C. Liu, C. Ortiz Hill & M. W. Pelczar (2004). Cling, AD, 101. Synthese 137 (477).
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  40. James Franklin (2004). Is Jensenism Compatible with Christianity? Quadrant 48 (12):30-31.
    A RECENT BIOGRAPHY of Marcus Loane, evangelical Anglican Archbishop of Sydney in the 1960s, records that as a student at Moore Theological College he would read during lectures to avoid having to listen to the liberal Principal. When you are committed to a closed system of thought, you can't be too careful when it comes to letting ideas in from the outside. But what about the ideas already inside? How does the Sydney Anglican interpretation of Christianity compare to what Jesus (...)
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  41. James Franklin (2004). Low Fertility Among Women Graduates. People and Place 12 (1):37-45.
    Australian women who are university graduates have fewer children than non-graduates. In most cases this appears to be the result of circumstantial pressures not preference. Long years of study fill the most fertile years of women students and new graduates need further time to establish their careers. The chance of medical infertility increases with age so, for some, this means that childbearing is not postponed but ruled out. Graduates who do make the transition from university to professional work find that (...)
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  42. James Franklin (2004). On the Parallel Between Mathematics and Morals. Philosophy 79 (1):97-119.
    The imperviousness of mathematical truth to anti-objectivist attacks has always heartened those who defend objectivism in other areas, such as ethics. It is argued that the parallel between mathematics and ethics is close and does support objectivist theories of ethics. The parallel depends on the foundational role of equality in both disciplines. Despite obvious differences in their subject matter, mathematics and ethics share a status as pure forms of knowledge, distinct from empirical sciences. A pure understanding of principles is possible (...)
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  43. James Franklin (2003). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Sophia 42 (2):135-136.
    Reviews David Stove's collection attacking Enlightenment shallowness, especially its attack on "superstition" when it had no alternative to offer.
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  44. James Franklin (2003). Corrupting the Youth: A History of Philosophy in Australia. Macleay Press.
    A polemical account of Australian philosophy up to 2003, emphasising its unique aspects (such as commitment to realism) and the connections between philosophers' views and their lives.
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  45. James Franklin (2003). Leibniz's Solution to the Problem of Evil. Think 5 (5):97-101.
    • It would be a moral disgrace for God (if he existed) to allow the many evils in the world, in the same way it would be for a parent to allow a nursery to be infested with criminals who abused the children. • There is a contradiction in asserting all three of the propositions: God is perfectly good; God is perfectly powerful; evil exists (since if God wanted to remove the evils and could, he would). • The religious believer (...)
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  46. James Franklin (2003). The Representation of Context: Ideas From Artificial Intelligence. Law, Probability and Risk 2:191-199.
    To move beyond vague platitudes about the importance of context in legal reasoning or natural language understanding, one must take account of ideas from artificial intelligence on how to represent context formally. Work on topics like prior probabilities, the theory-ladenness of observation, encyclopedic knowledge for disambiguation in language translation and pathology test diagnosis has produced a body of knowledge on how to represent context in artificial intelligence applications.
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  47. James Franklin & S. W. K. Chan (2003). Dynamic Context Generation for Natural Language Understanding: A Multifaceted Knowledge Approach. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics Part A 33:23-41.
    We describe a comprehensive framework for text un- derstanding, based on the representation of context. It is designed..
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  48. J. Franklin (2002). Two Caricatures, II: Leibniz's Best World. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 52 (1):45-56.
    Leibniz's best-of-all-possible worlds solution to the problem of evil isdefended. Enlightenment misrepresentations are removed. The apparentobviousness of the possibility of better worlds is undermined by the muchbetter understanding achieved in modern mathematical sciences of howglobal structure constrains local possibilities. It is argued that alternativeviews, especially standard materialism, fail to make sense of the problem ofevil, by implying that evil does not matter, absolutely speaking. Finally, itis shown how ordinary religious thinking incorporates the essentials ofLeibniz's view.
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  49. James Franklin (2002). Immigration Vs Democracy. IPA Review 54 (2):29.
    Democracy has difficulties with the rights on non-voters (children, the mentally ill, foreigners etc). Democratic leaders have sometimes acted ethically, contrary to the wishes of voters, e.g. in accepting refugees as immigrants.
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  50. James Franklin (2002). Stove's Discovery of the Worst Argument in the World. Philosophy 77 (4):615-624.
    The winning entry in David Stove's Competition to Find the Worst Argument in the World was: “We can know things only as they are related to us/insofar as they fall under our conceptual schemes, etc., so, we cannot know things as they are in themselves.” That argument underpins many recent relativisms, including postmodernism, post-Kuhnian sociological philosophy of science, cultural relativism, sociobiological versions of ethical relativism, and so on. All such arguments have the same form as ‘We have eyes, therefore we (...)
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  51. J. Franklin (2001). Resurrecting Logical Probability. Erkenntnis 55 (2):277-305.
    The logical interpretation of probability, or ``objective Bayesianism''''– the theory that (some) probabilitiesare strictly logical degrees of partial implication – is defended.The main argument against it is that it requires the assignment ofprior probabilities, and that any attempt to determine them by symmetryvia a ``principle of insufficient reason'''' inevitably leads to paradox.Three replies are advanced: that priors are imprecise or of little weight, sothat disagreement about them does not matter, within limits; thatit is possible to distinguish reasonable from unreasonable priorson (...)
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  52. James Franklin (2001). Regulated Capitalism, Market Socialism. Dissent 5:11-13.
    Eric Aarons' `Why Communism failed' Dissent no. 4) is welcome especially for its determination to go back to basics. The `infinite preciousness of every human life' in the words he quotes from Rai Gaita, has always been at the bottom of concepts like liberation and freedom. How could they not be, since what is the point of liberty, unless humans themselves are valuable?
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  53. James Franklin (2001). The Science of Conjecture: Probability Before Pascal: Contents. Johns Hopkins University Press.
    The Dark Ages The Gregorian Revolution The Glossators Invent "Half-Proof" Presumptions in Canon Law Innocent III Grades of Evidence, and Torture The Post-Glossators Bartolus and Baldus: The Completed Theory The Inquisition Maimonides on Testimony Law in the East Ch. 3 Renaissance Law..
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  54. James Franklin (2000). Diagrammatic Reasoning and Modelling in the Imagination: The Secret Weapons of the Scientific Revolution. In Guy Freeland & Anthony Corones (eds.), 1543 and All That: Image and Word, Change and Continuity in the Proto-Scientific Revolution. Kluwer.
    Just before the Scientific Revolution, there was a "Mathematical Revolution", heavily based on geometrical and machine diagrams. The "faculty of imagination" (now called scientific visualization) was developed to allow 3D understanding of planetary motion, human anatomy and the workings of machines. 1543 saw the publication of the heavily geometrical work of Copernicus and Vesalius, as well as the first Italian translation of Euclid.
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  55. James Franklin (2000). Thomas Kuhn's Irrationalism. New Criterion 18 (10):29-34.
    Criticizes the irrationalist and social constructionist tendencies in Kuhn's Structure of Scientific Revolutions.
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  56. James Franklin (1999). Structure and Domain-Independence in the Formal Sciences. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 30:721-723.
    Replies to Kevin de Laplante’s ‘Certainty and Domain-Independence in the Sciences of Complexity’ (de Laplante, 1999), defending the thesis of J. Franklin, ‘The formal sciences discover the philosophers’ stone’, Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 25 (1994), 513-33, that the sciences of complexity can combine certain knowledge with direct applicability to reality.
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  57. Samuel W. K. Chan & James Franklin (1998). Symbolic Connectionism in Natural Language Disambiguation. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 9:739-755.
    ��Natural language understanding involves the simul- taneous consideration of a large number of different sources of information. Traditional methods employed in language analysis have focused on developing powerful formalisms to represent syntactic or semantic structures along with rules for transforming language into these formalisms. However, they make use of only small subsets of knowledge. This article will describe how to use the whole range of information through a neurosymbolic architecture which is a hybridization of a symbolic network and subsymbol vectors (...)
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  58. James Franklin (1998). Accountancy as Computational Casuistics. Business and Professional Ethics Journal 17 (4):21-37.
    When a company raises its share price by sacking workers or polluting the environment, it is avoiding paying real costs. Accountancy, which quantifies certain rights, needs to combine with applied ethics to create a "computational casuistics" or "moral accountancy", which quantifies the rights and obligations of individuals and companies. Such quantification has proved successful already in environmental accounting, in health care allocation and in evaluating compensation payments. It is argued that many rights are measurable with sufficient accuracy to make them (...)
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  59. James Franklin (1998). Two Caricatures, I: Pascal's Wager. [REVIEW] International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 44 (2):109 - 114.
    Pascal’s wager and Leibniz’s theory that this is the best of all possible worlds are latecomers in the Faith-and-Reason tradition. They have remained interlopers; they have never been taken as seriously as the older arguments for the existence of God and other themes related to faith and reason.
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  60. James Franklin & S. W. K. Chan (1998). Symbolic Connectionism in Natural Language Disambiguation. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks 9:739-755.
    Uses connectionism (neural networks) to extract the "gist" of a story in order to represent a context going forward for the disambiguation of incoming words as a text is processed.
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  61. James Franklin (1997). Stove's Anti-Darwinism. Philosophy 72 (279):133-136.
    Stove's article, 'So you think you are a Darwinian?'[ 1] was essentially an advertisement for his book, Darwinian Fairytales.[ 2] The central argument of the book is that Darwin's theory, in both Darwin's and recent sociobiological versions, asserts many things about the human and other species that are known to be false, but protects itself from refutation by its logical complexity. A great number of ad hoc devices, he claims, are used to protect the theory. If co operation is observed (...)
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  62. James Franklin, Stephen Gaukroger, John Schuster & Alan Taylor (1997). Seized by the Spirit of Modern Science. Metascience 6 (1):1-28.
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  63. James Franklin (1996). Catholic Thought and Catholic Action: Dr Paddy Ryan Msc. Journal of the Australian Catholic Historical Society 17:44-55.
    An account of the life of Dr P.J. Ryan, Australian Catholic scholastic philosopher and anti-Communist organiser.
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  64. James Franklin (1996). How a Neural Net Grows Symbols. Proc 7.
    Brains, unlike artificial neural nets, use sym- bols to summarise and reason about percep- tual input. But unlike symbolic AI, they “ground” the symbols in the data: the sym- bols have meaning in terms of data, not just meaning imposed by the outside user. If neu- ral nets could be made to grow their own sym- bols in the way that brains do, there would be a good prospect of combining neural networks and symbolic AI, in such a way as (...)
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  65. James Franklin (1996). Proof in Mathematics: An Introduction. Quakers Hill Press.
    Why do students take the instruction "prove" in examinations to mean "go to the next question"? Because they have not been shown the simple techniques of how to do it. Mathematicians meanwhile generate a mystique of proof, as if it requires an inborn and unteachable genius. True, creating research-level proofs does require talent; but reading and understanding the proof that the square of an even number is even is within the capacity of most mortals.
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  66. James Franklin (1996). Proof in Mathematics. Quakers Hill Press.
    A textbook on proof in mathematics, inspired by an Aristotelian point of view on mathematics and proof. It explains how to prove statements in mathematics, from evident premises. It deals with the proof of "all" statements, "some" statements, multiple quantifiers and mathematical induction.
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  67. James Franklin (1996). The Sokal Hoax. The Philosopher 1 (4):21-24.
    One of the famous studies in the psychology of religion involved a pair of researchers who joined a sect that had predicted the end of the world at a date not far in the future. When the big day came and went without incident, the researchers observed that many members left the sect – which says at least something for human rationality. But a hard core soldiered on. They were buoyed by the theory, advanced by some genius of invention in (...)
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  68. James Franklin (1995). Philosophy, Mathematics and Structure. Philosopher 1 (2):31-38.
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  69. James Franklin (1994). Achievements and Fallacies in Hume's Account of Infinite Divisibility. Hume Studies 20 (1):85-101.
    Throughout history, almost all mathematicians, physicists and philosophers have been of the opinion that space and time are infinitely divisible. That is, it is usually believed that space and time do not consist of atoms, but that any piece of space and time of non-zero size, however small, can itself be divided into still smaller parts. This assumption is included in geometry, as in Euclid, and also in the Euclidean and non- Euclidean geometries used in modern physics. Of the few (...)
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  70. James Franklin (1994). The Formal Sciences Discover the Philosophers' Stone. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 25 (4):513-533.
    The last fifty years have seen the creation of a number of new "formal" or "mathematical" sciences, or "sciences of complexity". Examples are operations research, theoretical computer science, information theory, descriptive statistics, mathematical ecology and control theory. Theorists of science have almost ignored them, despite the remarkable fact that (from the way the practitioners speak) they seem to have come upon the "philosophers' stone": a way of converting knowledge about the real world into certainty, merely by thinking.
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  71. James Franklin (1994). Scepticism's Health Buoyant. Philosophy 69 (270):503 - 504.
    Replies to O. Hanfling, ‘Healthy scepticism?’, Philosophy 68 (1993), 91-3, which criticized J. Franklin, ‘Healthy scepticism’, Philosophy 66 (1991), 305-324. The symmetry argument for scepticism is defended (that there is no reason to prefer the realist alternative to sceptical ones).
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  72. James Franklin (1992). Earl's Cool. [REVIEW] Quadrant 42 (10):85-86.
    Readers of “lives” of the famous know well the tendency of biography, and especially autobiography, to become steadily less interesting as the subject grows older. A predictable record of challenges met, enemies shafted, honours received and great men encountered often succeeds an account of a childhood that is a highly-coloured and unique emotional drama. Often the best pages are those on the subject’s schooldays, when the personality first tangles with the public realm. As Barry Oakley says of school in a (...)
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  73. James Franklin (1991). Healthy Scepticism. Philosophy 66 (257):305 - 324.
    The classical arguments for scepticism about the external world are defended, especially the symmetry argument: that there is no reason to prefer the realist hypothesis to, say, the deceitful demon hypothesis. This argument is defended against the various standard objections, such as that the demon hypothesis is only a bare possibility, does not lead to pragmatic success, lacks coherence or simplicity, is ad hoc or parasitic, makes impossible demands for certainty, or contravenes some basic standards for a conceptual or linguistic (...)
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  74. James Franklin (1991). Reflections on Kurt Gödel. History of European Ideas 13 (5):637-638.
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  75. J. Franklin (1990). The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life Gerd Gigerenzer, Zeno Swijtink, Theodore Porter, Lorraine Daston, John Beatty and Lorenz Krüger, Ideas in Context Series (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1989), Xvii + 340 Pp., £30.00, $44.50. [REVIEW] History of European Ideas 12 (4):572-573.
  76. J. Franklin, C. Bledsoe & J. T. Callahan (1990). Contributions of the LTER Program. BioScience 40 (7).
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  77. James Franklin (1990). Chance and Structure. History of European Ideas 12 (2):313-314.
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  78. James Franklin (1990). The Empire of Chance: How Probability Changed Science and Everyday Life. History of European Ideas 12 (4):572-573.
  79. James Franklin (1989). Mathematical Necessity and Reality. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 67 (3):286 – 294.
    Einstein, like most philosophers, thought that there cannot be mathematical truths which are both necessary and about reality. The article argues against this, starting with prima facie examples such as "It is impossible to tile my bathroom floor with (equally-sized) regular pentagonal tiles." Replies are given to objections based on the supposedly purely logical or hypothetical nature of mathematics.
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  80. James Franklin (1989). Species in Aristotle. Philosophy 64 (247):107 - 108.
    Reply to H. Granger, Aristotle and the finitude of natural kinds, Philosophy 62 (1987), 523-26, which discussed J. Franklin, Aristotle on species variation, Philosophy 61 (1986), 245-52.
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  81. J. Franklin (1988). Are Dispositions Ultimate-Reply. Philosophical Quarterly 38 (150):86-87.
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  82. James Franklin (1988). Homomorphisms Between Verma Modules in Characteristic P. Journal of Algebra 112:58-85.
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  83. James Franklin (1988). Mathematics, The Computer Revolution and the Real World. Philosophica 42.
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  84. James Franklin (1988). Reply to Armstrong on Dispositions. Philosophical Quarterly 38 (150):86-87.
    Defends the arguments for the irredicibility of dispositions to categorical properties in "Are dispositions reducible to categorical properties?" (Philosophical Quarterly 36, 1986) against the criticisms of D.M. Armstrong (Philosophical Quarterly 38, 1988).
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  85. James Franklin (1987). Non-Deductive Logic in Mathematics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 38 (1):1-18.
    Mathematicians often speak of conjectures as being confirmed by evidence that falls short of proof. For their own conjectures, evidence justifies further work in looking for a proof. Those conjectures of mathematics that have long resisted proof, such as Fermat's Last Theorem and the Riemann Hypothesis, have had to be considered in terms of the evidence for and against them. It is argued here that it is not adequate to describe the relation of evidence to hypothesis as `subjective', `heuristic' or (...)
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  86. James Franklin (1986). Are Dispositions Reducible to Categorical Properties? Philosophical Quarterly 36 (142):62-64.
    Dispostions, such as solubility, cannont be reduced to categorical properties, such as molecular structure, without some element of dipositionaity remaining. Democritus did not reduce all properties to the geometry of atoms - he had to retain the rigidity of the atoms, that is, their disposition not to change shape when a force is applied. So dispositions-not-to, like rigidity, cannot be eliminated. Neither can dispositions-to, like solubility.
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  87. James Franklin (1986). Aristotle on Species Variation. Philosophy 61 (236):245 - 252.
    Explains Aristotle's views on the possibility of continuous variation between biological species.
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  88. James Franklin (1984). Natural Sciences as Textual Interpretation: The Hermeneutics of the Natural Sign. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 44 (4):509-520.
    There are close parallels between perception (the interpretation of sensory experience as representing physical objects) and hermeneutics (the interpretation of signs as having meaning). Perceptual illusions corresponds to ambiguities in texts; naive realism corresponds to fundamentalism; the scientist's reinterpretation of the "manifest image" to the global/local interplay of the "hermeneutic circle" in the interpretation of large texts.
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  89. James Franklin (1983). Elected Ignorance. [REVIEW] Quadrant 27 (12):91-92.
    Reviews Lewis's account of the low interest Islamic culture has generally shown about other cultures, and suggests that Islamic openness caused by military weakness may be imitated by the Soviet Union.
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  90. James Franklin (1982). The Renaissance Myth. Quadrant 26 (11):51-60.
    THE HISTORY OF IDEAS is full of more tall stories than most other departments of history. Here are three which manage to combine initial implausibility with impregnability to refutation: that in the Middle Ages it was believed that the world was flat; that medieval philosophers debated as to how many angels could dance on the head of a pin; that Galileo revolutionised physics by dropping weights from the Leaning Tower of Pisa. None of these stories is true, and no competent (...)
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  91. James Franklin (1980). More on Part IX of Hume's Dialogues. Philosophical Quarterly 30 (118):69-71.
    Defends the cosmological argument for the existence of God against Hume's criticisms. Hume objects that since a cause is before its effect, an eternal succession has no cause; but that would rule of by fiat the possibility of God's creating the world from eternity. Hume argues that once a cause is given for each of a collection of objects, there is not need to posit a cause of the whole collection; but that is to assume the universe to be a (...)
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  92. James Franklin, Ethics From the Ground Up.
    Talk about ethics involves a great number of different sorts of concepts – rules, virtues, values, outcomes, rights, etc … Ethics is about all those things, but it is not fundamentally about them. Let’s review them with a view to seeing why they are not basic.
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  93. James Franklin, Home | Archives | Announcements | About the Journal | Submission Information | Contact Us.
    Decision under conditions of uncertainty is an unavoidable fact of life. The available evidence rarely suffices to establish a claim with complete confidence, and as a result a good deal of our reasoning about the world must employ criteria of probable judgment. Such criteria specify the conditions under which rational agents are justified in accepting or acting upon propositions whose truth cannot be ascertained with certainty. Since the seventeenth century philosophers and mathematicians have been accustomed to consider belief under uncertainty (...)
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  94. James Franklin, Myths About the Middle Ages.
    There are so many myths about the Middle Ages, it has to be suspected that the general level of "knowledge" about things medieval is actually negative. Here are some of the more famous ones.
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  95. James Franklin, Natural Law Ethics in Disciplines Abstract to Applied.
    Language suggestive of natural law ethics, similar to the Catholic understanding of ethical foundations, is prevalent in a number of disciplines. But it does not always issue in a full-blooded commitment to objective ethics, being undermined by relativist ethical currents. In law and politics, there is a robust conception of "human rights", but it has become somewhat detached from both the worth of persons in themselves and from duties. In education, talk of "values" imports ethical considerations but hints at a (...)
     
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  96. James Franklin, Philorum A Philosophy Forum Jim Franklin - Is There Anything Wrong with Pornography? (Debate with Patricia Petersen) Delivered 02 Jun 2004 Www.Philorum.Org. [REVIEW]
    Argues that married sex is an extreme sexual practice that shows of pornography and other alternatives as second best.
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