Achille C. Varzi Columbia University
blank
About me
Not much to say..
My works
201 items found.
Sort by:
  1. Claudio Calosi & Achille C. Varzi (forthcoming). Back to Black. Ratio.
    The paper, in dialogue form, continues the conversation between A and B initiated in Max Black’s ‘The identity of Indiscernibles’. Interlocutor A defends the bundle theory by endorsing the (by now popular) view according to which Black’s world does not contain two indiscernible spheres but rather a single, bilocated sphere. His opponent, B, objects that A cannot distinguish such a world from a world with a single, uniquely located sphere, hence that the view in question adds nothing new to A’s (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Achille C. Varzi (forthcoming). The Magic of Holes. In Pina Marsico & Luca Tateo (eds.), (eds.), Ordinary Things and Their Extraordinary Meanings, Charlotte (NC),. Information Age Publishing.
    There is no doughnut without a hole, the saying goes. And that’s true. If you think you can come up with an exception, it simply wouldn’t be a doughnut. Holeless doughnuts are like extensionless color, or durationless sound—nonsense. Does it follow, then, that when we buy a doughnut we really purchase two sorts of thing—the edible stuff plus the little chunk of void in the middle? Surely we cannot just take the doughnut and leave the hole at the grocery store, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Achille C. Varzi & Claudio Calosi (forthcoming). De li accidiosi che son avversi al possibile. Rivista Italiana di Filosofia Analitica Junior.
    This is a supplement to our book "Le tribolazioni del filosofare. Comedia metaphysica ne la quale si tratta de li errori & de le pene de l’Infero". It features an entirely new canto of the poem (originally thought to be lost) along with an extensive commentary. The canto covers the first ring of the circle of the Sullen, which hosts the Adverse to the Possible, and deals with several philosophical questions concerning the metaphysics of modality.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi, Events. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A critical survey of the main philosophical theories about events and event talk, organized in three main sections: (i) Events and Other Categories (Events vs. Objects; Events vs. Facts; Events vs. Properties; Events vs. Times); (ii) Types of Events (Activities, Accomplishments, Achievements, and States; Static and Dynamic Events; Actions and Bodily Movements; Mental and Physical Events; Negative Events); (iii) Existence, Identity, and Indeterminacy.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi, Holes. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    A brief introduction to the main philosophical problems and theories about the nature of holes and such-like nothingnesses.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. Marion Haemmerli & Achille C. Varzi (2014). Adding Convexity to Mereotopology. In Pawel Garbacz & Oliver Kutz (eds.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference. IOS Press. 65–78.
    Convexity predicates and the convex hull operator continue to play an important role in theories of spatial representation and reasoning, yet their first-order axiomatization is still a matter of controversy. In this paper, we present a new approach to adding convexity to mereotopological theory with boundary elements by specifying first-order axioms for a binary segment operator s. We show that our axioms yields a convex hull operator h that supports, not only the basic properties of convex regions, but also complex (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. Achille C. Varzi (2014). Because. In Anne Reboul (ed.), Mind, Values, and Metaphysics. Philosophical Essays in Honor of Kevin Mulligan, Volume 1. Springer-Verlag. 253–256.
    There is a natural philosophical impulse (and, correspondingly, a great deal of pressure) to always ask for explanations, for example, explanations of why we act as we do. Kevin Mulligan has gone a very long way in disentangling the many different because’s, and the many senses of ‘because’, that tend to clutter our efforts to manage that impulse. This short dialogue is meant as a humble tribute to his work in this area.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Achille C. Varzi (2014). Counting and Countenancing. In Aaron J. Cotnoir & Donald L. M. Baxter (eds.), Composition as Identity. Oxford University Press. 47–69.
    I endorse Composition as Identity, broadly and loosely understood as the thesis that a composite whole is nothing over and above its parts, and the parts nothing over and above the whole. Thus, given an object, x, composed of n proper parts, y1, ..., yn, I feel the tension between my Quinean heart and its Lewisian counterpart. I feel the tension between my obligation to countenance n+1 things, x and the y’s, each of which is a distinct portion of reality, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Achille C. Varzi (2014). Del fuoco che non brucia: risposte, riflessioni, ringraziamenti. In Elena Casetta & Valeria Giardino (eds.), Mettere a Fuoco Il Mondo. Conversazioni sulla Filosofia di Achille Varzi (Special Issue of Isonomia – Epistemologica). University of Urbino. 111–153.
    An overview of the way I picture the amorphous world we live in, built around my comments and responses to nine festschrift essays by A. Borghini (on the Fedro metaphor and the art of butchery), F. Calemi (on the predication principle and metalinguistic nominalism), C. Calosi (on the argument from mereological universalism to extensonality), E. Casetta (on the role of “monsters” in the realism/antirealism debate), V. Giardino (on inductive reasoning, spatial representation, and problem solving), P. Graziani (on mereological notation), P. (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Achille C. Varzi (2014). Formal Theories of Parthood. In Claudio Calosi & Pierluigi Graziani (eds.), Mereology and the Sciences: Parts and Wholes in the Contemporary Scientific Context. Springer-Verlag. 359–370.
    A compact overview of the main formal theories of parthood and of their mutual relationships, up to Classical Extensional Mereology. Written as an Appendix to the other essays included in the volume.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Achille C. Varzi (2014). Logic, Ontological Neutrality, and the Law of Non-Contradiction. In Elena Ficara (ed.), Contradictions. Logic, History, Actuality. De Gruyter. 53–80.
    Abstract. As a general theory of reasoning—and as a general theory of what holds true under every possible circumstance—logic is supposed to be ontologically neutral. It ought to have nothing to do with questions concerning what there is, or whether there is anything at all. It is for this reason that traditional Aristotelian logic, with its tacit existential presuppositions, was eventually deemed inadequate as a canon of pure logic. And it is for this reason that modern quantification theory, too, with (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Achille C. Varzi, Mereology. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    An overview of contemporary part-whole theories, with reference to both their axiomatic developments and their philosophical underpinnings.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Achille C. Varzi (2014). Musil's Imaginary Bridge. The Monist 97 (1):30-46.
    In a calculation involving imaginary numbers, we begin with real numbers that represent concrete measures and we end up with numbers that are equally real, but in the course of the operation we find ourselves walking “as if on a bridge that stands on no piles”. How is that possible? How does that work? And what is involved in the as-if stance that this metaphor introduces so beautifully? These are questions that bother Törless deeply. And that Törless is bothered by (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Achille C. Varzi (2014). Realism in the Desert. In Massimo Dell’Utri, Fabio Bacchini & Stefano Caputo (eds.), Realism and Ontology without Myths. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 16–31.
    Quine’s desert is generally contrasted with Meinong’s jungle, as a sober ontological alternative to the exuberant luxuriance that comes with the latter. Here I focus instead on the desert as a sober metaphysical alternative to the Aristotelian garden, with its tidily organized varieties of flora and fauna neatly governed by fundamental laws that reflect the essence of things and the way they can be, or the way they must be. In the desert there are no “natural joints”; all the boundaries (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Achille C. Varzi & Claudio Calosi (2014). Le Tribolazioni Del Filosofare. Comedia Metaphysica Ne la Quale Si Tratta de Li Errori & de le Pene de L’Infero. Laterza.
    A scholarly annotated epic poem on the pitfalls and tribulations of “good philosophizing”. Divided into twenty-eight cantos (in medieval Italian hendecasyllabic terza rima), the poem tells of an allegorical journey through the downward spiral of the philosophers’ hell, where all sorts of thinkers are punished for their faults and mistakes, in the endeavor to reach a way out of the condition of intellectual impasse in which the narrator has found himself. The affinities with Dante’s Inferno are apparent. Whereas Dante’s poem (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Achille C. Varzi, Boundary. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    We think of a boundary whenever we think of an entity demarcated from its surroundings. There is a boundary (a line) separating Maryland and Pennsylvania. There is a boundary (a circle) isolating the interior of a disc from its exterior. There is a boundary (a surface) enclosing the bulk of this apple. Sometimes the exact location of a boundary is unclear or otherwise controversial (as when you try to trace out the margins of Mount Everest, or even the boundary of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Achille C. Varzi (2013). Cover to Cover. Current Musicology 95:177–191.
    Paul Goguen once said that art is either plagiarism or revolution. That is certainly true of music. From pop to jazz to classical music, there’s a long history of borrowing, lifting, and stealing from other composers, along with other ways of building on their artistic contributions. Here I try to put some order in the complex picture that emerges from such a history, with an eye to the criteria—if any—that underlie the complex ways in which we compare, identify, and categorize (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Achille C. Varzi (2013). Fictionalism in Ontology. In Carola Barbero, Maurizio Ferraris & Alberto Voltolini (eds.), From Fictionalism to Realism. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. 133–151.
    Fictionalism in ontology is a mixed bag. Here I focus on three main variants—which I label after the names of Pascal, Berkeley, and Hume—and consider their relative strengths and weaknesses. The first variant is just a version of the epistemic Wager, applied across the board. The second variant builds instead on the fact that ordinary language is not ontologically transparent; we speak with the vulgar, but deep down we think with the learned. Finally, on the Humean variant it’s the structure (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Achille C. Varzi (2013). Livelli di realtà e descrizioni del mondo. Giornale di Metafisica 35 (2/3).
    I articulate and the defend the following two claims: (i) it is a mistake to think that the structure of the world should mirror the structure of the theories by which we represent it, and through which we try to decipher it, simply because those theories appear to work; (ii) among the most deplorable consequences of this mistake is the widespread tendency to think that there must be a plurality of realities, or several different and irreducible levels of a stratified (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Achille C. Varzi (2013). Undetached Parts and Disconnected Wholes. In Christer Svennerlind, Jan Almäng & Rögnvaldur Ingthorsson (eds.), Johanssonian Investigations. Essays in Honour of Ingvar Johansson on His Seventieth Birthday. Ontos Verlag. 696–708.
    I offer a diagnosis of the parallelism between the Doctrine of Potential Parts and the Doctrine of Potential Wholes and briefly examine its bearing on Johansson’s account of the Tibbles-Tib Problem.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Achille C. Varzi (2012). The Naming of Facts. Analysis 72 (2):322-323.
    The naming of facts is a difficult matter / it isn’t just one of your holiday games..." A versification of a disturbing philosophical tribulation, after T. S. Eliot’s ‘The Naming of Cats’.
    Direct download (13 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Achille C. Varzi (2011). Boundaries, Conventions, and Realism. In Michael O'Rourke, Joseph K. Campbell & Matthew H. Slater (eds.), Carving Nature at Its Joints: Natural Kinds in Metaphysics and Science. Mit Press. 129–153.
    Are there any bona fide boundaries, i.e., boundaries that carve at the joints? Or is any boundary —hence any object—the result of a fiat articulation reflecting our cognitive biases and our so-cial practices and conventions? Does the choice between these two options amount to a choice between realism and wholesome relativism?
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Achille C. Varzi (2011). On Doing Ontology Without Metaphysics. Philosophical Perspectives 25 (1):407-423.
    According to a certain familiar way of dividing up the business of philosophy, ontology is concerned with the question of what entities exist (a task that is often identified with that of drafting a “complete inventory” of the universe) whereas metaphysics seeks to explain, of those entities, what they are (i.e., to specify the “ultimate nature” of the items included in the inventory). This distinction carries with it a natural thought, namely, that ontology is in some way prior to metaphysics. (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Achille C. Varzi (2011). The Plan of a Square. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (5):137-144.
    An imaginary report of Square’s plans for a journey aimed to find out whether the topology of Flatland is sphere-like or torus-like, intended as a trubute to Hans Herzberger’s uncompromising philosophical style, courage, and passion.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Achille C. Varzi (2010). Il mondo messo a fuoco. Storie di allucinazioni e miopie filosofiche. Laterza.
    At the beginning, all there is is world. It’s not all alike: here is mama, there is cold, over there—noise. Soon we begin to distinguish and to recognize: more mama, more cold, more noise! Yet initially these things appear to be all of a type. Each is, in Quine’s words, just a history of sporadic encounter, a mere portion of all there is. Only with time does this fluid totality in which we are immersed begin to take shape: sensations recur; (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Achille C. Varzi (2010). Kripke: modalità e verità. In Andrea Borghini (ed.), (ed.), Il genio compreso. La filosofia di Saul Kripke. Carocci Editore. 21–76, 186–191.
    An introduction to Kripke’s semantics for propositional and quantified modal logic (with special reference to its historical development from the original 1959 version to the extended versions of 1963 and 1965) and to his theory of truth.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. Achille C. Varzi (2010). On the Boundary Between Material and Formal Ontology. In Barry Smith, Riichiro Mizoguchi & Sumio Nakagawa (eds.), Interdisciplinary Ontology, Vol. 3: Proceedings of the Third Interdisciplinary Ontology Meeting. Keio University Press. 3–8.
    There are two main ways, philosophically, of characterizing the business of ontology. On one account, made popular by Quine, ontology is concerned with the material question of what there is. On the other, which made its way into our times through Brentano and his pupils, ontology is concerned with the task of laying bare the formal structure of all there is, whatever it is. My question, here, is whether one can pursue one sort of theory without also engaging in the (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. Achille C. Varzi (2009). On the Interplay Between Logic and Metaphysics. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations 8:13-36.
    On the one hand, logic has (or ought to have) nothing to do with metaphysics; it ought to have nothing to do with questions concerning what there is, or whether there is anything at all. On the other hand, metaphysics can hardly get off the ground without the help of logical analysis; to be is to be a truth-maker, and the search for truth-makers requires that we lay open the logical structure of our language. So something’s gotta give: either logical (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Achille C. Varzi (2009). Universalism entails Extensionalism. Analysis 69 (4):599-604.
    I argue that Universalism (the thesis that mereological composition is unrestricted) entails Extensionalism (the thesis that sameness of composition is sufficient for identity) as long as the parthood relation is transitive and satisfies the Weak Supplementation principle (to the effect that whenever a thing has a proper part, it has another part disjoint from the first).
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Achille C. Varzi (2009). Vagueness, Logic, and Ontology. In Darragh Byrne & Max Kölbel (eds.), Arguing About Language. Routledge. 135-154.
    Remember the story of the most-most? It’s the story of that club in New York where people are the most of every type. There is the hairiest bald man and the baldest hairy man; the shortest giant and the tallest dwarf; the smartest idiot and the stupidest wise man. They are all there, including honest thieves and crippled acrobats. On Saturday night they have a party, eat, drink, dance. Then they have a contest. “And if you can tell the hairiest (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2008). Event Concepts. In Thomas F. Shipley & Jeff Zacks (eds.), Understanding Events: From Perception to Action. Oxford University Press. 31–54.
    Events are center stage in several fields of psychological research. There is a long tradition in the study of event perception, event recognition, event memory, event conceptualization and segmentation. There are studies devoted to the description of events in language and to their representation in the brain. There are also metapsychological studies aimed at assessing the nature of mental events or the grounding of intentional action. Outside psychology, the notion of an event plays a prominent role in various areas of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2008). Voti e altri buchi elettorali. Rivista di Estetica 48 (37):169-194.
    A philosophical dialogue on the functioning, the limits, and the paradoxes of our electoral practices, dealing with such basic questions as: What is a vote? How do we count votes? And do votes really count?
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Elena Casetta & Achille C. Varzi (2008). Nomi in crisi di identità. Rivista di Estetica 48 (38):143-156.
    An exchange of letters among proper names and natural-kind terms, dealing with various identity and individuation problems (rigid designation, use-mention ambiguities, translation) from their point of view.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Jamie P. Tappenden, Achille C. Varzi & William E. Seager (eds.) (2008/2011). Truth and Values: Essays for Hans Herzberger. University of Calgary Press.
    A selection of essays dedicated to Hans Herzberger with affection and gratitude for both his profound work and his lasting example. Contributors: I. Levi (on whether and how a rational agent should be seen as a maximizer of some cognitive value), C. Normore (on medieval accounts of logical validity), J. P. Tappenden (on the local influences on Frege's doctrines), A. Urquhart (on the inexpressible), A. C. Varzi (on dimensionality and the sense of possibility), and S. Yablo (on content and carvings, (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Achille Varzi, Holes. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Holes are an interesting case-study for ontologists and epistemologists. Naive, untutored descriptions of the world treat holes as objects of reference, on a par with ordinary material objects. (‘There are as many holes in the cheese as there are cookies in the tin.’) And we often appeal to holes to account for causal interactions, or to explain the occurrence of certain events. (‘The water ran out because of the hole in the bucket.’) Hence there is..
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Achille Varzi (2008). Nelson Goodman, Vedere e costruire il mondo. Laterza.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Achille C. Varzi (2008). Che cos’è un derivato? Appunti per una ricerca tutta da fare. In Alberto Berrini (ed.), Le crisi finanziarie e il “Derivatus paradoxus”. Editrice Monti. 143–171.
    This is a sequel to my paper "Il denaro è un’opera d’arte", focusing on the metaphysics of those peculiar social objects that play an increasingly central role in the financial world—derivatives. On the analysis I offer, they appear to run afoul of Searle’s theory of social objects (or of the theory outlined in my earlier paper), and I put forward some suggestions on where to look for the necessary adjustments.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Achille C. Varzi (2008). Il catalogo universale. In Roberto Finzi & Paolo Zellini (eds.), Forme della ragione. CLUEB. 91–113.
    There are more things between heaven and earth than are dreamt of in our philosophy, says Hamlet. Right. But there are also philosophies that have dreamt of things that are neither here nor there, as Goodman says. There is a danger of suffering from ontological myopia just as there is a danger of suffering from ontological allucination. This paper is about some basic strategies that are available to (or have been elaborated by) philosophers to steer clear of both dangers in (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Achille C. Varzi (2008). Mondo-versioni e versioni del mondo. In Nelson Goodman, Vedere e costruire il mondo. Laterza. 7-24.
    Some reflections on Nelson Goodman’s ontological pluralism (as emerging from his Ways of Worldmaking) and its influence on contemporary philosophy, taking the querelle with Quine in the columns of The New York Review of Books as a starting point.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Achille C. Varzi (2008). Patterns, Rules, and Inferences. In Jonathan E. Adler & Lance J. Rips (eds.), Reasoning: Studies of Human Inference and its Foundations. Cambridge University Press. 282-290.
    The “Game of the Rule” is easy enough: I give you the beginning of a sequence of numbers (say) and you have to figure out how the sequence continues, to uncover the rule by means of which the sequence is generated. The game depends on two obvious constraints, namely (1) that the initial segment uniquely identify the sequence, and (2) that the sequence be non-random. As it turns out, neither constraint can fully be met, among other reasons because the relevant (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Achille C. Varzi (2008). The Extensionality of Parthood and Composition. Philosophical Quarterly 58 (1):108–133.
    I focus on three mereological principles: the Extensionality of Parthood (EP), the Uniqueness of Composition (UC), and the Extensionality of Composition (EC). These principles are not equivalent. Nonetheless, they are closely related (and often equated) as they all reflect the basic nominalistic dictum, No difference without a difference maker. And each one of them—individually or collectively—has been challenged on philosophical grounds. In the first part I argue that such challenges do not quite threaten EP insofar as they are either self-defeating (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Achille C. Varzi (2008). Vaghezza e ontologia. In Maurizio Ferraris (ed.), Storia dell’ontologia. Bompiani. 672–698.
    On the opposition between de re and de dicto conceptions of vagueness, with special reference to their bearing on the tasks of ontology.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2007). Foreword to ''Lesser Kinds''. The Monist 90 (3):331-332.
    This issue of The Monist is devoted to the metaphysics of lesser kinds, which is to say those kinds of entity that are not generally recognized as occupying a prominent position in the categorial structure of the world. Why bother? We offer two sorts of reason. The first is methodological. In mathematics, it is common practice to study certain functions (for instance) by considering limit cases: What if x = 0? What if x is larger than any assigned value? Physics, (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Matthew H. Slater & Achille C. Varzi (2007). Playing for the Same Team Again. In Jerry L. Walls & Gregory Bassham (eds.), Basketball and Philosophy. Thinking Outside the Paint. University of Kentucky Press. 220–234.
    How many championships have the Lakers won? Fourteen, if one counts those won in Minneapolis; nine, otherwise. Which is the correct answer? Is it even obvious that there is a correct answer? One is tempted to identify a team with its players. But teams, like ordinary objects, seem to survive gradual turnover of their parts. Suppose players from the Lakers are gradually replaced, one by one, over the years. We have the intuition that the team persists through this change, even (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Achille C. Varzi (2007). Confini. Dove finisce una cosa e inizia un’altra. In Andrea Bottani & Richard Davies (eds.), Ontologie regionali. Mimesis. 209–222.
    Ci imbattiamo in un confine ogni volta che pensiamo a un’entità demarcata rispetto a ciò che la circonda. C’è un confine (una superficie) che delimita l’interno di una sfera dal suo esterno; c’è un confine (una frontiera) che separa il Maryland dalla Pennsylvania. Talvolta la collocazione esatta di un confine non è chiara o è in qualche modo controversa (come quando si cerchi di tracciare i limiti del monte Everest, o il confine del nostro corpo). Talaltra il confine non corrisponde (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Achille C. Varzi (2007). Che cosa ci facciamo qui? In Sandro Montalto (ed.), Umberto Eco: l’uomo che sapeva troppo. Edizioni ETS. 253–256.
    A short dialogue around the question of whether the thoughts expressed by the characters of an historical novel belong to the characters or to the author.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Achille C. Varzi (2007). Congiunzione e contraddizione. In Francesco Altea & Francesco Berto (eds.), Scenari dell’impossibile. La contraddizione nel pensiero contemporaneo. Il Poligrafo. 63–86.
    Italian translation of "Conjunction and Contradiction" (2004), by Francesco Berto.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Achille C. Varzi (2007). Il denaro è un'opera d'arte (o quasi). Quaderni Dell’Associazione Per Lo Sviluppo Degli Studi di Banca E Borsa 24:17–39.
    What is money? Paraphrasing Goodman, I say that’s the wrong question to ask. The right question is, When is money? And to get the answer, Searle’s general formula for social objects (X couns as Y in context C) is fine, as long as you give it a different reading.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Achille C. Varzi (2007). La natura e l'identità degli oggetti materiali. In Annalisa Coliva (ed.), Filosofia analitica. Temi e problemi. Carocci Editore. 17–56.
    A critical survey of the main metaphysical theories concerning the nature of material objects (substratum theories, bundle theories, substance theories, stuff theories) and their identity conditions, both synchronic (monist vs. pluralist theories) and diachronic (three-dimensionalism, four-dimensionalism, sequentialism).
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Achille C. Varzi (2007). Omissions and Causal Explanations. In Francesca Castellani & Josef Quitterer (eds.), Agency and Causation in the Human Sciences. Mentis Verlag. 155–167.
    In previous work I have argued that talk about negative events should not be taken at face value: typically, what we are inclined to think of as a negative event (John’s failure to go jogging) is just an ordinary, positive event (his going to the movie instead); it is a positive event under a negative description. Here I consider more closely the difficulties that arise in those cases where no positive event seems available to do the job, as with putative (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  51. Achille C. Varzi (2007). Promiscuous Endurantism and Diachronic Vagueness. American Philosophical Quarterly 44 (2):181-189.
    According to a popular line of reasoning, diachronic vagueness creates a problem for the endurantist conception of persistence. Some authors have replied that this line of reasoning is inconclusive, since the endurantist can subscribe to a principle of Diachronic Unrestricted Composition (DUC) that is perfectly parallel to the principle required by the perdurantist’s semantic account. I object that the endurantist should better avoid DUC. And I argue that even DUC, if accepted, would fail to provide the endurantist with the necessary (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  52. Achille C. Varzi (2007). Supervaluationism and Its Logics. Mind 116 (463):633-675.
    What sort of logic do we get if we adopt a supervaluational semantics for vagueness? As it turns out, the answer depends crucially on how the standard notion of validity as truth preservation is recasted. There are several ways of doing that within a supervaluational framework, the main alternative being between “global” construals (e.g., an argument is valid iff it preserves truth-under-all-precisifications) and “local” construals (an argument is valid iff, under all precisifications, it preserves truth). The former alternative is by (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  53. Achille C. Varzi (2007). Sul confine tra ontologia e metafisica. Giornale di Metafisica 29 (2):285-303.
    An examination and defense of the view according to which ontology, understood as the theory of what there is, comes before (and can be done without engaging in) metaphysics, understood as the theory of the nature of things.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  54. Achille C. Varzi (2007). Spatial Reasoning and Ontology: Parts, Wholes, and Locations. In Marco Aiello, Ian E. Pratt-Hartmann & Johan van Benthem (eds.), Handbook of Spatial Logics. Springer-Verlag. 945-1038.
    A critical survey of the fundamental philosophical issues in the logic and formal ontology of space, with special emphasis on the interplay between mereology (the theory of parthood relations), topology (broadly understood as a theory of qualitative spatial relations such as continuity and contiguity), and the theory of spatial location proper.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  55. Achille Varzi & Matthew H. Slater (2007). Playing for the Same Team Again. In Jerry L. Walls & Gregory Bassham (eds.), Basketball and Philosophy. University of Kentucky Press.
    The following is a transcript of what might very well have been five telephone conversa- tions between Michael Jordan and former Chicago Bulls coach Phil Jackson in early March 1995, just before the announcement of MJ’s comeback after a year spent pursu- ing a baseball career.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  56. Margaret A. Boden, Roberto Casati & Achille Varzi (2006). Appearance in This List Neither Guarantees nor Precludes a Future Review of the Book. Mind 115:460.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  57. Andrea Borghini & Achille C. Varzi (2006). Event Location and Vagueness. Philosophical Studies 128 (2):313-336.
    Most event-referring expressions are vague; it is utterly difficult, if not impossible, to specify the exact spatiotemporal location of an event from the words that we use to refer to it. We argue that in spite of certain prima facie obstacles, such vagueness can be given a purely semantic (broadly supervaluational) account.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  58. Wolfgang Mann & Achille C. Varzi (2006). Foreword to ''Parts and Wholes''. Journal of Philosophy 103 (12):593-596.
    A brief introductory note to the special issue of the Journal of Philosophy on "Parts and Wholes", setting the background for the seven papers included in the rest of the issue (by K. Fine, H. Hudson, M. Johnston, K. Koslicki, C. Normore, P. M. Simons, and P. van Inwagen).
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  59. Achille Varzi (2006). Event Location and Vagueness. Philosophical Studies 128 (2):313 - 336.
    Most event-referring expressions are vague: it is utterly difficult, if not impossible, to specify the exact spatiotemporal location of an event from the words that we use to refer to it. We argue that in spite of certain prima facie obstacles, such vagueness can be given a purely semantic (broadly supervaluational) account.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  60. Achille Varzi (2006). Foreword. Journal of Philosophy 103 (12):593-596.
    This issue of The Monist is devoted to the metaphysics of lesser kinds, which is to say those kinds of entity that are not generally recognized as occupying a prominent position in the categorial structure of the world. Why bother? We offer two sorts of reason.
    No categories
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  61. Achille C. Varzi (2006). Critical Notice of John Heil, From an Ontological Point of View. [REVIEW] Philosophical Books 47 (2):148-154.
    Book information: John Heil, From an Ontological Point of View, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2003, xv + 267 pp, $45.00 cloth, ISBN 0-19-925974-7.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  62. Achille C. Varzi (2006). A Note on the Transitivity of Parthood. Applied Ontology 1 (2):141-146.
    That parthood is a transitive relation is among the most basic principles of classical mereology. Alas, it is also very controversial. In a recent paper, Ingvar Johansson has put forward a novel diagnosis of the problem, along with a corresponding solution. The diagnosis is on the right track, I argue, but the solution is misleading. And once the pieces are properly put together, we end up with a reinforcement of the standard defense of transitivity on behalf of classical mereology.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  63. Achille C. Varzi (2006). Mancanze, omissioni e descrizioni negative. Rivista di Estetica 32:109-127.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  64. Achille C. Varzi (2006). Strict Identity with No Overlap. Studia Logica 82 (3):371-378.
    It is common lore that standard, Kripke-style semantics for quantified modal logic is incompatible with the view that no individual may belong to more than one possible world, a view that seems to require a counterpart-theoretic semantics instead. Strictly speaking, however, this thought is wrong-headed. This note explains why.
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  65. Achille C. Varzi (2006). The Talk I Was Supposed to Give…. In Andrea Bottani & Richard Davies (eds.), Modes of Existence: Papers in Ontology and Philosophical Logic. Ontos Verlag. 131–152.
    Assuming that events form a genuine ontological category, shall we say that a good inventory of the world ought to include “negative” events—failures, omissions, things that didn’t happen—along with positive ones? I argue that we shouldn’t. Talk of non-occurring events is like talk of non-existing objects and should not be taken at face value. We often speak as though there were such things, but deep down we want our words to be interpreted in such a way as to avoid serious (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  66. Achille C. Varzi (2006). The Universe Among Other Things. Ratio 19 (1):107–120.
    Peter Simons has argued that the expression ‘the universe’ is not a genuine singular term: it can name neither a single, completely encompassing individual, nor a collection of individuals. (It is, rather, a semantically plural term standing equally for every existing object.) I offer reasons for resisting Simons’s arguments on both scores.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  67. Achille C. Varzi (2006). What is to Be Done? Topoi 25 (1-2):129-131.
    If the question is: what is to be done for philosophy?, then it calls for a political answer and I have little to say besides the obvious. If the question is: what is to be done in philosophy?, then I’m stuck. Drawing up a list of to-do’s and not-to-do’s would not, I think, be a good way to honor the general conception of philosophy that inspired Topoi throughout these years, and that I deeply share.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  68. Achille C. Varzi & Giuliano Torrengo (2006). Crimes and Punishments. Philosophia 34 (4):395-404.
    Every criminal act ought to be matched by a corresponding punishment, or so we may suppose, and every punishment ought to reflect a criminal act. We know how to count punishments. But how do we count crimes? In particular, how does our notion of a criminal action depend on whether the prohibited action is an activity, an accomplishment, an achievement, or a state?
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  69. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2005). Esercizi di attenzione. Riga 24:398–403.
    A brief study of Saul Steinberg’s works on shadows and reflections, and of the seemingly paradoxical world that emerges from such works.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  70. Elena Casetta & Achille C. Varzi (2005). On Location: Aristotle's Concept of Place. Dialectica 59 (1):75–81.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  71. Achille C. Varzi (2005). Beth Too, but Only If. Analysis 65 (287):224–229.
    On the difficulty of extracting the logical form of a seemingly simple sentence such as ‘If Andy went to the movie then Beth went too, but only if she found a taxi cab’, with some morals and questions on the nature of the difficulty.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  72. Achille C. Varzi (2005). Change, Temporal Parts, and the Argument From Vagueness. Dialectica 59 (4):485–498.
    The so-called "argument from vagueness", the clearest formulation of which is to be found in Ted Sider’s book Four-dimensionalism, is arguably the most powerful and innovative argument recently offered in support of the view that objects are four-dimensional perdurants. The argument is defective--I submit--and in a number of ways that is worth looking into. But each "defect" corresponds to a model of change that is independently problematic and that can hardly be built into the common-sense picture of the world. So (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  73. Achille C. Varzi (2005). Teoria e pratica dei confini. Sistemi Intelligenti 17 (3):399–418.
    Are there any bona fide boundaries, i.e., boundaries that carve at the joints? Or is any boundary—hence any object—the result of a fiat articulation reflecting our cognitive biases and our social practices and conventions? Does the choice between these two options amount to a choice between realism and wholesome relativism?
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  74. Achille C. Varzi (2005). The Vagueness of ‘Vague’: Rejoinder to Hull. Mind 114 (455):695-702.
    A rejoinder to G. Hull’s reply to my Mind 2003. Hull argues that Sorensen’s purported proof that ‘vague’ is vague--which I defended against certain familiar objections--fails. He offers three reasons: (i) the vagueness exhibited by Sorensen’s sorites is just the vagueness of ‘small’; (ii) the general assumption underlying the proof, to the effect that predicates which possess borderline cases are vague, is mistaken; (iii) the conclusion of the proof is unacceptable, for it is possible to create Sorensen-type sorites even for (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  75. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2004). Counting the Holes. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):23 – 27.
    Argle claimed that holes supervene on their material hosts, and that every truth about holes boils down to a truth about perforated things. This may well be right, assuming holes are perforations. But we still need an explicit theory of holes to do justice to the ordinary way of counting holes--or so says Cargle.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  76. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2004). Counting the Holes. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):23 – 27.
    Argle claimed that holes supervene on their material hosts, and that every truth about holes boils down to a truth about perforated things. This may well be right, assuming holes are perforations. But we still need an explicit theory of holes to do justice to the ordinary way of counting holes--or so says Cargle.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  77. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2004). Counting the Holes. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):23 – 27.
    Argle claimed that holes supervene on their material hosts, and that every truth about holes boils down to a truth about perforated things. This may well be right, assuming holes are perforations. But we still need an explicit theory of holes to do justice to the ordinary way of counting holes--or so says Cargle.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  78. Elena Casetta & Achille C. Varzi (2004). RedPill®. In Massimiliano Cappuccio (ed.), Dentro la matrice. Filosofia, scienza e spiritualità in Matrix. Alboversorio. 29–35.
    The red pill or the blue pill? Obviously the red. But are we sure it will work the way it is supposed to? Are we sure it will take us out of the Matrix? We are proud to announce that we have found a document that will throw some new light (and a renewed cloud of suspicion) on this matter: the product packaging of RedPill®, complete with all directions for use and warnings against side-effects.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  79. Achille Varzi (2004). Counting the Holes. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (1):23-27.
    Argle claimed that holes supervene on their material hosts, and that every truth about holes boils down to a truth about perforated things. This may well be right, assuming holes are perforations. But we still need an explicit theory of holes to do justice to the ordinary way of counting holes--or so says Cargle.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  80. Achille C. Varzi (2004). Conjunction and Contradiction. In Graham Priest, J. C. Beall & Bradley Armour-Garb (eds.), The Law of Non-Contradiction: New Philosophical Essays. Clarendon Press. 93–110.
    There are two ways of understanding the notion of a contradiction: as a conjunction of a statement and its negation, or as a pair of statements one of which is the negation of the other. Correspondingly, there are two ways of understanding the Law of Non-Contradiction (LNC), i.e., the law that says that no contradictions can be true. In this paper I offer some arguments to the effect that on the first (collective) reading LNC is non-negotiable, but on the second (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  81. Achille C. Varzi (2004). Identità Indeterminate E Indeterminatezza Linguistica. Rivista di Estetica 44 (26):285-301.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  82. Achille C. Varzi (2004). Sulla relatività logica. In Massimiliano Carrara & Pierdaniele Giaretta (eds.), Filosofia e logica. Rubbettino Editore. 135–173.
  83. Achille C. Varzi (2004). Self-Reference Self-Explained. PhiNews 6:36–39.
    A dialogue among statements that try to explain to each other the mechanisms and peculiarities of self-referential assertions and, particularly, of their context-dependence.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  84. Achille C. Varzi & Laure Vieu (eds.) (2004). Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Proceedings of the Third International Conference. IOS Press.
    Just as ontology developed over the centuries as part of philosophy, so in recent years ontology has become intertwined with the development of the information sciences. Researchers in various fields have come to realize that a solid foundation for their projects calls for an explicit theorization of the types of entities and relations that make up their respective domains of inquiry, and as the need for integrating such projects arises, so does the need to identify common ontological principles over ad (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  85. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2003). Sfondo e figura. Rivista di Estetica 43 (24):38-40.
    A dialogue between a figure and its background, illustrating that the perceptual conditions that determine which is which are not as clear as standard Gestalt theory dictates.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  86. Anthony G. Cohn & Achille C. Varzi (2003). Mereotopological Connection. Journal of Philosophical Logic 32 (4):357-390.
    The paper outlines a model-theoretic framework for investigating and comparing a variety of mereotopological theories. In the first part we consider different ways of characterizing a mereotopology with respect to (i) the intended interpretation of the connection primitive, and (ii) the composition of the admissible domains of quantification (e.g., whether or not they include boundary elements). The second part extends this study by considering two further dimensions along which different patterns of topological connection can be classified - the strength of (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  87. Maurizio Ferraris & Achille C. Varzi (2003). Che cosa c’è e che cos’è. Nous. Postille Su Pensieri 1:81–101.
    A philosophical exchange broadly inspired by the characters of Berkeley’s Three Dialogues. Hylas is the realist philosopher: the view he stands up for reflects a robust metaphysic that is reassuringly close to common sense, grounded on the twofold persuasion that the world comes structured into entities of various kinds and at various levels and that it is the task of philosophy, if not of science generally, to “bring to light” that structure. Philonous, by contrast, is the anti-realist philosopher (though not (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  88. A. C. Varzi (2003). Perdurantism, Universalism, and Quantifiers. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (2):208 – 215.
    I argue that the conjunction of perdurantism (the view that objects are temporally extended) and universalism (the thesis that any old class of things has a mereological fusion) gives rise to undesired complications when combined with certain plausible assumptions concerning the semantics of tensed statements.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  89. Achille C. Varzi (2003). Cut-Offs and Their Neighbors. In Jc Beall (ed.), Liars and Heaps: New Essays on Paradox. Clarendon Press. 24–38.
    In ‘Towards a Solution to the Sorites Paradox’, Graham Priest gives us a new account of the sorites based on fuzzy logic. The novelty lies in the suggestion that truth-value assignments should themselves be treated as fuzzy objects, i.e., objects about which we can make fuzzy identity statements. I argue that Priest’s solution does not have the explanatory force that Priest advocates. That is, it does not explain why we find the existence of a cut-off point counter-intuitive. I also argue (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  90. Achille C. Varzi (2003). Entia successiva. Rivista di Estetica 43 (1):139-158.
    The theory according to which most ordinary objects are mere “entia successiva”—sequences of distinct mereological aggregates, whose unity resides exclusively in our minds—is a variant of the standard, three-dimensional conception of objects. For the aggregates are, at bottom, endurants, i.e., entities that persist through time by being fully present at any time at which they exist. In this paper I compare this theory with the so-called “stage view”, according to which ordinary objects—indeed, all objects—are sequences of momentary entities that cannot (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  91. Achille C. Varzi (2003). Higher-Order Vagueness and the Vagueness of ‘Vague’. Mind 112 (446):295–298.
    R. Sorensen’s argument to the effect that ’vague’ is a vague predicate has been used by D. Hyde to infer that vague predicates suffer from higher-order vagueness. M. Tye has objected (convincingly) that this is too strong: all that follows from Sorensen’s result is that there are some border border cases, but not necessarily border border cases of every vague predicate. I argue that this is still too strong: Sorensen’s proof presupposes the existence of border border cases, hence cannot be (...)
    Direct download (10 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  92. Achille C. Varzi (2003). Naming the Stages. Dialectica 57 (4):387–412.
    Standard lore has it that a proper name is a temporally rigid designator. It picks out the same entity at every time at which it picks out an entity at all. If the entity in question is an enduring continuant then we know what this means, though we are also stuck with a host of metaphysical puzzles concerning endurance itself. If the entity in question is a perdurant then the rigidity claim is trivial, though one is left wondering how it (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  93. Achille C. Varzi (2003). Ontologia: dove comincia e dove finisce. Sistemi Intelligenti 15 (3):493–506.
    As Quine famously argued, the answer to the question: ‘What Is There’ is just: ‘Everything’. But to say ‘Everything’ is to say nothing. So we need to go further. This paper deals with the question of whether we can go any further in ontology without doing metaphysics proper.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  94. Achille C. Varzi (2003). Perdurantism, Universalism, and Quantifiers. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 81 (2):208-215.
    I argue that the conjunction of perdurantism (the view that objects are temporally extended) and universalism (the thesis that any old class of things has a mereological fusion) gives rise to undesired complications when combined with certain plausible assumptions concerning the semantics of tensed statements.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  95. Achille C. Varzi (2003). Reasoning About Space: The Hole Story. Logic and Logical Philosophy 4:3-39.
    This is a revised and extended version of the formal theory of holes outlined in the Appendix to the book "Holes and Other Superficialities". The first part summarizes the basic framework (ontology, mereology, topology, morphology). The second part emphasizes its relevance to spatial reasoning and to the semantics of spatial prepositions in natural language. In particular, I discuss the semantics of ‘in’ and provide an account of such fallacious arguments as “There is a hole in the sheet. The sheet is (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  96. Achille C. Varzi (2003). Vagueness. In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group.
    A critical survey of the main theories about vagueness, organized in four main sections: (i) What is vagueness? (ii) Problems and paradoxes; (iii) Theories of vagueness; (iv) Vagueness and cognitive science.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  97. Achille C. Varzi (2003). Vagueness. In Lynn Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science, Vol. 4. Nature Publishing Group. 459–464.
    This is an encyclopedia entry on vagueness, focusing mainly on the opposition between re re and de dicta (linguistic or cognitive) accounts.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  98. Massimo Warglien & Achille C. Varzi (2003). The Geometry of Negation. Journal of Applied Non-Classical Logics 13 (1):9-19.
    There are two natural ways of thinking about negation: (i) as a form of complementation and (ii) as an operation of reversal, or inversion (to deny that p is to say that things are “the other way around”). A variety of techniques exist to model conception (i), from Euler and Venn diagrams to Boolean algebras. Conception (ii), by contrast, has not been given comparable attention. In this note we outline a twofold geometric proposal, where the inversion metaphor is understoood as (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  99. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2002). Un Altro Mondo? Rivista di Estetica 19 (1):131-159.
    No categories
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  100. Luca Morena, Roderick Chisholm, Avrum Stroll, Peter Simons, Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (2002). Oggetti fiat. Rivista di Estetica 42 (20):3-90.
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  101. Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (2002). Surrounding Space. Theory in Biosciences 121:139-162.
    The history of evolution is a history of development from less to more complex organisms. This growth in complexity of organisms goes hand in hand with a concurrent growth in complexity of environments and of organism-environment relations. It is a concern with this latter aspect of evolutionary development that motivates the present paper. We begin by outlining a theory of organism-environment relations. We then show that the theory can be applied to a range of different sorts of cases, both biological (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  102. Achille C. Varzi (2002). On Logical Relativity. Noûs 36 (s1):197-219.
    One logic or many? I say—many. Or rather, I say there is one logic for each way of specifying the class of all possible circumstances, or models, i.e., all ways of interpreting a given language. But because there is no unique way of doing this, I say there is no unique logic except in a relative sense. Indeed, given any two competing logical theories T1 and T2 (in the same language) one could always consider their common core, T, and settle (...)
    Direct download (11 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  103. Achille C. Varzi (2002). Parti Connesse E Interi Sconnessi. Rivista di Estetica 42 (20):87-90.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  104. Achille C. Varzi (2002). Words and Objects. In Andrea Bottani, Massimiliano Carrara & Daniele Giaretta (eds.), Individuals, Essence, and Identity. Themes of Analytic Metaphysics. Kluwer. 49–75.
    A lot of work in metaphysics relies on linguistic analysis and intuitions. Do we want to know what sort of things there are or could be? Then let’s see what sort of things there must be in order for what we truthfully say to be true. Do we want to see whether x is distinct from y? Then let’s see whether there is any statement that is true of x but not of y. And so on. In this paper I (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  105. Massimiliano Carrara & Achille C. Varzi (2001). Ontological Commitment and Reconstructivism. Erkenntnis 55 (1):33-50.
    Some forms of analytic reconstructivism take natural language (and common sense at large) to be ontologically opaque: ordinary sentences must be suitably rewritten or paraphrased before questions of ontological commitment may be raised. Other forms of reconstructivism take the commitment of ordinary language at face value, but regard it as metaphysically misleading: common-sense objects exist, but they are not what we normally think they are. This paper is an attempt to clarify and critically assess some common limits of these two (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  106. Robert Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2001). That Useless Time Machine. Philosophy 76 (4):581-583.
    Dear ‘Time Machine’ Research Group; if in order to travel to the past one has to have been there already, and if one can only do what has already been done, then why build a time machine in the first place? À quoi bon l'effort?
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  107. Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (2001). Environmental Metaphysics. In Metaphysics in the Post-Metaphysical Age. Proceedings of the 22nd International Wittgenstein-Symposium. öbv&hpt.
    We propose the beginnings of a general theory of environments, of the parts or regions of space in which organisms live and move. We draw on two sources: on the one hand on recent work on the ontology of space; and on the other hand on work by ecological scientists on concepts such as territory, habitat, and niche. An environment is in first approximation a volume of space; it is a specific habitat, location, or site that is suitable or adequate (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  108. A. C. Varzi (2001). Occasions of Identity: The Metaphysics of Persistence, Change, and Sameness. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (2):291 – 295.
    Book Information Occasions of Identity: The Metaphysics of Persistence, Change, and Sameness. By A. Gallois. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1998. Pp. xiii + 296. Hardback, £35.00.
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  109. Achille Varzi (2001). Ontological Commitment and Reconstructivism. Erkenntnis 55 (1):33 - 50.
    Some forms of analytic reconstructivism take natural language (and common sense at large) to be ontologically opaque: ordinary sentences must be suitably rewritten or paraphrased before questions of ontological commitment may be raised. Other forms of reconstructivism take the commitment of ordinary language at face value, but regard it as metaphysically misleading: common-sense objects exist, but they are not what we normally think they are. This paper is an attempt to clarify and critically assess some common limits of these two (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  110. Achille Varzi (2001). That Useless Time Machine. Philosophy 76 (298):581 - 583.
    Dear "Time Machine" Research Group: if in order to travel to the past one has to have been there already, and if one can only do what has already been done, then why build a time machine in the first place? À quoi bon l’effort?
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  111. Achille C. Varzi (2001). Review of Amie L. Thomasson, Fiction and Metaphysics. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 63 (3):723-727.
    Book Information: Thomasson, Amie L., Fiction and Metaphysics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999), pp. xii, 175, $49.95.
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  112. Achille C. Varzi (2001). Review of André Gallois, Occasions of Identity: The Metaphysics of Persistence, Change, and Sameness. [REVIEW] Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (2):291–295.
    Book Information: Occasions of Identity: The Metaphysics of Persistence, Change, and Sameness. By André Gallois. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1998. Pp. xiii + 296. Hardback, £35.00.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  113. Achille C. Varzi (2001). Introduction. Topoi 20 (2):119-130.
    Peirce once complained about the existence of nearly a hundred different definitions of logic. That was 1901—before the publication of the Prin- cipia and all that followed; before the tremendous growth of non-classical logics in the second half of this century and before the impressive development of logical calculi in various areas of computer science. If there were a hundred definitions then, today there are a hundred different theories, each of which stems from a different way of answering the question: (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  114. Achille C. Varzi (2001). I confini del Cervino. In Vincenzo Fano, Gino Tarozzi & Massimo Stanzione (eds.), Prospettive della logica e della filosofia della scienza. Atti del convegno triennale della Società Italiana di Logica e Filosofia delle Scienze. Rubbettino Editore. 431–445.
    Some philosophers have argued that the vagueness exhibited by names and descriptions such as ‘Mount Everest’, ‘Downtown Manhattan’, or ‘that cloud in the sky’ is ultimately ontological: they are vague because they refer to vague objects, objects with fuzzy boundaries. I take the opposite stand and argue for the view that all vagueness is semantic. There is no such thing as a vague mountain. Rather, there are many things where we conceive the mountain to be, each with its precise boundary, (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  115. Achille C. Varzi (2001). L'autoriferimento si spiega da sé. Rivista di Estetica 41 (18):5-7.
    A dialogue among statements that try to explain to each other the mechanisms and peculiarities of self-referential assertions and, particularly, of their context-dependence.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  116. Achille C. Varzi (2001). Parts, Counterparts and Modal Occurents. Travaux de Logique 14 (1):151-171.
    The paper investigates the link between the theory of modal occurrents (where individuals are allowed to stretch across possible worlds) and Lewis’s counterpart theory (where all individuals are world-bound but have counterparts in other worlds). First I show how to interpret modal talk extensionally within the theory of modal occurrents. Then I show that the assumption that worlds be pairwise discrete is all that is needed to reconstruct the bulk of counterpart theory (i.e., to define the concept of a counterpart (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  117. Achille C. Varzi (2001). Philosophical Issues in Geography—An Introduction. Topoi 20 (2):119–130.
    An outline of the wealth of philosophical material that hides behind the flat world of geographic maps, with special reference to (i) the centrality of the boundary concept, (ii) the problem of vagueness, and (iii) the metaphysical question (if such there be) of the identity and persistence conditions of geographic entities.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  118. Achille C. Varzi (2001). The Best Question. Journal of Philosophical Logic 30 (3):251-258.
    Suppose we get a chance to ask an angel a question of our choice. What should we ask to make the most of our unique opportunity? Ned Markosian has shown that the task is trickier than it might seem. Ted Sider has suggested playing safe and asking: What is the true proposition (or one of the true propositions) that would be most beneficial for us to be told? Let's see whether we can do any better than that.
    Direct download (12 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  119. Achille C. Varzi (2001). Vagueness in Geography. Philosophy and Geography 4 (1):49–65.
    Some have argued that the vagueness exhibited by geographic names and descriptions such as ‘Albuquerque’, ‘the Outback’, or ‘Mount Everest’ is ultimately ontological: these terms are vague because they refer to vague objects, objects with fuzzy boundaries. I take the opposite stand and hold the view that geographic vagueness is exclusively semantic, or conceptual at large. There is no such thing as a vague mountain. Rather, there are many things where we conceive a mountain to be, each with its precise (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  120. Roberto Casati & Achille Varzi (2000). True and False: An Exchange. In André Chapuis & Anil Gupta (eds.), Circularity, Definition, and Truth. Sole Distributor, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. 365--370.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  121. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2000). Topological Essentialism. Philosophical Studies 100 (3):217-236.
    Considering topology as an extension of mereology, this paper analyses topological variants of mereological essentialism (the thesis that an object could not have different parts than the ones it has). In particular, we examine de dicto and de re versions of two theses: (i) that an object cannot change its external connections (e.g., adjacent objects cannot be separated), and (ii) that an object cannot change its topological genus (e.g., a doughnut cannot turn into a sphere). Stronger forms of structural essentialism, (...)
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  122. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2000). All the Things You Are. In Gabriele Usberti (ed.), Modi dell’oggettività. Bompiani. 77–85.
    An imaginary dialogue between Andrea Bonomi and Gonzalo Pirobutirro (the main character of Gadda’s novel La cognizione del dolore) aiming to challenge Bonomi’s tenet that a work of fiction defines a domain of objects which is closed with respect to the actual world.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  123. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (2000). True and False: An Exchange. In André Chapuis & Anil Gupta (eds.), Circularity, Definition, and Truth. Indian Council of Philosophical Research. 365-370.
    Classically, truth and falsehood are opposite, and so are logical truth and logical falsehood. In this paper we imagine a situation in which the opposition is so pervasive in the language we use as to threaten the very possibility of telling truth from falsehood. The example exploits a suggestion of Ramsey’s to the effect that negation can be expressed simply by writing the negated sentence upside down. The difference between ‘p’ and ‘~~p’ disappears, the principle of double negation becomes trivial, (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  124. John D. Collins & Achille C. Varzi (2000). Unsharpenable Vagueness. Philosophical Topics 28 (1):1-10.
    A plausible thought about vagueness is that it involves semantic incompleteness. To say that a predicate is vague is to say (at the very least) that its extension is incompletely specified. Where there is incomplete specification of extension there is indeterminacy, an indeterminacy between various ways in which the specification of the predicate might be completed or sharpened. In this paper we show that this idea is bound to founder by presenting an argument to the effect that there are vague (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  125. James Higginbotham, Fabio Pianesi & Achille C. Varzi (eds.) (2000). Speaking of Events. Oxford University Press.
    The idea that an adequate semantics of ordinary language calls for some theory of events has sparked considerable debate among linguists and philosophers. On the one hand, so many linguistic phenomena appear to be explained if (and, according to some authors, only if) we make room for logical forms in which reference to or quantification over events is explicitly featured. Examples include nominalization, adverbial modification, tense and aspect, plurals, and singular causal statements. On the other hand, a number of deep (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  126. Philip Kitcher & Achille C. Varzi (2000). Some Pictures Are Worth 2[Aleph]0 Sentences. Philosophy 75 (3):377-381.
    According to the cliché a picture is worth a thousand words. But this is a canard, for it vastly underestimates the expressive power of many pictures and diagrams. In this note we show that even a simple map such as the outline of Manhattan Island, accompanied by a pointer marking North, implies a vast infinity of statements—including a vast infinity of true statements.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  127. K. Philip & A. Varzi (2000). Some Pictures Are Worth 2 Sentences. Philosophy 75 (3).
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  128. Fabio Pianesi & Achille C. Varzi (2000). Events and Event Talk: An Introduction. In James Higginbotham, Fabio Pianesi & Achille C. Varzi (eds.), Speaking of Events. Oxford University Press. 3--47.
  129. Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (2000). Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60 (2):401-420.
    There is a basic distinction, in the realm of spatial boundaries, between bona fide boundaries on the one hand, and fiat boundaries on the other. The former are just the physical boundaries of old. The latter are exemplified especially by boundaries induced through human demarcation, for example in the geographic domain. The classical problems connected with the notions of adjacency, contact, separation and division can be resolved in an intuitive way by recognizing this two-sorted ontology of boundaries. Bona fide boundaries (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  130. Achille Varzi (2000). Some Pictures Are Worth 2ℵ 0 Sentences. Philosophy 75 (293):377 - 381.
    According to the cliché a picture is worth a thousand words. But this is a canard, for it vastly underestimates the expressive power of many pictures and diagrams. In this note we show that even a simple map such as the outline of Manhattan Island, accompanied by a pointer marking North, implies a vast infinity of statements–including a vast infinity of true statements.
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  131. Achille Varzi (2000). Topological Essentialism. Philosophical Studies 100 (3):217 - 236.
    Considering topology as an extension of mereology, this paper analyses topological variants of mereological essentialism (the thesis that an object could not have different parts than the ones it has). In particular, we examine de dicto and de re versions of two theses: (i) that an object cannot change its external connections (e.g., adjacent objects cannot be separated), and (ii) that an object cannot change its topological genus (e.g., a doughnut cannot turn into a sphere). Stronger forms of structural essentialism, (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  132. Achille C. Varzi (2000). Foreword to ''Temporal Parts''. The Monist 83 (3):319-320.
    A brief introductory note to the Monist issue on "Temporal Parts", setting the background for the eight papers included in the rest of the issue (by Y. Balashov, B. Brogaard, K. Fine, M. Heller, R. LePoidevin, J. Parsons, P. M. Simons, and P. van Inwagen).
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  133. Achille C. Varzi (2000). Mereological Commitments. Dialectica 54 (4):283–305.
    We tend to talk about (refer to, quantify over) parts in the same way in which we talk about whole objects. Yet a part is not something to be included in an inventory of the world over and above the whole to which it belongs, and a whole is not something to be included in the inventory over and above its constituent parts. This paper is an attempt to clarify a way of dealing with this tension which may be labeled (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  134. Achille C. Varzi (2000). Nisza. Filozofia Nauki 3.
    The concept of niche (setting, context, habitat, environment) has been little studied by ontologists, in spite of its wide application in a variety of disciplines from evolutionary biology to economics. What follows is a first formal theory of this concept, a theory of the relations between objects and their niches. The theory builds upon existing work on mereology, topology, and the theory of spatial location as tools of formal ontology. It is illustrated above all by means of simple biological examples, (...)
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  135. Achille C. Varzi (2000). Supervaluationism and Paraconsistency. In Diderik Batens, Chris Mortensen, Graham Priest & Jean Paul Van Bendegem (eds.), Frontiers in Paraconsistent Logic. Research Studies Press. 279–297.
    Since its first appearance in 1966, the notion of a supervaluation has been regarded by many as a powerful tool for dealing with semantic gaps. Only recently, however, applications to semantic gluts have also been considered. In previous work I proposed a general framework exploiting the intrinsic gap/glut duality. Here I also examine an alternative account where gaps and gluts are treated on a par: although they reflect opposite situations, the semantic upshot is the same in both cases--the value of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  136. Achille Varzi, James Higginbotham & Fabio Pianesi (eds.) (2000). Speaking of Events. Oxford University Press.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  137. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1999). Parts and Places. The Structures of Spatial Representation. The Mit Press.
    Thinking about space is thinking about spatial things. The table is on the carpet; hence the carpet is under the table. The vase is in the box; hence the box is not in the vase. But what does it mean for an object to be somewhere? How are objects tied to the space they occupy? This book is concerned with these and other fundamental issues in the philosophy of spatial representation. Our starting point is an analysis of the interplay between (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  138. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1999). I trabocchetti della rappresentazione spaziale. Sistemi Intelligent 11 (1):7–28.
    This is a position article summarizing our approach to the philosophy of space and spatial representation. Our concern is mostly methodological: above all, we argue that a number of philosophical puzzles that arise in this field—puzzles concerning the nature of spatial entities, their material and mereological constitution, their relationship with the space that they occupy—stem from a confusion between semantic issues and true metaphysical concerns.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  139. Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (1999). The Formal Structure of Ecological Contexts. In CONTEXT ‘99: Modeling and Using Context.
    The ecological literature distinguishes between two ways of conceiving a “niche” (habitat, ecotope, biotope, microlandscape) [22, 39]. On the one hand, there is the traditional functional conception of a niche as the role or position enjoyed by an organism or population within an ecological community. As C. Elton [14] famously put it, “When an ecologist says ‘there goes a badger’ he should include in his thoughts some definite idea of the animal’s place in the community to which it belongs, just (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  140. Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (1999). The Niche. Noûs 33 (2):214-238.
    The concept of niche (setting, context, habitat, environment) has been little studied by ontologists, in spite of its wide application in a variety of disciplines from evolutionary biology to economics. What follows is a first formal theory of this concept, a theory of the relations between objects and their niches. The theory builds upon existing work on mereology, topology, and the theory of spatial location as tools of formal ontology. It will be illustrated above all by means of simple biological (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  141. Achille Varzi (1999). The Niche. Noûs 33 (2):214 - 238.
    The concept of niche (setting, context, habitat, environment) has been little studied by ontologists, in spite of its wide application in a variety of disciplines from evolutionary biology to economics. What follows is a first formal theory of this concept, a theory of the relations between objects and their niches. The theory builds upon existing work on mereology, topology, and the theory of spatial location as tools of formal ontology. It is illustrated above all by means of simple biological examples, (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  142. Achille C. Varzi (1999). The Nature of Logic. CSLI.
    This volume aims to offer an up-to-date indication of the on-going debate on the nature of logic. The focus is on questions pertaining to the existence and individuation of clear boundaries delineating the concerns of logic: What is their distinctive character? What makes logic a subject of its own, separate from (and generally in the background of) the concerns of other disciplines? What is it for an expression to be a logical constant? Or, perhaps equivalently, what is it for an (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  143. Achille C. Varzi (1999). Le strutture dell'ordinario. In Luigi Lombardi Vallauri (ed.), Logos dell’essere, logos della norma. Editrice Adriatica. 489–530.
    The general hypothesis underlying this work is that mereology (the study of the relations between an entity and its parts) and topology (understood as the study of the qualitative relations of connection and compactness) may jointly constitute adequate grounds for the formal-ontological analysis of the world of ordinary experience. The analysis focuses on certain minimal (structural) principles on the basis of which different philosophical theories may be erected.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  144. Achille C. Varzi (1999). Storie di Macchine. [REVIEW] la Rivista Dei Libri 9 (11):29–31.
    Roberto Cordeschi, La scoperta dell’artificiale. Psicologia, filosofia e macchine intorno alla cibernetica, Milano, Masson–Dunod, 1998, pp. 320; Domenico Parisi, Mente: I nuovi modelli della Vita Artificiale, Bologna, Il Mulino, 1999, pp. 200.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  145. Roberto Casati, Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (1998). Ontological Tools for Geographic Representation. In Nicola Guarino (ed.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems (FOIS). Ios Press. 77--85.
    This paper is concerned with certain ontological issues in the foundations of geographic representation. It sets out what these basic issues are, describes the tools needed to deal with them, and draws some implications for a general theory of spatial representation. Our approach has ramifications in the domains of mereology, topology, and the theory of location, and the question of the interaction of these three domains within a unified spatial representation theory is addressed. In the final part we also consider (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  146. Francesco Orilia & Achille C. Varzi (1998). A Note on Analysis and Circular Definitions. Grazer Philosophische Studien 54:107-113.
    Analyses, in the simplest form assertions that aim to capture an intimate link between two concepts, are viewed since Russell's theory of definite descriptions as analyzing descriptions. Analysis therefore has to obey the laws governing definitions including some form of a Substitutivity Principle (SP). Once (SP) is accepted the road to the paradox of analysis is open. Popular reactions to the paradox involve the fundamental assumption (SV) that sentences differing only in containing an analysandum resp. an analysans express the same (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  147. Achille Varzi (1998). A Note on Analysis and Circular Definitions. Grazer Philosophische Studien 54:107-113.
    Analyses, in the simplest form assertions that aim to capture an intimate link between two concepts, are viewed since Russell's theory of definite descriptions as analyzing descriptions. Analysis therefore has to obey the laws governing definitions including some form of a Substitutivity Principle (SP). Once (SP) is accepted the road to the paradox of analysis is open. Popular reactions to the paradox involve the fundamental assumption (SV) that sentences differing only in containing an analysandum resp. an analysans express the same (...)
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  148. Achille C. Varzi (1998). Basic Problems of Mereotopology. In Nicola Guarino (ed.), Formal Ontology in Information Systems. Ios Press.
    No categories
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  149. Achille C. Varzi (1998). Review of Susan Haack, Deviant Logic, Fuzzy Logic: Beyond the Formalism. [REVIEW] Philosophical Review 107 (3):468-471.
    Book information: Deviant Logic, Fuzzy Logic: Beyond The Formalism. By SUSAN HAACK. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press, 1996. Pp. xxvi, 291.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  150. Achille C. Varzi (1998). Deviant Logic, Fuzzy Logic. Philosophical Review 107 (3):468-471.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  151. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1997). Perché i buchi sono importanti. Problemi di rappresentazione spaziale. Sapere 63 (2):38–43.
    The methodological anarchy that characterizes much recent research in artificial intelligence and other cognitive sciences has brought into existence (sometimes resumed) a large variety of entities from a correspondingly large variety of (sometimes dubious) ontological categories. Recent work in spatial representation and reasoning is particularly indicative of this trend. Our aim in this paper is to suggest some ways of reconciling such a luxurious proliferation of entities with the sheer sobriety of good philosophy.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  152. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1997). Spatial Entities. In Oliviero Stock (ed.), Spatial and Temporal Reasoning. Kluwer. 73–96.
    Ordinary reasoning about space—we argue—is first and foremost reasoning about things or events located in space. Accordingly, any theory concerned with the construction of a general model of our spatial competence must be grounded on a general account of the sort of entities that may enter into the scope of the theory. Moreover, on the methodological side the emphasis on spatial entities (as opposed to purely geometrical items such as points or regions) calls for a reexamination of the conceptual categories (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  153. Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (1997). Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries: Towards an Ontology of Spatially Extended Objects. In Spatial Information Theory. International Conference COSIT ‘97. Springer. 103–119.
    Human cognitive acts are directed towards objects extended in space of a wide range of different types. What follows is a new proposal for bringing order into this typological clutter. The theory of spatially extended objects should make room not only for the objects of physics but also for objects at higher levels, including the objects of geography and of related disciplines. It should leave room for different types of boundaries, including both the bona fide boundaries which we find in (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  154. Barry Smith & Achille C. Varzi (1997). The Formal Ontology of Boundaries. Electronic Journal of Analytic Philosophy 5 (5).
    Revised version published as Barry Smith and Achille Varzi, “Fiat and Bona Fide Boundaries”, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 60: 2 (March 2000), 401–420.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  155. Achille C. Varzi (1997). Boundaries, Continuity, and Contact. Noûs 31 (1):26-58.
    There are conflicting intuitions concerning the status of a boundary separating two adjacent entities (or two parts of the same entity). The boundary cannot belong to both things, for adjacency excludes overlap; and it cannot belong to neither, for nothing lies between two adjacent things. Yet how can the dilemma be avoided without assigning the boundary to one thing or the other at random? Some philosophers regard this as a reductio of the very notion of a boundary, which should accordingly (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (15 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  156. Achille C. Varzi (1997). Inconsistency Without Contradiction. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 38 (4):621-639.
    David Lewis has argued that impossible worlds are nonsense: if there were such worlds, one would have to distinguish between the truths about their contradictory goings-on and contradictory falsehoods about them; and this--Lewis argues--is preposterous. In this paper I examine a way of resisting this argument by giving up the assumption that ‘in so-and-so world’ is a restricting modifier which passes through the truth-functional connectives The outcome is a sort of subvaluational semantics which makes a contradiction ‘A & ~A’ false (...)
    Direct download (8 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  157. Roberto Casati & Achille C. Varzi (1996). The Structure of Spatial Localization. Philosophical Studies 82 (2):205 - 239.
    Material objects, such as tables and chairs, have an intimate relationship with space. They have to be somewhere. They must possess an address at which they are found. Under this aspect, they are in good company. Events, too, such as Caesar’s death and John’s buttering of the toast, and more elusive entities, such as the surface of the table, have an address, difficult as it may be to specify. A stronger notion presents itself, though. Some entities may not only be (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  158. Justin Leiber, Robert M. French, John A. Barnden, Syed S. Ali, Richard Wyatt, Timothy R. Colburn, Brian Harvey, Norman R. Gall, Susan G. Josephson, Francesco Orilia & Achille C. Varzi (1996). Book Reviews. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 6 (1):89-129.
  159. F. Orilia & A. C. Varzi (1996). Anil Gupta and Nuel Belnap, The Revision Theory of Truth. Minds and Machines 6:124-129.
  160. Francesco Orilia & Achille C. Varzi (1996). Truth and Circular Definitions. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 6 (1):124–129.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  161. Fabio Pianesi & Achille C. Varzi (1996). Refining Temporal Reference in Event Structures. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 37 (1):71-83.
    This paper expands on the theory of event structures put forward in previous work by further investigating the subtle connections between time and events. Specifically, in the first part we generalize the notion of an event structure to that of a refinement structure, where various degrees of temporal granularity are accommodated. In the second part we investigate how these structures can account for the context-dependence of temporal structures in natural language semantics.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  162. Fabio Pianesi & Achille C. Varzi (1996). Events, Topology and Temporal Relations. The Monist 79 (1):89--116.
    We are used to regarding actions and other events, such as Brutus’ stabbing of Caesar or the sinking of the Titanic, as occupying intervals of some underlying linearly ordered temporal dimension. This attitude is so natural and compelling that one is tempted to disregard the obvious difference between time periods and actual happenings in favor of the former: events become mere “intervals cum description”.1 On the other hand, in ordinary circumstances the point of talking about time is to talk about (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  163. Achille Varzi (1996). Events, Topology and Temporal Relations. The Monist 79 (1):89-116.
    In the first part we consider some difficulties that arise as we move from the analysis of spatio- temporal regions to that of their natural occupants, such as physical bodies or events. In the second part we focus on the latter and we give a refined formulation of our argument to the effect that the temporal dimension can be directly construed from a domain of events in terms of the basic mereotopological relations of parthood and boundary.
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  164. Achille Varzi (1996). Refining Temporal Reference in Event Structures. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 37 (1):71-83.
    This paper expands on the theory of event structures put forward in previous work by further investigating the subtle connections between time and events. Specifically, in the first part we generalize the notion of an event structure to that of a refinement structure, where various degrees of temporal granularity are accommodated. In the second part we investigate how these structures can account for the context-dependence of temporal structures in natural language semantics.
    Direct download (9 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  165. Achille Varzi (1996). The Structure of Spatial Localization. Philosophical Studies 82 (2):205 - 239.
    What are the relationships between an entity and the space at which it is located? And between a region of space and the events that take place there? What is the metaphysical structure of localization? What its modal status? This paper addresses some of these questions in an attempt to work out at least the main coordinates of the logical structure of localization. Our task is mostly taxonomic. But we also highlight some of the underlying structural features and we single (...)
    Direct download (7 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  166. Achille C. Varzi (1996). Parts, Wholes, and Part-Whole Relations: The Prospects of Mereotopology. Data and Knowledge Engineering 20:259–286.
    We can see mereology as a theory of parthood and topology as a theory of wholeness. How can these be combined to obtain a unified theory of parts and wholes? This paper examines various non-equivalent ways of pursuing this task, with specific reference to its relevance to spatio-temporal reasoning. In particular, three main strategies are compared: (i) mereology and topology as two independent (though mutually related) chapters; (ii) mereology as a general theory subsuming topology; (iii) topology as a general theory (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  167. Achille Varzi (1995). Commentary. Southern Journal of Philosophy 33 (Supplement):49-62.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  168. Achille C. Varzi (1995). Variable-Binders as Functors. Poznan Studies in the Philosophy of the Sciences and the Humanities 40:303-19.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  169. Achille C. Varzi (1995). Vagueness, Indiscernibility, and Pragmatics: Comments on Burns. Southern Journal of Philosophy 33 (Supplement):49-62.
    In ‘Something to Do with Vagueness ...’, Linda Burns defends an analogy between the informational and the borderline-case variety of vagueness. She argues that the latter is in fact less extraordinary and less disastrous than people in the tradition of Michael Dummett and Crispin Wright have told us. However, her account involves presuppositions that cannot be taken for granted. Here is to take a closer look at some of these presuppositions and argue hat they may--when left unguarded--undermine much of Burns’ (...)
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  170. Achille C. Varzi (1994). Vagueness, Indiscernibility, and Pragmatics: Comments on Burns. Southern Journal of Philosophy 33:49-49.
    In ‘Something to Do with Vagueness ...’, Linda Burns defends an analogy between the informational and the borderline-case variety of vagueness. She argues that the latter is in fact less extraordinary and less disastrous than people in the tradition of Michael Dummett and Crispin Wright have told us. However, her account involves presuppositions that cannot be taken for granted. Here is to take a closer look at some of these presuppositions and argue hat they may—when left unguarded—undermine much of Burns’ (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  171. Achille C. Varzi (1992). Complementary Logics for Classical Propositional Languages. Kriterion 4:20-24.
    In previous work, I introduced a complete axiomatization of classical non-tautologies based essentially on Łukasiewicz’s rejection method. The present paper provides a new, Hilbert-type axiomatization (along with related systems to axiomatize classical contradictions, non-contradictions, contingencies and non-contingencies respectively). This new system is mathematically less elegant, but the format of the inferential rules and the structure of the completeness proof possess some intrinsic interest and suggests instructive comparisons with the logic of tautologies.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  172. Achille C. Varzi (1990). Complementary Sentential Logics. Bulletin of the Section of Logic 19 (4):112-116.
    It is shown that a complete axiomatization of classical non-tautologies can be obtained by taking F (falsehood) as the sole axiom along with the two inference rules: (i) if A is a substitution instance of B, then A |– B; and (ii) if A is obtained from B by replacement of equivalent sentences, then A |– B (counting as equivalent the pairs {T, ~F}, {F, F&F}, {F, F&T}, {F, T&F}, {T, T&T}). Since the set of tautologies is also specifiable by (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  173. Fabio Pianesi & Achille C. Varzi, The Context-Dependency of Temporal Reference in Event Semantics.
    Temporal reference in natural language is inherently context dependent: what counts as a moment in one context may be structurally analysed in another context, and vice versa. In this note we outline a way of accounting for this phenomenon within event-based semantics.
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  174. Matthew H. Slater & Achille C. Varzi, Playing for the Same Team Again.
    The following is a transcript of what might very well have been five telephone conversa- tions between Michael Jordan and former Chicago Bulls coach Phil Jackson in early March 1995, just before the announcement of MJ’s comeback after a year spent pursu- ing a baseball career.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  175. Achille Varzi, Boundary [Encyclopedia Entry].
    A brief review of the main philosophical problems and theories about the nature of boundaries and their place in our conceptual scheme.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  176. Achille Varzi, Events [Encyclopedia Entry].
    A critical survey of the main philosophical theories about events and event talk, organized in three main sections: (i) Events and Other Categories (Events vs. Objects; Events vs. Facts; Events vs. Properties; Events vs. Times); (ii) Types of Events (Activities, Accomplishments, Achievements, and States; Static and Dynamic Events; Actions and Bodily Movements; Mental and Physical Events); (iii) Existence, Identity, and Indeterminacy.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  177. Achille Varzi, Holes [Encyclopedia Entry].
    A brief introduction to the main philosophical problems and theories about the nature of holes and such-like nothingnesses.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  178. Achille Varzi, Ontologia.
    L’ontologia è quel ramo della filosofia che, secondo una definizione oggi piuttosto diffusa, verte intorno alla domanda: “Che cosa esiste?”. Nata con Aristotele, sebbene battezzata soltanto nel XVII secolo, questa disciplina ha occupato una posizione di rilievo per tutta la storia del pensiero filosofico, e dopo un periodo di profondo ripensamento nella prima metà del XX secolo è oggi al centro di un rinnovato interesse soprattutto nell’ambito della cosiddetta filosofia analitica. Questo libro offre al lettore italiano un quadro dettagliato e (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  179. Achille C. Varzi, Events, Truth, and Indeterminacy.
    Some statements owe their truth (or falsity) to the way things are; others seem to owe their truth (or falsity) to the way things go. The statement (1) Lou’s hat is lovely will be true or false according to whether Lou’s hat (an object) is lovely or not. The statement (2) Lou’s lecture is boring will be true or false according to whether Lou’s lecture (an event) is boring or not. Davidson (1967) and many others have argued that this distinction (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  180. Achille C. Varzi, Ontologia E Metafisica.
    Il rapporto dei filosofi analitici con la metafisica è stato per lungo tempo difficile e conflittuale. In un certo senso, il movimento analitico venne inizialmente caratterizzandosi proprio in contrapposizione alla tradizione filosofica dominante dell’Ottocento, tutta assorta nell’impresa di rispondere a Kant attraverso rielaborazioni più o meno dogmatiche dell’idealismo critico. In una Cambridge in cui Bradley e McTaggart dominavano incontrastati, Moore non esitava ad accusare di miopia le teorie metafisiche «che pretendono di fornire un’agevole strada per superare le difficoltà che ostacolano (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  181. Achille C. Varzi, Riferimento, Predicazione, E Cambiamento.
    Una buona teoria semantica deve rendere conto del fatto che generalmente il significato di un’espressione complessa dipende dal significato delle parti. In particolare, il valore di verità di un enunciato composto dipende normalmente dal valore di verità degli enunciati che lo compongono e quindi, in ultima istanza, dal valore di verità di enunciati elementari, o «atomici». Tra questi il caso paradigmatico è costituito dagli enunciati in forma soggetto-predicato: (1) xèP, e, fortunatamente, le condizioni di verità di enunciati del genere appaiono (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  182. Achille Varzi, Author Display.
    Philosophy of Language Philosophy of Logic On a rather popular conception, the paradox of analysis suggests that the intersubstitutivity of analysans and analysandum should be restricted to non-psychological contexts. This is typically taken to be compatible with the idea that two sentences differing only in that one has the analysandum where the other has the analysans express exactly the same proposition. In this note we argue that this should be pondered upon in light of the view that many important ordinary (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  183. Achille Varzi, Che Cosa C'è E Che Cos'è. Un Dialogo.
    Hylas. «Veramente, la distruzion de’ frulloni e delle madie, la devastazion de’ forni, e lo scompiglio de’ fornai, non sono i mezzi più spicci per far vivere il pane; ma questa è una di quelle sottigliezze metafisiche, che una moltitudine non ci arriva.» Devo dire che il fastidio di Manzoni verso le metafisiche inconcludenti mi sembra sacrosanto. Ma soprattutto mi sembra sacrosanto il suo richiamo al buon senso, quando aggiunge che «senza essere un gran metafisico, un uomo ci arriva talvolta (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  184. Achille Varzi, Doughnuts.
    In classical topology the only part of a doughnut that matters is the edible part. Here I review some good reasons for reversing the order and focusing on the hole instead. By studying the topology of the hole one can learn interesting things about the morphology of the doughnut (its shape), and by studying the morphology of the hole in turn one can learn a lot about the doughnut’s dynamic properties (its patterns of interaction with the environment). The price--of course--is (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  185. Achille Varzi, Events.
    Broadly understood, events are things that happen -- things such as births and deaths, thunder and lightening, explosions, weddings, hiccups and hand-waves, dances, smiles, walks. Whether such things form a genuine metaphysical category is a question that has attracted the sustained interest of philosophers, especially in the second half of the 20th century. But there is little question that human perception, action, language, and thought manifest at least a..
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  186. Achille Varzi, Environmental Metaphysics.
    We outline the beginnings of a general theory of environments, of the parts or regions of space in which organisms live and move. We draw on two sources: on the one hand on recent work on the ontology of space; on the other hand on work by ecological scientists on concepts such as territory, habitat and niche.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  187. Achille Varzi, Logica.
    La filosofia non è una scienza empirica e si regge in buona misura sull’argomenta- zione (→), cioè sulla capacità di giustificare certe affermazioni, o tesi, sulla base di altre ritenute vere. Sin dall’antichità la teoria dell’argomentazione ha pertanto occupato una posizione di rilievo nella ricerca filosofica, e già a partire da Aristotele ha contribuito a definire quel settore disciplinare che oggi chiamiamo logica (dalla parola greca logos, che significa tra l’altro ‘discorso’, ‘ragionamento’). Aristotele stesso codificò la materia in maniera sistematica, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  188. Achille Varzi, Logic and Metaphysics.
    As a theory of reasoning, logic has—or ought to have—nothing to do with metaphysics. It ought to have nothing to do with questions concerning what there is, or whether there is anything at all. It is precisely because of its metaphysical commitments that Aristotelian syllogistics, for example, was eventually deemed inadequate as a canon of pure logical reasoning. The inference from an A-form statement such as (1) All humans are mortal to the corresponding I-form statement.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  189. Achille Varzi, Mereology.
    Mereology (from the Greek μερος, ‘part’) is the theory of parthood relations: of the relations of part to whole and the relations of part to part within a whole. Its roots can be traced back to the early days of philosophy, beginning with the Presocratic atomists and continuing throughout the writings of Plato (especially the Parmenides and the Thaetetus), Aristotle (especially the Metaphysics, but also the Physics, the Topics, and De partibus animalium ), and Boethius (especially In Ciceronis Topica ). (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  190. Achille Varzi, Metafisica.
    La metafisica è quel ramo della filosofia che ha come oggetto la realtà considerata nei suoi aspetti più fondamentali e generali. L’origine del termine (letteralmente: ‘dopo’ o ‘oltre la fisica’) risale agli editori delle opere di Aristotele nel I secolo a.C., che lo usarono per classificare gli scritti dedicati a quest’argomento e ritenuti, appunto, posteriori a quelli dedicati alla fisica. L’essere si dice in molti modi, scriveva Aristotele in quelle pagine, e a questa molteplicità di significati corrispondono domini d’interesse specifici. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  191. Achille Varzi, Perché I Buchi Sono Importanti: Problemi di Rappresentazione Spaziale.
    Le relazioni spaziali tra gli oggetti che ci circondano nel nostro microcosmo quotidiano o nel macroambiente delle posizioni geografiche e le proprietà spaziali di tali oggetti, come forma e dimensione, sono un soggetto di ricerca privilegiato per quei settori delle scienze cognitive che mirano a rappresentare fedelmente le competenze degli agenti umani. Gran parte del nostro comportamento è descrivibile in termini spaziali: pianifi- chiamo azioni, cerchiamo di eseguirle secondo i nostri piani (eventualmente superando ostacoli imprevisti), ne controlliamo lo svolgimento attraverso (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  192. Achille Varzi, Philosophical Issues in Geography—an Introduction.
    Geography presents interesting and intricate trade-offs between empirical data and demands, on the one hand, and deep philosophical issues (from ontology to political philosophy), on the other. What is a geographic entity? What is the relationship between a geographic entity and a physical territory? Can a geographic entity survive without a territory or without definite borders? Can it survive radical changes in its territory? Are there clear-cut identity criteria for geographic categories? This paper serves as an introduction to a special (...)
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  193. Achille Varzi, Spatial Entities.
    Ordinary reasoning about space--we argue--is first and foremost reasoning about things or events located in space. Accordingly, any theory concerned with the construction of a general model of our spatial competence must be grounded on a general account of the sort of entities that may enter into the scope of the theory. Moreover, on the methodological side the emphasis on spatial entities (as opposed to purely geometrical items such as points or regions) calls for a reexamination of the conceptual categories (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  194. Achille Varzi, Surrounding Space.
    The history of evolution is a history of development from less to more complex organisms. This growth in complexity of organisms goes hand in hand with a concurrent growth in complexity of environments and of organism-environment relations. It is a concern with this latter aspect of evolutionary development that motivates the present paper. We develop a formal theory of organism-environment relations and we show that the theory can be applied to a range of different sorts of cases, both biological and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  195. Achille Varzi, Truth and Circular Definitions.
    This original and enticing book provides a fresh, unifying perspective on many old and new logico-philosophical conundrums. Its basic thesis is that many concepts central in ordinary and philosophical discourse are inherently circular and thus cannot be fully understood as long as one remains within the confines of a standard theory of definitions. As an alternative, the authors develop a revision theory of definitions, which allows definitions to be circular without this giving rise to contradiction (but, at worst, to “vacuous” (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  196. Achille Varzi, The Context-Dependency of Temporal Reference in Event Semantics.
    Temporal reference in natural language is inherently context dependent: what counts as a moment in one context may be structurally analysed in another context, and vice versa. In this note we show how the mereotopological apparatus developed elsewhere allows one to account for this phenomenon within the framework of event-based semantics.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  197. Achille Varzi, The Formal Structure of Ecological Contexts.
    A b s t r a c t . This paper presents the outline of a formal ontology of contexts. More specifically, it deals with the ontology of ecological contexts (niches, habitats, environments, ambients) and of the relations between organisms, niches, and the spatial regions they occupy. The first part sets out the basic conceptual background. The second part outlines a semi-formal theory which builds upon notions and principles of mereology, topology, and the theory of spatial location.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  198. Achille Varzi & Roberto Casati, Event Concepts.
    Events are center stage in several fields of psychological research. There is a long tradition in the study of event perception, event recognition, event memory, event conceptualization and segmentation. There are studies devoted to the description of events in language and to their representation in the brain. There are also metapsychological studies aimed at assessing the nature of mental events or the grounding of intentional action. Outside psychology, the notion of an event plays a prominent role in various areas of (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  199. Roberto Casati, Maurizio Ferraris & Achille Varzi, Il Paradigma Dell'oggetto.
    Sarà capitato anche a voi, in treno, di cercare di aprire la porta tra un vagone e l’altro con l’espressivissima maniglia e, solo dopo non esserci riusciti, di aver notato il meno eloquente pulsante sulla destra. Il fenomeno non è troppo diverso da quando, non avendo capito qualcosa, chiediamo di farci un esempio. La convinzione —falsa—che parlare possa essere surrogato dall’indicare degli oggetti nasconde l’idea –vera– che gli oggetti parlino, e che alcuni parlino meglio di altri. Per capirlo, non c’è (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  200. Achille Varzi, Asimmetrie: Il Disordine Mondiale.
    Viviamo in un mondo tutt’altro che simmetrico. Luca ama Lara, ma lei lo detesta. I ricchi sfruttano i poveri e i belli deridono i brutti, mai viceversa. Chi parla non ascolta, chi ascolta non parla. Anche l’economia è asimmetrica: raramente gli agenti di mercato condividono le medesime informazioni sui beni di scambio, e mentre il venditore tende a tacere la vera natura dei propri prodotti (mai provato a comprare un’auto usata?) il compratore che fiuta l’affare non è da meno (direste (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  201. Achille Varzi, Filosofia Italiana: Cosa C'è di Nuovo?
    Il filosofo britannico Alfred North Whitehead—autore, insieme a Bertrand Russell, di quei Principia Matematica da cui è scaturita gran parte della logica del ventesimo secolo—una volta scrisse che l’intera tradizione filosofica europea potrebbe essere letta come una lunga serie di note in calce alle opere di Platone. Tra i filosofi europei vi è poi chi ha affermato che tutta l’opera di Platone potrebbe leggersi come una serie di note in calce ad Anassimandro. Quindi, per l’irresistibile transitività delle note alle note, (...)
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
Is this list right?