James Justus Florida State University
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  1. Joshua Shepherd & James Justus (forthcoming). X-Phi and Carnapian Explication. Erkenntnis:1-22.
    The rise of experimental philosophy (x-phi) has placed metaphilosophical questions, particularly those concerning concepts, at the center of philosophical attention. X-phi offers empirically rigorous methods for identifying conceptual content, but what exactly it contributes towards evaluating conceptual content remains unclear. We show how x-phi complements Rudolf Carnap’s underappreciated methodology for concept determination, explication. This clarifies and extends x-phi’s positive philosophical import, and also exhibits explication’s broad appeal. But there is a potential problem: Carnap’s account of explication was limited to empirical (...)
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  2. James Justus (2014). Carnap's Forgotten Criterion of Empirical Significance. Mind 123 (490):415-436.
    The waning popularity of logical empiricism and the supposed discovery of insurmountable technical difficulties led most philosophers to abandon the project to formulate a formal criterion of empirical significance. Such a criterion would delineate claims that observation can confirm or disconfirm from those it cannot. Although early criteria were clearly inadequate, criticisms made of later, more sophisticated criteria were often indefensible or easily answered. Most importantly, Carnap’s last criterion was seriously misinterpreted and an amended version of it remains tenable.
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  3. James Justus (2013). Philosophical Issues in Ecology. In K. Kampourakis (ed.), Philosophy of Biology: A Companion for Educators. Springer. 343–371.
  4. James Justus (2012). Carnap on Concept Determination: Methodology for Philosophy of Science. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (2):161-179.
    Abstract Recent criticisms of intuition from experimental philosophy and elsewhere have helped undermine the authority of traditional conceptual analysis. As the product of more empirically informed philosophical methodology, this result is compelling and philosophically salutary. But the negative critiques rarely suggest a positive alternative. In particular, a normative account of concept determination—how concepts should be characterized—is strikingly absent from such work. Carnap's underappreciated theory of explication provides such a theory. Analyses of complex concepts in empirical sciences illustrates and supports this (...)
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  5. James Justus (2012). The Elusive Basis of Inferential Robustness. Philosophy of Science 79 (5):795-807.
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  6. James Justus (2011). A Case Study in Concept Determination: Ecological Diversity. In Kevin deLaplante, Bryson Brown & Kent A. Peacock (eds.), Philosophy of Ecology. North-Holland. 11--147.
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  7. James Justus (2011). Evidentiary Inference in Evolutionary Biology. Biology and Philosophy 26 (3):419-437.
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  8. James Justus (2010). The Diversities of Biodiversity. Metascience 19 (2):247-250.
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  9. Raimundo Espinoza, James Justus, Lynn A. Maguire, Marcelino Fuentes, Christopher L. Lant, J. B. Ruhl, Steven E. Kraft, Brigitte Braschler, Steve Nash & Natalie Dawson (2009). 10. News and Opinion. Bioscience 59 (2).
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  10. James Justus (2009). REVIEWS-M. Friedman and R. Creath (Editors), The Cambridge Companion to Carnap. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 35 (4).
     
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  11. James Justus & Lynn A. Maguire (2009). Intrinsic Value Can Help Conservation Response. Bioscience 59 (2):101-101.
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  12. James Justus & Lynn A. Maguire (2009). Response From Justus and Maguire. Bioscience 59 (2):101.
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  13. James Justus (2008). Ecological and Lyapunov Stability. Philosophy of Science 75 (4):421-436.
    Ecologists have proposed several incompatible definitions of ecological stability. Emulating physicists, mathematical ecologists commonly define it as Lyapunov stability. This formalizes the problematic concept by integrating it into a well‐developed mathematical theory. The formalization also seems to capture the intuition that ecological stability depends on how ecological systems respond to perturbation. Despite these advantages, this definition is flawed. Although Lyapunov stability adequately characterizes perturbation responses of many systems studied in physics, it does not for ecological systems. This failure reveals a (...)
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  14. Lynn A. Maguire & James Justus (2008). Why Intrinsic Value is a Poor Basis for Conservation Decisions. Bioscience 58 (10):910-911.
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  15. J. Justus (2006). Cognitive Significance. In J. Pfeifer & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), The Philosophy of Science: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. 1--131.
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  16. James Justus (2006). Loop Analysis and Qualitative Modeling: Limitations and Merits. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 21 (5):647-666.
    Richard Levins has advocated the scientific merits of qualitative modeling throughout his career. He believed an excessive and uncritical focus on emulating the models used by physicists and maximizing quantitative precision was hindering biological theorizing in particular. Greater emphasis on qualitative properties of modeled systems would help counteract this tendency, and Levins subsequently developed one method of qualitative modeling, loop analysis, to study a wide variety of biological phenomena. Qualitative modeling has been criticized for being conceptually and methodologically problematic. As (...)
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  17. James Justus (2005). Qualitative Scientific Modeling and Loop Analysis. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):1272-1286.
    Loop analysis is a method of qualitative modeling anticipated by Sewall Wright and systematically developed by Richard Levins. In Levins’ (1966) distinctions between modeling strategies, loop analysis sacrifices precision for generality and realism. Besides criticizing the clarity of these distinctions, Orzack and Sober (1993) argued qualitative modeling is conceptually and methodologically problematic. Loop analysis of the stability of ecological communities shows this criticism is unjustified. It presupposes an overly narrow view of qualitative modeling and underestimates the broad role models play (...)
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  18. James Justus (2002). Taking Stock of Conservation Biology: Old Problems and New Directions. Bioscience 52 (9):854.
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  19. Sahotra Sarkar & James Justus, The Principle of Complementarity in the Design of Reserve Networks to Conserve Biodiversity: A Preliminary History.
    Explicit, quantitative procedures for identifying biodiversity priority areas are replacing the often ad hoc procedures used in the past to design networks of reserves to conserve biodiversity. This change facilitates more informed choices by policy makers, and thereby makes possible greater satisfaction of conservation goals with increased efficiency. A key feature of these procedures is the use of the principle of complementarity, which ensures that areas chosen for inclusion in a reserve network complement those already selected. This paper sketches the (...)
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  20. Mark Colyvan, James Justus & Helen M. Regan, The Natural Environment is Valuable but Not Infinitely Valuable.
    It has been argued in the conservation literature that giving conservation absolute priority over competing interests would best protect the environment. Attributing infinite value to the environment or claiming it is ‘priceless’ are two ways of ensuring this priority (e.g. Hargrove 1989; Bulte and van Kooten 2000; Ackerman and Heinzerling 2002; McCauley 2006; Halsing and Moore 2008). But such proposals would paralyse conservation efforts. We describe the serious problems with these proposals and what they mean for practical applications, and we (...)
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  21. James Justus, Effectiveness of Environmental Surrogates for the Selection of Conservation Area Networks.
    ebec and Queensland, we applied four methods to assess the extent to which environmental surrogates can represent biodiversity components: (1) surrogacy graphs; (2) marginal representation plots; (3) Hamming distance function; and (4) Syrjala statistical test for spatial congruence. For Qu´ebec we used 719 faunal and floral species as biodiversity components, and for Queensland we used 2348 plant species. We used four climatic parameter types (annual mean temperature, minimum temperature during the coldest quarter, maximum temperature during the hottest quarter, and annual (...)
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