250 found

Year:

Forthcoming articles
  1. Rogier De Langhe (forthcoming). To Specialize or to Innovate? An Internalist Account of Pluralistic Ignorance in Economics. Synthese 191.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  2. Juha Saatsi (forthcoming). Inconsistency and Scientific Realism. Synthese 191:2941-2955.
    I erect a framework within the semantic view of theories for explaining the empirical success of internally inconsistent models and theories, with scientific realism in mind. The framework is an instance of the ‘content-driven’ approach to inconsistency, advocated by both Norton (Philos Sci 54:327–350, 1987) and Smith (Stud Hist Philos Sci 19:429–445, 1988a, In: Fine A, Leplin J (eds) PSA1988, 1988b), whose ideas my analysis aims to clarify and substantiate.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  3. Derek Baker (forthcoming). Why Transparency Undermines Economy. Synthese:1-14.
    Alex Byrne (2005; 2011a; 2011b; 2011c and 2012) offers a novel interpretation of the idea that the mind is transparent to its possessor, and that one knows one’s own mind by looking out at the world. This paper argues that his (2011c and 2012) attempts to extend this picture of self-knowledge force him to sacrifice the theoretical parsimony he presents as the primary virtue of his account. The paper concludes by discussing two general problems transparency accounts of self-knowledge must address.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  4. Justin Bruner, Cailin O’Connor, Hannah Rubin & Simon M. Huttegger (forthcoming). David Lewis in the Lab: Experimental Results on the Emergence of Meaning. Synthese:1-19.
    In this paper we use an experimental approach to investigate how linguistic conventions can emerge in a society without explicit agreement. As a starting point we consider the signaling game introduced by Lewis (Convention 1969). We find that in experimental settings, small groups can quickly develop conventions of signal meaning in these games. We also investigate versions of the game where the theoretical literature indicates that meaning will be less likely to arise—when there are more than two states for actors (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  5. Cameron Buckner (forthcoming). Functional Kinds-A Skeptical Look. Synthese:1-28.
    The functionalist approach to kinds has suffered recently due to its association with law-based approaches to induction and explanation. Philosophers of science increasingly view nomological approaches as inappropriate for the special sciences like psychology and biology, which has led to a surge of interest in approaches to natural kinds that are more obviously compatible with mechanistic and model-based methods, especially homeostatic property cluster theory. But can the functionalist approach to kinds be weaned off its dependency on laws? Dan Weiskopf has (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  6. J. Adam Carter (forthcoming). Assertion, Uniqueness and Epistemic Hypocrisy. Synthese.
    Pascal Engel (2008) has insisted that a number of notable strategies for rejecting the knowledge norm of assertion are put forward on the basis of the wrong kinds of reasons. A central aim of this paper will be to establish the contrast point: I argue that one very familiar strategy for defending the knowledge norm of assertion—viz., that it is claimed to do better in various respects than its competitors (e.g. the justification and the truth norms)— relies on a presupposition (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  7. A. Coliva (forthcoming). Self-Knowledge: One More Constitutive View. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  8. Vincent Conitzer (forthcoming). A Dutch Book Against Sleeping Beauties Who Are Evidential Decision Theorists. Synthese:1-13.
    In the context of the Sleeping Beauty problem, it has been argued that so-called “halfers” can avoid Dutch book arguments by adopting evidential decision theory. I introduce a Dutch book for a variant of the Sleeping Beauty problem and argue that evidential decision theorists fall prey to it, whether they are halfers or thirders. The argument crucially requires that an action can provide evidence for what the agent would do not only at other decision points where she has exactly the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  9. Vincent Conitzer (forthcoming). Can Rational Choice Guide Us to Correct de Se Beliefs? Synthese:1-13.
    Significant controversy remains about what constitute correct self-locating beliefs in scenarios such as the Sleeping Beauty problem, with proponents on both the “halfer” and “thirder” sides. To attempt to settle the issue, one natural approach consists in creating decision variants of the problem, determining what actions the various candidate beliefs prescribe, and assessing whether these actions are reasonable when we step back. Dutch book arguments are a special case of this approach, but other Sleeping Beauty games have also been constructed (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  10. Erhan Demircioglu (forthcoming). The Given in Perceptual Experience. Synthese:1-27.
    How are we to account for the epistemic contribution of our perceptual experiences to the reasonableness of our perceptual beliefs? It is well known that a conception heavily influenced by Cartesian thinking has it that experiences do not enable the experiencing subject to have direct epistemic contact with the external world; rather, they are regarded as openness to a kind of private inner realm that is interposed between the subject and the world. It turns out that if one wants to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  11. Mauro Dorato (forthcoming). Dynamical Versus Structural Explanations in Scientific Revolutions. Synthese.
    By briefly reviewing three well-known scientific revolutions in fundamental physics (the discovery of inertia, of special relativity and of general relativity), I claim that problems that were supposed to be crying for a dynamical explanation in the old paradigm ended up receiving a structural explanation in the new one. This claim is meant to give more substance to Kuhn’s view that revolutions are accompanied by a shift in what needs to be explained, while suggesting at the same time the existence (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  12. Mauro Dorato (forthcoming). Laws of Nature and the Reality of the Wave Function. Synthese:1-23.
    In this paper I review three different positions on the wave function, namely: nomological realism, dispositionalism, and configuration space realism by regarding as essential their capacity to account for the world of our experience. I conclude that the first two positions are committed to regard the wave function as an abstract entity. The third position will be shown to be a merely speculative attempt to derive a primitive ontology from a reified mathematical space. Without entering any discussion about nominalism, I (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  13. Daan Evers (forthcoming). Street on Evolution and the Normativity of Epistemic Reasons. Synthese:1-14.
    Sharon Street (2009) argues that realism about epistemic normativity is false. Realists believe there are truths about epistemic reasons that hold independently of the agent's (or anyone else's) attitudes. Street argues by dilemma. Either the realist accepts a certain account of the nature of belief, or she does not. If she does, then she cannot consistently accept realism. If she does not, then she has no scientifically credible explanation of the fact that our epistemic behaviours or beliefs about epistemic reasons (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  14. Giulia Felappi (forthcoming). Why Fuss About These Quirks of the Vernacular? Synthese.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  15. Laura Felline (forthcoming). Mechanisms Meet Structural Explanation. Synthese:1-16.
    This paper investigates the relationship between Structural Explanation and the New Mechanistic account of explanation. The aim of this paper is twofold: firstly, to argue that some phenomena in the domain of fundamental physics, although mechanically brute, are structurally explained; and secondly, by elaborating on the contrast between SE and ME, to better clarify some features of SE. Finally, this paper will argue that, notwithstanding their apparently antithetical character, SE and ME can be reconciled within a unified account of general (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  16. Thomas Macaulay Ferguson (forthcoming). Two Paradoxes of Semantic Information. Synthese:1-12.
    Yehoshua Bar-Hillel and Rudolph Carnap’s classical theory of semantic information entails the counterintuitive feature that inconsistent statements convey maximal information. Theories preserving Bar-Hillel and Carnap’s modal intuitions while imposing a veridicality requirement on which statements convey information—such as the theories of Fred Dretske or Luciano Floridi—avoid this commitment, as inconsistent statements are deemed not information-conveying by fiat. This paper produces a pair of paradoxical statements that such “veridical-modal” theories must evaluate as both conveying and not conveying information, although Bar-Hillel and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  17. Carrie Figdor (forthcoming). On the Proper Domain of Psychological Predicates. Synthese.
    One question of the bounds of cognition is that of which things have it. A scientifically relevant debate on this question must explain the persistent and selective use of psychological predicates to report findings throughout biology: for example, that neurons prefer, fruit flies and plants decide, and bacteria communicate linguistically. This paper argues that these claims should enjoy default literal interpretation. An epistemic consequence is that these findings can contribute directly to understanding the nature of psychological capacities.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  18. Torrengo Giuliano (forthcoming). The Grounding Problem and Presentist Explanations. Synthese.
    Opponents of presentism have often argued that the presentist has difficulty in accounting for what makes (presently) true past-tensed propositions (TptP) true in a way that is compatible with her metaphysical view of time and reality. The problem is quite general and concerns not only strong truth-maker principles, but also the requirement that truth be grounded in reality. In order to meet the challenge, presentists have proposed many peculiar present aspects of the world as grounds for truths concerning the past, (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  19. Paweł Gładziejewski (forthcoming). Predictive Coding and Representationalism. Synthese:1-24.
    According to the predictive coding theory of cognition , brains are predictive machines that use perception and action to minimize prediction error, i.e. the discrepancy between bottom–up, externally-generated sensory signals and top–down, internally-generated sensory predictions. Many consider PCT to have an explanatory scope that is unparalleled in contemporary cognitive science and see in it a framework that could potentially provide us with a unified account of cognition. It is also commonly assumed that PCT is a representational theory of sorts, in (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  20. Tobias Henschen (forthcoming). Ceteris Paribus Conditions and the Interventionist Account of Causality. Synthese:1-15.
    The paper uses a de-relativized variant of Woodward’s definition of direct type-level causation to develop an account of causal ceteris paribus laws. It argues that the relation between X and Y needs to satisfy three conditions in order to qualify as one of direct type-level causation, that satisfaction of these conditions guarantees the applicability of claims of direct type-level causation, that the context of applicability motivates referring to these conditions as cp conditions, and that claims of direct type-level causation qualify (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  21. Christopher Hitchcock (forthcoming). Conditioning, Intervening, and Decision. Synthese:1-20.
    Clark Glymour, together with his students Peter Spirtes and Richard Scheines, did pioneering work on graphical causal models . One of the central advances provided by these models is the ability to simply represent the effects of interventions. In an elegant paper , Glymour and his student Christopher Meek applied these methods to problems in decision theory. One of the morals they drew was that causal decision theory should be understood in terms of interventions. I revisit their proposal, and extend (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  22. Joachim Horvath (forthcoming). Conceptual Analysis and Natural Kinds: The Case of Knowledge. Synthese:1-18.
    There is a line of reasoning in metaepistemology that is congenial to naturalism and hard to resist, yet ultimately misguided: that knowledge might be a natural kind, and that this would undermine the use of conceptual analysis in the theory of knowledge. In this paper, I first bring out various problems with Hilary Kornblith’s argument from the causal–explanatory indispensability of knowledge to the natural kindhood of knowledge. I then criticize the argument from the natural kindhood of knowledge against the method (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  23. Luca Incurvati (forthcoming). On the Concept of Finitism. Synthese:1-24.
    At the most general level, the concept of finitism is typically characterized by saying that finitistic mathematics is that part of mathematics which does not appeal to completed infinite totalities and is endowed with some epistemological property that makes it secure or privileged. This paper argues that this characterization can in fact be sharpened in various ways, giving rise to different conceptions of finitism. The paper investigates these conceptions and shows that they sanction different portions of mathematics as finitistic.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  24. Alexander Jackson (forthcoming). From Relative Truth to Finean Non-Factualism. Synthese:1-19.
    This paper compares two ‘relativist’ theories about deliciousness: truth-relativism, and Kit Fine’s non-factualism about a subject-matter. Contemporary truth-relativism is presented as a linguistic thesis; its metaphysical underpinning is often neglected. I distinguish three views about the obtaining of worldly states of affairs concerning deliciousness, and argue that none yields a satisfactory version of truth-relativism. Finean non-factualism about deliciousness is not subject to the problems with truth-relativism. I conclude that Finean non-factualism is the better relativist theory. As I explain, non-facualism about (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  25. Felka Katharina (forthcoming). On the Presuppositions of Number Sentences. Synthese.
    This paper is concerned with an intuitive contrast that arises when we consider sentences containing empty definite descriptions. A sentence like ‘The king of France is bald’ appears neither true nor false, while a sentence like ‘My friend was visited by the king of France’ appears false. Recently, Stephen Yablo has suggested an account of this intuitive contrast. Yablo’s account is particularly interesting, since it has important consequences for the ontological commitments of number sentences like ‘The number of planets is (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  26. Robert Knowles & David Liggins (forthcoming). Good Weasel Hunting. Synthese.
    The ‘indispensability argument’ for the existence of mathematical objects appeals to the role mathematics plays in science. In a series of publications, Joseph Melia has offered a distinctive reply to the indispensability argument. The purpose of this paper is to clarify Melia’s response to the indispensability argument and to advise Melia and his critics on how best to carry forward the debate. We will begin by presenting Melia’s response and diagnosing some recent misunderstandings of it. Then we will discuss four (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  27. David Liebesman (forthcoming). Does Vagueness Underlie the Mass/Count Distinction? Synthese:1-19.
    Does vagueness underlie the mass/count distinction? My answer is no. I motivate this answer in two ways. First, I argue against Chierchia’s recent attempt to explain the distinction in terms of vagueness. Second, I give a more general argument that no such account will succeed.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  28. David Liggins (forthcoming). Grounding and the Indispensability Argument. Synthese:1-18.
    There has been much discussion of the indispensability argument for the existence of mathematical objects. In this paper I reconsider the debate by using the notion of grounding, or non-causal dependence. First of all, I investigate what proponents of the indispensability argument should say about the grounding of relations between physical objects and mathematical ones. This reveals some resources which nominalists are entitled to use. Making use of these resources, I present a neglected but promising response to the indispensability argument—a (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  29. Shay Allen Logan (forthcoming). The Semantics of Social Constructivism. Synthese:1-22.
    This essay will examine some rather serious trouble confronting claims that mathematicalia might be social constructs. Because of the clarity with which he makes the case and the philosophical rigor he applies to his analysis, our exemplar of a social constructivist in this sense is Julian Cole, especially the work in his 2009 and 2013 papers on the topic. In a 2010 paper, Jill Dieterle criticized the view in Cole’s 2009 paper for being unable to account for the atemporality of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  30. Bruce Raymond Long (forthcoming). Information is Intrinsically Semantic but Alethically Neutral. Synthese:1-21.
    In this paper I argue that, according to a particular physicalist conception of information, information is both alethically neutral or non-alethic, and is intrinsically semantic. The conception of information presented is physicalist and reductionist, and is contrary to most current pluralist and non-reductionist philosophical opinion about the nature of information. The ontology assumed for this conception of information is based upon physicalist non-eliminative ontic structural realism. However, the argument of primary interest is that information so construed is intrinsically semantic on (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  31. Tom McClelland (forthcoming). Can Self-Representationalism Explain Away the Apparent Irreducibility of Consciousness? Synthese:1-22.
    Kriegel’s self-representationalist theory of phenomenal consciousness pursues two projects. The first is to offer a positive account of how conscious experience arises from physical brain processes. The second is to explain why consciousness misleadingly appears to be irreducible to the physical i.e. to ‘demystify’ consciousness. This paper seeks to determine whether SR succeeds on the second project. Kriegel trades on a distinction between the subjective character and qualitative character of conscious states. Subjective character is the property of being a conscious (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  32. Boaz Miller (forthcoming). What is Hacking's Argument for Entity Realism? ‎. Synthese:1-16.
    According to Ian Hacking’s Entity Realism, unobservable entities that scientists carefully ‎manipulate to study other phenomena are real. Although Hacking presents his case in an intuitive, ‎attractive, and persuasive way, his argument remains elusive. I present five possible readings of ‎Hacking’s argument: a no-miracle argument, an indispensability argument, a transcendental ‎argument, a Vichian argument, and a non-argument. I elucidate Hacking’s argument according to ‎each reading, and review their strengths, their weaknesses, and their compatibility with each other.‎.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  33. Marcin Miłkowski (forthcoming). Explanatory Completeness and Idealization in Large Brain Simulations: A Mechanistic Perspective. Synthese:1-22.
    The claim defended in the paper is that the mechanistic account of explanation can easily embrace idealization in big-scale brain simulations, and that only causally relevant detail should be present in explanatory models. The claim is illustrated with two methodologically different models: Blue Brain, used for particular simulations of the cortical column in hybrid models, and Eliasmith’s SPAUN model that is both biologically realistic and able to explain eight different tasks. By drawing on the mechanistic theory of computational explanation, I (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  34. Ittay Nissan-Rozen (forthcoming). A Triviality Result for the “Desire by Necessity” Thesis. Synthese:1-22.
    A triviality result for what Lewis called “the Desire by Necessity Thesis” and Broome : 265–267, 1991) called “the Desire as Expectation Thesis” is presented. The result shows that this thesis and three other reasonable conditions can be jointly satisfied only in trivial cases. Some meta-ethical implications of the result are discussed. The discussion also highlights several issues regarding Lewis’ original triviality result for “the Desire as Belief Thesis” that have not been properly understood in the literature.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  35. Daniel Nolan (forthcoming). It's a Kind of Magic: Lewis, Magic and Properties. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  36. Matteo Plebani (forthcoming). Nominalistic Content, Grounding, and Covering Generalizations: Reply to 'Grounding and the Indispensability Argument'. Synthese:1-10.
    ‘Grounding and the indispensability argument’ presents a number of ways in which nominalists can use the notion of grounding to rebut the indispensability argument for the existence of mathematical objects. I will begin by considering the strategy that puts grounding to the service of easy-road nominalists (“Nominalistic content meets grounding” section). I will give some support to this strategy by addressing a worry some may have about it (“A misguided worry about the grounding strategy” section). I will then consider a (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  37. Sara Kier Praëm & Asbjørn Steglich-Petersen (forthcoming). Philosophical Thought Experiments as Heuristics for Theory Discovery. Synthese:1-16.
    The growing literature on philosophical thought experiments has so far focused almost exclusively on the role of thought experiments in confirming or refuting philosophical hypotheses or theories. In this paper we draw attention to an additional and largely ignored role that thought experiments frequently play in our philosophical practice: some thought experiments do not merely serve as means for testing various philosophical hypotheses or theories, but also serve as facilitators for conceiving and articulating new ones. As we will put it, (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  38. Charles Rathkopf (forthcoming). Network Representation and Complex Systems. Synthese:1-24.
    In this article, network science is discussed from a methodological perspective, and two central theses are defended. The first is that network science exploits the very properties that make a system complex. Rather than using idealization techniques to strip those properties away, as is standard practice in other areas of science, network science brings them to the fore, and uses them to furnish new forms of explanation. The second thesis is that network representations are particularly helpful in explaining the properties (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  39. Alexander Reutlinger (forthcoming). Are Causal Facts Really Explanatorily Emergent? Ladyman and Ross on Higher-Level Causal Facts and Renormalization Group Explanation. Synthese.
    In their Every Thing Must Go, Ladyman and Ross defend a novel version of Neo- Russellian metaphysics of causation, which falls into three claims: (1) there are no fundamental physical causal facts (orthodox Russellian claim), (2) there are higher-level causal facts of the special sciences, and (3) higher-level causal facts are explanatorily emergent. While accepting claims (1) and (2), I attack claim (3). Ladyman and Ross argue that higher-level causal facts are explanatorily emergent, because (a) certain aspects of these higher-level (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  40. Felipe Romero (forthcoming). Why There Isn't Inter-Level Causation in Mechanisms. Synthese:1-25.
    The experimental interventions that provide evidence of causal relations are notably similar to those that provide evidence of constitutive relevance relations. In the first two sections, I show that this similarity creates a tension: there is an inconsistent triad between Woodward’s popular interventionist theory of causation, Craver’s mutual manipulability account of constitutive relevance in mechanisms, and a variety of arguments for the incoherence of inter-level causation. I argue for an interpretation of the views in which the tension is merely apparent. (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  41. Alexander Rosenberg (forthcoming). "Making Mechnaism Interesting". Synthese:1-23.
    I note the multitude of ways in which, beginning with the classic paper by Machamer, Darden and Craver (2000), the mechanists have qualify their methodological dicta, and limit the vulnerability of their claims by strategic vagueness regarding their application. I go on to generalize a version of the mechanist requirement on explanations due to Craver and Kaplan (2010) in cognitive and systems neuroscience so that it applies broadly across the life sciences in accordance with the view elaborated by Craver and (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  42. Peter W. Ross & Dale Turner (forthcoming). Problems of Existence in Philosophy and Science. Synthese.
    We initially characterize what we’ll call existence problems as problems where there is evidence that a putative entity exists and this evidence is not easily dismissed; however, the evidence is not adequate to justify the claim that the entity exists, and in particular the entity hasn’t been detected. The putative entity is elusive. We then offer a strategy for determining whether an existence problem is philosophical or scientific. According to this strategy (1) existence problems are characterized in terms of causal (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  43. Darrell P. Rowbottom (forthcoming). Extending the Argument From Unconceived Alternatives: Observations, Models, Predictions, Explanations, Methods, Instruments, Experiments, and Values. Synthese.
    Stanford’s argument against scientific realism focuses on theories, just as many earlier arguments from inconceivability have. However, there are possible arguments against scientific realism involving unconceived (or inconceivable) entities of different types: observations, models, predictions, explanations, methods, instruments, experiments, and values. This paper charts such arguments. In combination, they present the strongest challenge yet to scientific realism.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  44. Gerhard Schurz & Alexander Gebharter (forthcoming). Causality as a Theoretical Concept: Explanatory Warrant and Empirical Content of the Theory of Causal Nets. Synthese:1-31.
    We start this paper by arguing that causality should, in analogy with force in Newtonian physics, be understood as a theoretical concept that is not explicated by a single definition, but by the axioms of a theory. Such an understanding of causality implicitly underlies the well-known theory of causal nets and has been explicitly promoted by Glymour . In this paper we investigate the explanatory warrant and empirical content of TCN. We sketch how the assumption of directed cause–effect relations can (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  45. Wolfgang Schwarz (forthcoming). Lost Memories and Useless Coins: Revisiting the Absentminded Driver. Synthese:1-26.
    The puzzle of the absentminded driver combines an unstable decision problem with a version of the Sleeping Beauty problem. Its analysis depends on the choice between “halfing” and “thirding” as well as that between “evidential” and “causal” decision theory. I show that all four combinations lead to interestingly different solutions, and draw some general lessons about the formulation of causal decision theory, the interpretation of mixed strategies and the connection between rational credence and objective chance.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  46. Declan Smithies (forthcoming). Ideal Rationality and Logical Omniscience. Synthese:1-25.
    Does rationality require logical omniscience? Our best formal theories of rationality imply that it does, but our ordinary evaluations of rationality seem to suggest otherwise. This paper aims to resolve the tension by arguing that our ordinary evaluations of rationality are not only consistent with the thesis that rationality requires logical omniscience, but also provide a compelling rationale for accepting this thesis in the first place.
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  47. Rush T. Stewart (forthcoming). Conditional Choice with a Vacuous Second Tier. Synthese:1-25.
    This paper studies a generalization of rational choice theory. I briefly review the motivations that Helzner gives for his conditional choice construction . Then, I focus on the important class of conditional choice functions with vacuous second tiers. This class is interesting for both formal and philosophical reasons. I argue that this class makes explicit one of conditional choice’s normative motivations in terms of an account of neutrality advocated within a certain tradition in decision theory. The observations recorded—several of which (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  48. Vladimír Svoboda & Jaroslav Peregrin (forthcoming). Logical Form and Reflective Equilibrium. Synthese.
    Though, at first sight, logical formalization of natural language sentences and arguments might look like an unproblematic enterprise, the criteria of its success are far from clear and, surprisingly, there have only been a few attempts at making them explicit. This paper provides a picture of the enterprise of logical formalization that does not conceive of it as a kind of translation from one language (a natural one) into another language (a logical one), but rather as a construction of a (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  49. Hao Tang (forthcoming). Wittgenstein and the Dualism of the Inner and the Outer. Synthese:1-22.
    A dualism characteristic of modern philosophy is the conception of the inner and the outer as two independently intelligible domains. Wittgenstein’s attack on this dualism contains deep insights. The main insight (excavated from §304 and §293 of the Philosophical Investigations) is this: our sensory consciousness is deeply shaped by language and this shaping plays a fundamental role in the etiology of the dualism. I locate this role in the learning of a sensation-language (as described in §244), by showing that this (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  50. Samuel A. Taylor (forthcoming). Is Justification Easy or Impossible? Getting Acquainted with a Middle Road. Synthese:1-23.
    Can a belief source confer justification when we lack antecedent justification for believing that it’s reliable? A negative answer quickly leads to skepticism. A positive answer, however, seems to commit one to allowing pernicious reasoning known as “epistemic bootstrapping.” Puzzles surrounding bootstrapping arise because we illicitly assume either that justification requires doxastic awareness of a source’s epistemic credentials or that there is no requirement that a subject be aware of these credentials. We can resolve the puzzle by splitting the horns (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  51. Alex Worsnip (forthcoming). Narrow-Scoping for Wide-Scopers. Synthese:1-30.
    Many philosophers think that requirements of rationality are “wide-scope”. That is to say: they are requirements to satisfy some material conditional, such that one counts as satisfying the requirement iff one either makes the conditional’s antecedent false or makes its consequent true. These contrast with narrow-scope requirements, where the requirement takes scope only over the consequent of the conditional. Many of the philosophers who have preferred wide-scope requirements to narrow-scope requirements have also endorsed a corresponding semantic claim, namely that ordinary (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  52. Jean-Yves Beziau (forthcoming). The Relativity and Universality of Logic. Synthese.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  53. Daniel M. Hausman, Reuben Stern & Naftali Weinberger (forthcoming). Erratum To: Systems Without a Graphical Causal Representation. Synthese:1-1.
    Erratum to: Synthese 191:1925–1930 DOI:10.1007/s11229-013-0380-3 The authors were unaware that points in their article appeared in “Caveats for Causal Reasoning with Equilibrium Models,” by Denver Dash and Marek Druzdzel, published in S. Benferhat and P. Besnard : European Conferences on Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty 2001, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 2143, pp. 192–203. The authors were unaware of this essay and would like to apologize to the authors for failing to cite their excellent work.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  54. Lehrer Keith (forthcoming). Common Sense and Skepticism: A Lecture. Synthese:1-14.
    This is an essay on G. E. Moore’s argument in defense of common sense against David Hume’s theory. However, the burden of essay is to show that, though Moore derived has argument from Thomas Reid, it was the latter who noted that the defense of common sense required more than showing that Hume’s theory conflicted with common sense. It required supplying a better theory than that of Hume’s of the operations of the human mind, and especially, a better theory of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  55. Emil Frederik Lundbjerg Moeller (forthcoming). Consuming Knowledge Claims Across Contexts. Synthese:1-14.
    Williamson and others have argued that contextualist theories of the semantics of ‘know’ have a special problem of accounting for our practices of ‘consuming’ knowledge attributions and denials made in other contexts. In what follows, I shall understand the objection as the idea that contextualism has a special problem of accounting for how we are able to acquire epistemically useful information from knowledge claims made in other contexts. I respond to the objection by arguing that the defeasibility of knowledge makes (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  56. Fabrice Pataut (forthcoming). Comments on “Parsimony and Inference to the Best Mathematical Explanation. Synthese:1-13.
    The author of “Parsimony and inference to the best mathematical explanation” argues for platonism by way of an enhanced indispensability argument based on an inference to yet better mathematical optimization explanations in the natural sciences. Since such explanations yield beneficial trade-offs between stronger mathematical existential claims and fewer concrete ontological commitments than those involved in merely good mathematical explanations, one must countenance the mathematical objects that play a theoretical role in them via an application of the relevant mathematical results. The (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  57. Jon Robson (forthcoming). A Social Epistemology of Aesthetics: Belief Polarization, Echo Chambers and Aesthetic Judgement. Synthese.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  58. Jeroen Smid (forthcoming). Tarski's One and Only Concept of Truth. Synthese.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  59. Karin Verelst (forthcoming). Newton Vs. Leibniz: Intransparency Vs. Inconsistency. Synthese:2907-2940.
    We investigate the structure common to causal theories that attempt to explain a (part of) the world. Causality implies conservation of identity, itself a far from simple notion. It imposes strong demands on the universalizing power of the theories concerned. These demands are often met by the introduction of a metalevel which encompasses the notions of 'system' and 'lawful behaviour'. In classical mechanics, the division between universal and particular leaves its traces in the separate treatment of cinematics and dynamics. This (...)
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  60. Ken Aizawa (forthcoming). Cognition and Behavior. Synthese:1-20.
    An important question in the debate over embodied, enactive, and extended cognition has been what has been meant by “cognition”. What is this cognition that is supposed to be embodied, enactive, or extended? Rather than undertake a frontal assault on this question, however, this paper will take a different approach. In particular, we may ask how cognition is supposed to be related to behavior. First, we could ask whether cognition is supposed to be behavior. Second, we could ask whether we (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  61. Erik Angner (forthcoming). “To Navigate Safely in the Vast Sea of Empirical Facts”. Synthese:1-19.
    This paper examines issues of ontology and methodology in behavioral economics: the attempt to increase the explanatory and predictive power of economic theory by providing it with more psychologically plausible foundations. Of special interest is the epistemological status of neoclassical economic theory within behavioral economics, the runaway success story of contemporary economics. Behavioral economists aspire to replace the fundamental assumptions of orthodox, neoclassical economic theory. Yet, behavioral economists have gone out of their way to praise those very assumptions. Matthew Rabin, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  62. Vincent Ardourel (forthcoming). A Discrete Solution for the Paradox of Achilles and the Tortoise. Synthese:1-19.
    In this paper, I present a discrete solution for the paradox of Achilles and the tortoise. I argue that Achilles overtakes the tortoise after a finite number of steps of Zeno’s argument if time is represented as discrete. I then answer two objections that could be made against this solution. First, I argue that the discrete solution is not an ad hoc solution. It is embedded in a discrete formulation of classical mechanics. Second, I show that the discrete solution cannot (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  63. S. Awodey & A. W. Carus (forthcoming). Carnap and Gödel. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  64. Steve Awodey (forthcoming). Carnap and the Invariance of Logical Truth. Synthese:1-12.
    The failed criterion of logical truth proposed by Carnap in the Logical Syntax of Language was based on the determinateness of all logical and mathematical statements. It is related to a conception which is independent of the specifics of the system of the Syntax, hints of which occur elsewhere in Carnap’s writings, and those of others. What is essential is the idea that the logical terms are invariant under reinterpretation of the empirical terms, and are therefore semantically determinate. A certain (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  65. Jody Azzouni (forthcoming). A New Characterization of Scientific Theories. Synthese:1-16.
    First, I discuss the older “theory-centered” and the more recent semantic conception of scientific theories. I argue that these two perspectives are nothing more than terminological variants of one another. I then offer a new theory-centered view of scientific theories. I argue that this new view captures the insights had by each of these earlier views, that it’s closer to how scientists think about their own theories, and that it better accommodates the phenomenon of inconsistent scientific theories.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  66. Jody Azzouni (forthcoming). The Challenge of Many Logics: A New Approach to Evaluating the Role of Ideology in Quinean Commitment. Synthese:1-21.
    Can Quine’s criterion for ontological commitment be comparatively applied across different logics? If so, how? Cross-logical evaluations of discourses are central to contemporary philosophy of mathematics and metaphysics. The focus here is on the influential and important arguments of George Boolos and David Lewis that second-order logic and plural quantification don’t incur additional ontological commitments over and above those incurred by first-order quantifiers. These arguments are challenged by the exhibition of a technical tool—the truncation-model construction of notational equivalents—that compares the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  67. K. Bach (forthcoming). You Don't Say', Forthcoming In. Synthese.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  68. Alan Baker (forthcoming). Parsimony and Inference to the Best Mathematical Explanation. Synthese:1-18.
    Indispensability-based arguments for mathematical platonism are typically motivated by drawing an analogy between abstract mathematical objects and concrete scientific posits. In this paper, I argue that mathematics can sometimes help to reduce our concrete ontological, ideological, and structural commitments. My focus is on optimization explanations, and in particular the case study involving periodical cicadas. I argue that in this case, stronger mathematical apparatus yields explanations that have fewer concrete commitments. The nominalist cannot accept these more parsimonious explanations without embracing the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  69. Sam Baron (forthcoming). The Explanatory Dispensability of Idealizations. Synthese:1-22.
    Enhanced indispensability arguments seek to establish realism about mathematics based on the explanatory role that mathematics plays in science. Idealizations pose a problem for such arguments. Idealizations, in a similar way to mathematics, boost the explanatory credentials of our best scientific theories. And yet, idealizations are not the sorts of things that are supposed to attract a realist attitude. I argue that the explanatory symmetry between idealizations and mathematics can potentially be broken as follows: although idealizations contribute to the explanatory (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  70. Jeffrey A. Barrett (forthcoming). The Evolution, Appropriation, and Composition of Rules. Synthese:1-14.
    This paper concerns how rule-following behavior might evolve in the context of a variety of Skyrms–Lewis signaling game (Lewis, Convention, 1969; Skyrms, Signals evolution, learning, & information 2010), how such rules might subsequently evolve to be used in new contexts, and how such appropriation allows for the composition of evolved rules. We will also consider how the composition of simpler rules to form more complex rules may be significantly more efficient than evolving the complex rules directly. And we will review (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  71. Jeffrey A. Barrett (forthcoming). Pure Wave Mechanics and the Very Idea of Empirical Adequacy. Synthese:1-34.
    Hugh Everett III proposed his relative-state formulation of pure wave mechanics as a solution to the quantum measurement problem. He sought to address the theory’s determinate record and probability problems by showing that, while counterintuitive, pure wave mechanics was nevertheless empirically faithful and hence empirical acceptable. We will consider what Everett meant by empirical faithfulness. The suggestion will be that empirical faithfulness is well understood as a weak variety of empirical adequacy. The thought is that the very idea of empirical (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  72. William Bechtel (forthcoming). Investigating Neural Representations: The Tale of Place Cells. Synthese:1-35.
    While neuroscientists often characterize brain activity as representational, many philosophers have construed these accounts as just theorists’ glosses on the mechanism. Moreover, philosophical discussions commonly focus on finished accounts of explanation, not research in progress. I adopt a different perspective, considering how characterizations of neural activity as representational contributes to the development of mechanistic accounts, guiding the investigations neuroscientists pursue as they work from an initial proposal to a more detailed understanding of a mechanism. I develop one illustrative example involving (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  73. Catherine Benjamin, Nadine Herrard, Magalie Houée & Isabelle Piot-Lepetit (forthcoming). Modèle mondial des productions et des échanges de grandes cultures. Synthese.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  74. Alexander Bird & Johannes Persson (forthcoming). Synthese Vol 149 No. 3 Metaphysics in Science. Synthese.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  75. Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Robert C. Richardson, Achim Stephan & Hans V. Westerhoff (forthcoming). » Emergence and its Place in Nature: A Case Study of Biochemical Networks «, Erscheint In. Synthese.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  76. Worth Boone & Gualtiero Piccinini (forthcoming). The Cognitive Neuroscience Revolution. Synthese:1-26.
    We outline a framework of multilevel neurocognitive mechanisms that incorporates representation and computation. We argue that paradigmatic explanations in cognitive neuroscience fit this framework and thus that cognitive neuroscience constitutes a revolutionary break from traditional cognitive science. Whereas traditional cognitive scientific explanations were supposed to be distinct and autonomous from mechanistic explanations, neurocognitive explanations aim to be mechanistic through and through. Neurocognitive explanations aim to integrate computational and representational functions and structures across multiple levels of organization in order to explain (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  77. Rodrigo Borges (forthcoming). On Synchronic Dogmatism. Synthese:1-17.
    Saul Kripke argued that the requirement that knowledge eliminate all possibilities of error leads to dogmatism . According to this view, the dogmatism puzzle arises because of a requirement on knowledge that is too strong. The paper argues that dogmatism can be avoided even if we hold on to the strong requirement on knowledge. I show how the argument for dogmatism can be blocked and I argue that the only other approach to the puzzle in the literature is mistaken.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  78. Jacob Busch & Joe Morrison (forthcoming). Should Scientific Realists Be Platonists? Synthese:1-15.
    Enhanced indispensability arguments claim that Scientific Realists are committed to the existence of mathematical entities due to their reliance on Inference to the best explanation . Our central question concerns this purported parity of reasoning: do people who defend the EIA make an appropriate use of the resources of Scientific Realism to achieve platonism? We argue that just because a variety of different inferential strategies can be employed by Scientific Realists does not mean that ontological conclusions concerning which things we (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  79. Craig Callender (forthcoming). One World, One Beable. Synthese:1-25.
    Is the quantum state part of the furniture of the world? Einstein found such a position indigestible, but here I present a different understanding of the wavefunction that is easy to stomach. First, I develop the idea that the wavefunction is nomological in nature, showing how the quantum It or Bit debate gets subsumed by the corresponding It or Bit debate about laws of nature. Second, I motivate the nomological view by casting quantum mechanics in a “classical” formalism (Hamilton–Jacobi theory) (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  80. John Cantwell (forthcoming). Reasoning with Conditonals. Synthese.
  81. Peter Carruthers (forthcoming). Mindreading in Adults: Evaluating Two-Systems Views. Synthese:1-16.
    A number of convergent recent findings with adults have been interpreted as evidence of the existence of two distinct systems for mindreading that draw on separate conceptual resources: one that is fast, automatic, and inflexible; and one that is slower, controlled, and flexible. The present article argues that these findings admit of a more parsimonious explanation. This is that there is a single set of concepts made available by a mindreading system that operates automatically where it can, but which frequently (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  82. Quassim Cassam (forthcoming). What Asymmetry? Knowledge of Self, Knowledge of Others, and the Inferentialist Challenge. Synthese:1-19.
    There is widely assumed to be a fundamental epistemological asymmetry between self-knowledge and knowledge of others. They are said to be ’categorically different in kind and manner’ , and the existence of such an asymmetry is taken to be a primitive datum in accounts of the two kinds of knowledge. I argue that standard accounts of the differences between self-knowledge and knowledge of others exaggerate and misstate the asymmetry. The inferentialist challenge to the asymmetry focuses on the extent to which (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  83. C. Castelfranchi & F. Paglieri (forthcoming). On the Integration of Goal Dynamics and Belief Structures', Department of Cognitive Science, University of Siena and University of Rome, to Appear In. Synthese.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  84. Sen Cheng & Markus Werning (forthcoming). What is Episodic Memory If It is a Natural Kind? Synthese:1-41.
    Colloquially, episodic memory is described as “the memory of personally experienced events”. Even though episodic memory has been studied in psychology and neuroscience for about six decades, there is still great uncertainty as to what episodic memory is. Here we ask how episodic memory should be characterized in order to be validated as a natural kind. We propose to conceive of episodic memory as a knowledge-like state that is identified with an experientially based mnemonic representation of an episode that allows (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  85. Charles S. Chihara & Brian Skyrms (forthcoming). An International Journal for Epistemology, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  86. David Danks Clark Glymour, Frederick Eberhardt Bruce Glymour, Richard Scheines Joseph Ramsey, Choh Man Teng Peter Spirtes & Jiji Zhang (forthcoming). Actual Causation: A Stone Soup Essay. Synthese.
    We argue that current discussions of criteria for actual causation are ill-posed in several respects. (1) The methodology of current discussions is by induction from intuitions about an infinitesimal fraction of the possible examples and counterexamples; (2) cases with larger numbers of causes generate novel puzzles; (3) “neuron” and causal Bayes net diagrams are, as deployed in discussions of actual causation, almost always ambiguous; (4) actual causation is (intuitively) relative to an initial system state since state changes are relevant, but (...)
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  87. Andy Clark (forthcoming). What ‘Extended Me’ Knows. Synthese:1-19.
    Arguments for the ‘extended mind’ seem to suggest the possibility of ‘extended knowers’—agents whose specifically epistemic virtues may depend on systems whose boundaries are not those of the brain or the biological organism. Recent discussions of this possibility invoke insights from virtue epistemology, according to which knowledge is the result of the application of some kind of cognitive skill or ability on the part of the agent. In this paper, I argue that there is a fundamental tension in these appeals (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  88. Hayley Clatterbuck (forthcoming). Drift Beyond Wright–Fisher. Synthese:1-21.
    Several recent arguments by philosophers of biology have challenged the traditional view that evolutionary factors, such as drift and selection, are genuine causes of evolutionary outcomes. In the case of drift, advocates of the statistical theory argue that drift is merely the sampling error inherent in the other stochastic processes of evolution and thus denotes a mathematical, rather than causal, feature of populations. This debate has largely centered around one particular model of drift, the Wright–Fisher model, and this has contributed (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  89. Liron Cohen & Arnon Avron (forthcoming). The Middle Ground-Ancestral Logic. Synthese:1-23.
    Many efforts have been made in recent years to construct formal systems for mechanizing general mathematical reasoning. Most of these systems are based on logics which are stronger than first-order logic . However, there are good reasons to avoid using full second-order logic for this task. In this work we investigate a logic which is intermediate between FOL and SOL, and seems to be a particularly attractive alternative to both: ancestral logic. This is the logic which is obtained from FOL (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  90. Roy T. Cook (forthcoming). Possible Predicates and Actual Properties. Synthese:1-28.
    In “Properties and the Interpretation of Second-Order Logic” (Hale, Philos Math 21:133–156, 2013) Bob Hale develops and defends a deflationary conception of properties where a property with particular satisfaction conditions actually (and in fact necessarily) exists if and only if it is possible that a predicate with those same satisfaction conditions exists. He argues further that, since our languages are finitary, there are at most countably infinitely many properties and, as a result, the account fails to underwrite the standard semantics (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  91. João Figueiredo Nobre Cortese (forthcoming). Infinity Between Mathematics and Apologetics: Pascal's Notion of Infinite Distance. Synthese:1-15.
    In this paper I will examine what Blaise Pascal means by “infinite distance”, both in his works on projective geometry and in the apologetics of the Pensées’s. I suggest that there is a difference of meaning in these two uses of “infinite distance”, and that the Pensées’s use of it also bears relations to the mathematical concept of heterogeneity. I also consider the relation between the finite and the infinite and the acceptance of paradoxical relations by Pascal.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  92. Robert D. Cousins (forthcoming). The Jeffreys–Lindley Paradox and Discovery Criteria in High Energy Physics. Synthese:1-38.
    The Jeffreys–Lindley paradox displays how the use of a \(p\) value (or number of standard deviations \(z\) ) in a frequentist hypothesis test can lead to an inference that is radically different from that of a Bayesian hypothesis test in the form advocated by Harold Jeffreys in the 1930s and common today. The setting is the test of a well-specified null hypothesis (such as the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, possibly with “nuisance parameters”) versus a composite alternative (such as (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  93. Daniel Cownden, Kimmo Eriksson & Pontus Strimling (forthcoming). The Implications of Learning Across Perceptually and Strategically Distinct Situations. Synthese:1-18.
    Game theory is a formal approach to behavior that focuses on the strategic aspect of situations. The game theoretic approach originates in economics but has been embraced by scholars across disciplines, including many philosophers and biologists. This approach has an important weakness: the strategic aspect of a situation, which is its defining quality in game theory, is often not its most salient quality in human cognition. Evidence from a wide range of experiments highlights this shortcoming. Previous theoretical and empirical work (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  94. Richard Creath (forthcoming). The Logical and the Analytic. Synthese:1-18.
    This paper considers various objections to Carnap’s logical syntax definition of ’logical expression’, including those by Saunders Mac Lane and W. V. O. Quine. While the specific objections of these two authors can be answered, if necessary by a slight modification of Carnap’s definition, there are other objections that I do not see how to meet. I also consider the proposal by Denis Bonnay for avoiding the objections to Carnap’s definition. In light of the unresolved problems with Carnap’s definition, I (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  95. His Critics (forthcoming). Stich and His Critics. Synthese.
    Through a collection of original essays from leading philosophical scholars, Stich and His Critics provides a thorough assessment of the key themes in the career of philosopher Stephen Stich. Provides a collection of original essays from some of the world's most distinguished philosophersExplores some of philosophy's most hotly-debated contemporary topics, including mental representation, theory of mind, nativism, moral philosophy, and naturalized epistemology.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  96. David Danks (forthcoming). Goal-Dependence in Ontology. Synthese:1-16.
    Our best sciences are frequently held to be one way, perhaps the optimal way, to learn about the world’s higher-level ontology and structure. I first argue that which scientific theory is “best” depends in part on our goals or purposes. As a result, it is theoretically possible to have two scientific theories of the same domain, where each theory is best for some goal, but where the two theories posit incompatible ontologies. That is, it is possible for us to have (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  97. Silvia De Bianchi (forthcoming). Which Explanatory Role for Mathematics in Scientific Models? Reply to “The Explanatory Dispensability of Idealizations. Synthese:1-15.
    In The Explanatory Dispensability of Idealizations, Sam Baron suggests a possible strategy enabling the indispensability argument to break the symmetry between mathematical claims and idealization assumptions in scientific models. Baron’s distinction between mathematical and non-mathematical idealization, I claim, is in need of a more compelling criterion, because in scientific models idealization assumptions are expressed through mathematical claims. In this paper I argue that this mutual dependence of idealization and mathematics cannot be read in terms of symmetry and that Baron’s non-causal (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  98. Silvia De Bianchi (forthcoming). When Series Go in Indefinitum, Ad Infinitum and in Infinitum Concepts of Infinity in Kant’s Antinomy of Pure Reason. Synthese:1-18.
    In the section of the Antinomy of pure Reason Kant presents three notions of infinity. By investigating these concepts of infinity, this paper highlights important ‘building blocks’ of the structure of the mathematical antinomies, such as the ability of reason of producing ascending and descending series, as well as the notions of given and givable series. These structural features are discussed in order to clarify Ernst Zermelo’s reading of Kant’s antinomy, according to which the latter is deeply rooted in the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  99. M. de Boer, D. Gabbay, X. Parent & M. Slavkova (forthcoming). Two Dimensional Deontic Logic. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  100. P. De Cuyper & L. Struyven (forthcoming). Under Construction. Bouwpool Antwerpen als voorbeeld van een sectorale cluster. Synthese.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  101. Henk W. De Regt (forthcoming). Scientific Understanding: Truth or Dare? Synthese:1-17.
    It is often claimed—especially by scientific realists—that science provides understanding of the world only if its theories are (at least approximately) true descriptions of reality, in its observable as well as unobservable aspects. This paper critically examines this ‘realist thesis’ concerning understanding. A crucial problem for the realist thesis is that (as study of the history and practice of science reveals) understanding is frequently obtained via theories and models that appear to be highly unrealistic or even completely fictional. So we (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  102. Lane DesAutels (forthcoming). Toward a Propensity Interpretation of Stochastic Mechanism for the Life Sciences. Synthese:1-33.
    In what follows, I suggest that it makes good sense to think of the truth of the probabilistic generalizations made in the life sciences as metaphysically grounded in stochastic mechanisms in the world. To further understand these stochastic mechanisms, I take the general characterization of mechanism offered by MDC :1–25, 2000) and explore how it fits with several of the going philosophical accounts of chance: subjectivism, frequentism, Lewisian best-systems, and propensity. I argue that neither subjectivism, frequentism, nor a best-system-style interpretation (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  103. Jérôme Dokic (forthcoming). Knowledge, Perception, and the Art of Camouflage. Synthese:1-9.
    I present a novel argument against the epistemic conception of perception according to which perception either is a form of knowledge or puts the subject in a position to gain knowledge about what is perceived. ECP closes the gap between a perceptual experience that veridically presents a given state of affairs and an experience capable of yielding the knowledge that the state of affairs obtains. Against ECP, I describe a particular case of perceptual experience in which the following triad of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  104. Igor Douven (forthcoming). Verities, the Sorites, and Theseus’ Ship. Synthese:1-12.
    Edgington has proposed a degree-theoretic account of vagueness that yields a highly elegant solution to the sorites paradox. This paper applies her account to the paradox of Theseus’ ship, which is generally classified among the paradoxes of material constitution and not as a sorites paradox.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  105. Igor Douven (forthcoming). How to Account for the Oddness of Missing-Link Conditionals. Synthese:1-14.
    Conditionals whose antecedent and consequent are not somehow internally connected tend to strike us as odd. The received doctrine is that this felt oddness is to be explained pragmatically. Exactly how the pragmatic explanation is supposed to go has remained elusive, however. This paper discusses recent philosophical and psychological work that attempts to account semantically for the apparent oddness of conditionals lacking an internal connection between their parts.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  106. Anne Dujin & Bruno Maresca (forthcoming). Vingt ans après les premières unités, un éclairage sur le développement des soins palliatifs en France Le secteur médico-social. Synthese.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  107. Günther Eder & Esther Ramharter (forthcoming). Formal Reconstructions of St. Anselm’s Ontological Argument. Synthese:1-31.
    In this paper, we discuss formal reconstructions of Anselm’s ontological argument. We first present a number of requirements that any successful reconstruction should meet. We then offer a detailed preparatory study of the basic concepts involved in Anselm’s argument. Next, we present our own reconstructions—one in modal logic and one in classical logic—and compare them with each other and with existing reconstructions from the reviewed literature. Finally, we try to show why and how one can gain a better understanding of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  108. Matthias Egg & Michael Esfeld (forthcoming). Primitive Ontology and Quantum State in the GRW Matter Density Theory. Synthese:1-17.
    The paper explains in what sense the GRW matter density theory (GRWm) is a primitive ontology theory of quantum mechanics and why, thus conceived, the standard objections against the GRW formalism do not apply to GRWm. We consider the different options for conceiving the quantum state in GRWm and argue that dispositionalism is the most attractive one.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  109. Jeff Engelhardt (forthcoming). What We Talk About When We Talk About Content Externalism. Synthese:1-19.
    Some content externalists claim that if C is a theoretical concept and “C” expresses C, then the content of C in a community at a time is determined by how some members of the community at the time—call them “experts”—understand C or use “C”. Thus, when non-expert Chauncey utters “C”, the content of the concept he expresses does not depend entirely on his intrinsic physical properties, contra the claims of content internalism. This paper proposes that “concept” expresses a theoretical concept, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  110. Markus I. Eronen (forthcoming). Robustness and Reality. Synthese:1-17.
    Robustness is often presented as a guideline for distinguishing the true or real from mere appearances or artifacts. Most of recent discussions of robustness have focused on the kind of derivational robustness analysis introduced by Levins, while the related but distinct idea of robustness as multiple accessibility, defended by Wimsatt, has received less attention. In this paper, I argue that the latter kind of robustness, when properly understood, can provide justification for ontological commitments. The idea is that we are justified (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  111. Michael Esfeld (forthcoming). How to Account for Quantum Non-Locality: Ontic Structural Realism and the Primitive Ontology of Quantum Physics. Synthese:1-16.
    The paper has two aims: (1) it sets out to show that it is well motivated to seek for an account of quantum non-locality in the framework of ontic structural realism (OSR), which integrates the notions of holism and non-separability that have been employed since the 1980s to achieve such an account. However, recent research shows that OSR on its own cannot provide such an account. Against this background, the paper argues that by applying OSR to the primitive ontology theories (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  112. Complement Et & Sur la (forthcoming). Vieille Brioude Et le Bec D'Allier. Synthese.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  113. Miklós Ferenczi (forthcoming). Probabilities Defined on Standard and Non-Standard Cylindric Set Algebras. Synthese:1-9.
    Cylindric set algebras are algebraizations of certain logical semantics. The topic surveyed here, i.e. probabilities defined on cylindric set algebras, is closely related, on the one hand, to probability logic (to probabilities defined on logical formulas), on the other hand, to measure theory. The set algebras occuring here are associated, in particular, with the semantics of first order logic and with non-standard analysis. The probabilities introduced are partially continous, they are continous with respect to so-called cylindric sums.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  114. J. H. Fetzer (forthcoming). Frequencies and Propensities: Inference to the Best Explanation. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  115. Rosita Fibbi (forthcoming). Peter, Afrim Oder Mehmet–Der Name Macht den Unterschied. NFP 43. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  116. A. R. J. Fisher (forthcoming). On Lewis Against Magic: A Study of Method in Metaphysics. Synthese:1-19.
    David Lewis objected to theories that posit necessary connections between distinct entities and to theories that involve a magical grasping of their primitives. In On the Plurality of Worlds, Lewis objected to nondescript ersatzism on these grounds . The literature contains several reconstructions of Lewis’ critique of nondescript ersatzism but none of these interpretations adequately address his main argument because they fail to see that Lewis’ critique is based on broader methodological considerations. I argue that a closer look at his (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  117. Allan Franklin (forthcoming). The Missing Piece of the Puzzle: The Discovery of the Higgs Boson. Synthese:1-16.
    The missing piece of the puzzle: the discovery of the Higgs boson On July 4, 2012 the CMS and ATLAS collaborations at the large hadron collider jointly announced the discovery of a new elementary particle, which resembled the Higgs boson, the last remaining undiscovered piece of the standard model of elementary particles. Both groups claimed to have observed a five-standard-deviation (five sigmas) effect above background, the gold standard for discovery in high-energy physics. In this essay I will briefly discuss the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  118. Ellen Fridland (forthcoming). Automatically Minded. Synthese:1-27.
    It is not rare in philosophy and psychology to see theorists fall into dichotomous thinking about mental phenomena. On one side of the dichotomy there are processes that I will label “unintelligent.” These processes are thought to be unconscious, implicit, automatic, unintentional, involuntary, procedural, and non-cognitive. On the other side, there are “intelligent” processes that are conscious, explicit, controlled, intentional, voluntary, declarative, and cognitive. Often, if a process or behavior is characterized by one of the features from either of the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  119. Michèle Friend (forthcoming). On the Epistemological Significance of the Hungarian Project. Synthese:1-17.
    There are three elements in this paper. One is what we shall call ‘the Hungarian project’. This is the collected work of Andréka, Madarász, Németi, Székely and others. The second is Molinini’s philosophical work on the nature of mathematical explanations in science. The third is my pluralist approach to mathematics. The theses of this paper are that the Hungarian project gives genuine mathematical explanations for physical phenomena. A pluralist account of mathematical explanation can help us with appreciating the significance of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  120. Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss (forthcoming). A Critical Look at the Philosophy of Simulation. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  121. Roman Frigg, Leonard A. Smith & David A. Stainforth (forthcoming). An Assessment of the Foundational Assumptions in High-Resolution Climate Projections: The Case of UKCP09. Synthese:1-30.
    The United Kingdom Climate Impacts Programme’s UKCP09 project makes high-resolution projections of the climate out to 2100 by post-processing the outputs of a large-scale global climate model. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the methodology used and then urge some caution. Given the acknowledged systematic, shared errors of all current climate models, treating model outputs as decision-relevant projections can be significantly misleading. In extrapolatory situations, such as projections of future climate change, there is little reason to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (6 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  122. Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung (forthcoming). Bewertung der externen Kosten des Strassen-und Schienenverkehrs in der Schweiz für das Jahr 2000. Synthese.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  123. Daniel Giberman (forthcoming). Moving Parts: A New Indexical Treatment of Context-Shifting Predication. Synthese:1-30.
    A context-shifting example involves a putatively non-ambiguous, non-elliptical, non-indexical declarative sentence, some distinct utterances of which differ in truth value despite sameness of place, time, surrounding objects, and other physical factors. Charles Travis has spawned a large literature by arguing that such examples undermine compositional truth-conditional semantics. After explaining how prior responses to Travis’s examples fail in the metaphysical details, the present essay develops a new approach that treats a wide range of subject terms as disguised indexicals sensitive to mereological (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  124. Itzhak Gilboa, Andrew Postlewaite & David Schmeidler (forthcoming). Rationality of Belief. Synthese.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  125. Eduardo N. Giovannini (forthcoming). Bridging the Gap Between Analytic and Synthetic Geometry: Hilbert’s Axiomatic Approach. Synthese:1-40.
    The paper outlines an interpretation of one of the most important and original contributions of David Hilbert’s monograph Foundations of Geometry , namely his internal arithmetization of geometry. It is claimed that Hilbert’s profound interest in the problem of the introduction of numbers into geometry responded to certain epistemological aims and methodological concerns that were fundamental to his early axiomatic investigations into the foundations of elementary geometry. In particular, it is shown that a central concern that motivated Hilbert’s axiomatic investigations (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  126. Patrick Girard & Koji Tanaka (forthcoming). Paraconsistent Dynamics. Synthese:1-14.
    It has been an open question whether or not we can define a belief revision operation that is distinct from simple belief expansion using paraconsistent logic. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of meeting the challenge of defining a belief revision operation using the resources made available by the study of dynamic epistemic logic in the presence of paraconsistent logic. We will show that it is possible to define dynamic operations of belief revision in a paraconsistent setting.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  127. Sanford C. Goldberg (forthcoming). Should Have Known. Synthese:1-32.
    In this paper I will be arguing that there are cases in which a subject, S, should have known that p, even though, given her state of evidence at the time, she was in no position to know it. My argument for this result will involve making two claims. The uncontroversial claim is this: S should have known that p when another person has, or would have, legitimate expectations regarding S’s epistemic condition, the satisfaction of these expectations would require that (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  128. Hajo Greif (forthcoming). What is the Extension of the Extended Mind? Synthese:1-26.
    Two aspects of cognitive coupling, as brought forward in the Extended Mind Hypothesis, are discussed in this paper: how shall the functional coupling between the organism and some entity in his environment be spelled out in detail? What are the paradigmatic external entities to enter into that coupling? These two related questions are best answered in the light of an aetiological variety of functionalist argument that adds historical depth to the “active externalism” promoted by Clark and Chalmers and helps to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  129. Aaron M. Griffith (forthcoming). Erratum To: How Negative Truths Are Made True. Synthese:1-1.
    Erratum to: Synthese 192:317–335 DOI 10.1007/s11229-014-0570-7The second sentence on page 317 reads “The challenge is that, prima facie, it is hard to see how a negative truth, e.g., \ of something could be made true by the existence of some entity”.This sentence should read “The challenge is that, prima facie, it is hard to see how a negative truth, e.g., \ that is concerned with the non-existence of something could be made true by the existence of some entity”.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  130. Davide Grossi & Fernando R. Velázquez-Quesada (forthcoming). Syntactic Awareness in Logical Dynamics. Synthese:1-35.
    The paper develops an interface between syntax-based logical models of awareness and dynamic epistemic logic. The framework is shown to be able to accommodate a variety of notions of awareness and knowledge, as well as their dynamics. This, it is argued, offers a natural formal environment for the analysis of epistemic phenomena typical of multi-agent information exchange, such as how agents become aware of relevant details, how they perform inferences and how they share their information within a group. Technically, the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  131. Thor Grünbaum (forthcoming). The Feeling of Agency Hypothesis: A Critique. Synthese:1-25.
    A dominant view in contemporary cognitive neuroscience is that low-level, comparator-based mechanisms of motor control produce a distinctive experience often called the feeling of agency . An opposing view is that comparator-based motor control is largely non-conscious and not associated with any particular type of distinctive phenomenology . In this paper, I critically evaluate the nature of the empirical evidence researchers commonly take to support FoA-hypothesis. The aim of this paper is not only to scrutinize the FoA-hypothesis and data supposed (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  132. Thomas Grundmann (forthcoming). How Reliabilism Saves the Apriori/Aposteriori Distinction. Synthese:1-22.
    Contemporary epistemologists typically define a priori justification as justification that is independent of sense experience. However, sense experience plays at least some role in the production of many paradigm cases of a priori justified belief. This raises the question of when experience is epistemically relevant to the justificatory status of the belief that is based on it. In this paper, I will outline the answers that can be given by the two currently dominant accounts of justification, i.e. evidentialism and reliabilism. (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  133. York Hagmayer (forthcoming). Causal Bayes Nets as Psychological Theories of Causal Reasoning: Evidence From Psychological Research. Synthese:1-20.
    Causal Bayes nets have been developed in philosophy, statistics, and computer sciences to provide a formalism to represent causal structures, to induce causal structure from data and to derive predictions . Causal Bayes nets have been used as psychological theories in at least two ways. They were used as rational, computational models of causal reasoning and they were used as formal models of mental causal models . A crucial assumption made by them is the Markov condition, which informally states that (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  134. Bob Hale (forthcoming). Second-Order Logic: Properties, Semantics, and Existential Commitments. Synthese:1-27.
    Quine’s most important charge against second-, and more generally, higher-order logic is that it carries massive existential commitments. The force of this charge does not depend upon Quine’s questionable assimilation of second-order logic to set theory. Even if we take second-order variables to range over properties, rather than sets, the charge remains in force, as long as properties are individuated purely extensionally. I argue that if we interpret them as ranging over properties more reasonably construed, in accordance with an abundant (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  135. Mirja Hartimo & Mitsuhiro Okada (forthcoming). Syntactic Reduction in Husserl’s Early Phenomenology of Arithmetic. Synthese:1-33.
    The paper traces the development and the role of syntactic reduction in Edmund Husserl’s early writings on mathematics and logic, especially on arithmetic. The notion has its origin in Hermann Hankel’s principle of permanence that Husserl set out to clarify. In Husserl’s early texts the emphasis of the reductions was meant to guarantee the consistency of the extended algorithm. Around the turn of the century Husserl uses the same idea in his conception of definiteness of what he calls “mathematical manifolds.” (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  136. Peter Hartl (forthcoming). Modal Scepticism, Yablo-Style Conceivability, and Analogical Reasoning. Synthese:1-23.
    This paper offers a detailed criticism of different versions of modal scepticism proposed by Van Inwagen and Hawke, and, against these views, attempts to vindicate our reliance on thought experiments in philosophy. More than one different meaning of “modal scepticism” will be distinguished. Focusing mainly on Hawke’s more detailed view I argue that none of these versions of modal scepticism is compelling, since sceptical conclusions depend on an untenable and, perhaps, incoherent modal epistemology. With a detailed account of modal defeaters (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  137. Chris Heunen, Nicolaas P. Landsman & Bas Spitters (forthcoming). Intuitionistic Quantum Logic for von Neumann Algebras. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  138. Jan Heylen (forthcoming). The Epistemic Significance of Numerals. Synthese:1-27.
    The central topic of this article is (the possibility of) de re knowledge about natural numbers and its relation with names for numbers. It is held by several prominent philosophers that (Peano) numerals are eligible for existential quantification in epistemic contexts (‘canonical’), whereas other names for natural numbers are not. In other words, (Peano) numerals are intimately linked with de re knowledge about natural numbers, whereas the other names for natural numbers are not. In this article I am looking for (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  139. R. Hillerbrand (forthcoming). Scale Separation as a Condition for Quantitative Modelling. Why Mathematics Works for Some Problems and Fails for Others. Synthese.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  140. Vera Hoffmann-Kolss (forthcoming). Of Brains and Planets: On a Causal Criterion for Mind-Brain Identities. Synthese:1-13.
    Whether mental properties are identical with neural properties is one of the central questions of contemporary philosophy of mind. Many philosophers agree that even if mental properties are identical with neural properties, the mind-brain identity thesis cannot be established on empirical grounds, but only be vindicated by theoretical philosophical considerations. In his paper ‘When Is a Brain Like the Planet?’, Clark Glymour proposes a causal criterion for local property identifications and claims that this criterion can be used to empirically establish (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  141. Kevin D. Hoover (forthcoming). The Ontological Status of Shocks and Trends in Macroeconomics. Synthese:1-24.
    Modern empirical macroeconomic models, known as structural autoregressions (SVARs) are dynamic models that typically claim to represent a causal order among contemporaneously valued variables and to merely represent non-structural (reduced-form) co-occurence between lagged variables and contemporaneous variables. The strategy is held to meet the minimal requirements for identifying the residual errors in particular equations in the model with independent, though otherwise not directly observable, exogenous causes (“shocks”) that ultimately account for change in the model. In nonstationary models, such shocks accumulate (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  142. Josh Hunt (forthcoming). Indispensability and the Problem of Compatible Explanations. Synthese:1-17.
    Alan Baker’s enhanced indispensability argument supports mathematical platonism through the explanatory role of mathematics in science. Busch and Morrison defend nominalism by denying that scientific realists use inference to the best explanation to directly establish ontological claims. In response to Busch and Morrison, I argue that nominalists can rebut the EIA while still accepting Baker’s form of IBE. Nominalists can plausibly require that defenders of the EIA establish the indispensability of a particular mathematical entity. Next, I argue that IBE cannot (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  143. Elizabeth Irvine (forthcoming). Models, Robustness, and Non-Causal Explanation: A Foray Into Cognitive Science and Biology. Synthese:1-17.
    This paper is aimed at identifying how a model’s explanatory power is constructed and identified, particularly in the practice of template-based modeling (Humphreys, Philos Sci 69:1–11, 2002; Extending ourselves: computational science, empiricism, and scientific method, 2004), and what kinds of explanations models constructed in this way can provide. In particular, this paper offers an account of non-causal structural explanation that forms an alternative to causal–mechanical accounts of model explanation that are currently popular in philosophy of biology and cognitive science. Clearly, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  144. Jenann Ismael (forthcoming). How Do Causes Depend on Us? The Many Faces of Perspectivalism. Synthese:1-23.
    Huw Price has argued that on an interventionist account of cause the distinction is perspectival, and the claim prompted some interesting responses from interventionists and in particular an exchange with Woodward that raises questions about what it means to say that one or another structure is perspectival. I’ll introduce his reasons for claiming that the distinction between cause and effect on an interventionist account is perspectival. Then I’ll introduce a distinction between different ways in which a class of concepts can (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  145. Frederique Janssen-Lauret (forthcoming). Committing to an Individual: Ontological Commitment, Reference and Epistemology. Synthese:1-22.
    When we use a directly referential expression to denote an object, do we incur an ontological commitment to that object, as Russell and Barcan Marcus held? Not according to Quine, whose regimented language has only variables as denoting expressions, but no constants to model direct reference. I make a case for a more liberal conception of ontological commitment—more wide-ranging than Quine’s—which allows for commitment to individuals, with an improved logical language of regimentation. The reason for Quine’s prohibition on commitment to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  146. Benjamin C. Jantzen (forthcoming). Projection, Symmetry, and Natural Kinds. Synthese:1-30.
    Scientific practice involves two kinds of induction. In one, generalizations are drawn about the states of a particular system of variables. In the other, generalizations are drawn across systems in a class. We can discern two questions of correctness about both kinds of induction: what distinguishes those systems and classes of system that are ‘projectible’ in Goodman’s sense from those that are not, and what are the methods by which we are able to identify kinds that are likely to be (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  147. Sándor Jenei & Franco Montagna (forthcoming). A Classification of Certain Group-Like FL_e-Chains. Synthese:1-27.
    Classification of certain group-like FL $_e$ -chains is given: We define absorbent-continuity of FL $_e$ -algebras, along with the notion of subreal chains, and classify absorbent-continuous, group-like FL $_e$ -algebras over subreal chains: The algebra is determined by its negative cone, and the negative cone can only be chosen from a certain subclass of BL-chains, namely, one with components which are either cancellative (that is, those components are negative cones of totally ordered Abelian groups) or two-element MV-algebras, and with no (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  148. Sándor Jenei & Franco Montagna (forthcoming). Erratum To: A Classification of Certain Group-Like FL_e-Chains. Synthese:1-1.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  149. C. S. I. Jenkins & Masashi Kasaki (forthcoming). The Traditional Conception of the a Priori. Synthese:1-22.
    In this paper, we explore the traditional conception of a prioricity as epistemic independence of evidence from sense experience. We investigate the fortunes of the traditional conception in the light of recent challenges by Timothy Williamson. We contend that Williamson’s arguments can be resisted in various ways. En route, we argue that Williamson’s views are not as distant from tradition (in particular, from Kant) as they might seem at first glance.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  150. Matthew Katz (forthcoming). Analog Representations and Their Users. Synthese:1-21.
    Characterizing different kinds of representation is of fundamental importance to cognitive science, and one traditional way of doing so is in terms of the analog–digital distinction. Indeed the distinction is often appealed to in ways both narrow and broad. In this paper I argue that the analog–digital distinction does not apply to representational schemes but only to representational systems, where a representational system is constituted by a representational scheme and its user, and that whether a representational system is analog or (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  151. Christoph Kelp (forthcoming). Understanding Phenomena. Synthese:1-18.
    The literature on the nature of understanding can be divided into two broad camps. Explanationists believe that it is knowledge of explanations that is key to understanding. In contrast, their manipulationist rivals maintain that understanding essentially involves an ability to manipulate certain representations. The aim of this paper is to provide a novel knowledge based account of understanding. More specifically, it proposes an account of maximal understanding of a given phenomenon in terms of fully comprehensive and maximally well-connected knowledge of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  152. Namjoong Kim (forthcoming). A Dilemma for the Imprecise Bayesian. Synthese:1-22.
    Many philosophers regard the imprecise credence framework as a more realistic model of probabilistic inferences with imperfect empirical information than the traditional precise credence framework. Hence, it is surprising that the literature lacks any discussion on how to update one’s imprecise credences when the given evidence itself is imprecise. To fill this gap, I consider two updating principles. Unfortunately, each of them faces a serious problem. The first updating principle, which I call “generalized conditionalization,” sometimes forces an agent to change (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  153. Philipp Koralus (forthcoming). Can Visual Cognitive Neuroscience Learn Anything From the Philosophy of Language? Ambiguity and the Topology of Neural Network Models of Multistable Perception. Synthese:1-24.
    The Necker cube and the productive class of related stimuli involving multiple depth interpretations driven by corner-like line junctions are often taken to be ambiguous. This idea is normally taken to be as little in need of defense as the claim that the Necker cube gives rise to multiple distinct percepts. In the philosophy of language, it is taken to be a substantive question whether a stimulus that affords multiple interpretations is a case of ambiguity. If we take into account (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  154. Ladislav Koreň (forthcoming). Hinge Commitments Vis-À-Vis the Transmission Problem. Synthese:1-22.
    This study provides a critical appraisal of Duncan Pritchard’s argument to the effect that ability to preserve certain eminently plausible transmission and/or closure principles for knowledge serves as a powerful adequacy test on alternative accounts of so-called Wittgensteinian certainties or hinge commitments. I argue that Pritchard fails to establish this claim—the transmission test does not favour his favourite conception over alternative conceptions premised on the idea that hinge commitments are not supportable via evidential-cognitive routes.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  155. Stephan Kornmesser (forthcoming). A Frame-Based Approach for Theoretical Concepts. Synthese:1-22.
    According to a seminal paper by Barsalou , frames are attribute-value-matrices for representing exemplars or concepts. Frames have been used as a tool for reconstructing scientific concepts as well as conceptual change within scientific revolutions . In the frame-based representations of scientific concepts developed so far the semantic content of concepts is determined by a set of attribute-specific values. This way of representing semantic content works best for prototype concepts and defined concepts of a conceptual taxonomy satisfying the no-overlap principle. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  156. Tapio Korte (forthcoming). Begriffsschrift as a Lingua Characteristica and the Classical Model of Science. Synthese.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  157. Arnold Koslow (forthcoming). The Modality and Non-Extensionality of the Quantifiers. Synthese:1-10.
    We shall try to defend two non-standard views that run counter to two well-entrenched familiar views. The standard views are (1) the universal and existential quantifiers of first-order logic are not modal operators, and (2) the quantifiers are extensional. If that is correct then the counterclaims create genuine problems for some traditional philosophical doctrines.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  158. Daniel M. Kraemer (forthcoming). Natural Probabilistic Information. Synthese:1-19.
    Natural information refers to the information carried by natural signs such as that smoke is thought to carry natural information about fire. A number of influential philosophers have argued that natural information can also be utilized in a theory of mental content. The most widely discussed account of natural information holds that it results from an extremely strong relation between sign and signified . Critics have responded that it is doubtful that there are many strong relations of this sort in (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  159. Jaakko Kuorikoski & Petri Ylikoski (forthcoming). External Representations and Scientific Understanding. Synthese:1-21.
    This paper provides an inferentialist account of model-based understanding by combining a counterfactual account of explanation and an inferentialist account of representation with a view of modeling as extended cognition. This account makes it understandable how the manipulation of surrogate systems like models can provide genuinely new empirical understanding about the world. Similarly, the account provides an answer to the question how models, that always incorporate assumptions that are literally untrue of the model target, can still provide factive explanations. Finally, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  160. Daniel Lassiter & Noah D. Goodman (forthcoming). Adjectival Vagueness in a Bayesian Model of Interpretation. Synthese:1-36.
    We derive a probabilistic account of the vagueness and context-sensitivity of scalar adjectives from a Bayesian approach to communication and interpretation. We describe an iterated-reasoning architecture for pragmatic interpretation and illustrate it with a simple scalar implicature example. We then show how to enrich the apparatus to handle pragmatic reasoning about the values of free variables, explore its predictions about the interpretation of scalar adjectives, and show how this model implements Edgington’s Vagueness: a reader, 1997) account of the sorites paradox, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  161. J. Lawry (forthcoming). Appropriateness Measures: An Uncertainty Measure for Vague Concepts, to Appear In. Synthese.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  162. Pierre Le Morvan (forthcoming). On the Ignorance, Knowledge, and Nature of Propositions. Synthese:1-16.
    Deploying distinctions between ignorance of \ and ignorance that \ , and between knowledge of \ and knowledge that \ , I address a question that has hitherto received little attention, namely: what is it to have knowledge of propositions? I then provide a taxonomy of ontological conceptions of the nature of propositions, and explore several of their interesting epistemological implications.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  163. Brian Leahy & Maximilian Huber (forthcoming). Two Arguments for the Etiological Theory Over the Modal Theory of Biological Function. Synthese:1-19.
    This paper contains a positive development and a negative argument. It develops a theory of function loss and shows how this undermines an objection raised against the etiological theory of function in support of the modal theory of function. Then it raises two internal problems for the modal theory of function.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  164. Marco LiCalzi & Nadia Maagli (forthcoming). Bargaining Over a Common Categorisation. Synthese:1-19.
    Two agents endowed with different categorisations engage in bargaining to reach an understanding and agree on a common categorisation. We model the process as a simple non-cooperative game and demonstrate three results. When the initial disagreement is focused, the bargaining process has a zero-sum structure. When the disagreement is widespread, the zero-sum structure disappears and the unique equilibrium requires a retraction of consensus: two agents who individually associate a region with the same category end up rebranding it under a different (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  165. Iris Loeb (forthcoming). The Role of Universal Language in the Early Work of Carnap and Tarski. Synthese:1-17.
    It is often argued that by assuming the existence of a universal language, one prohibits oneself from conducting semantical investigations. It could thus be thought that Tarski’s stance towards a universal language in his fruitful Wahrheitsbegriff differs essentially from Carnap’s in the latter’s less successful Untersuchungen zur allgemeinen Axiomatik . Yet this is not the case. Rather, these two works differ in whether or not the studied fragments of the universal language are languages themselves, i.e., whether or not they are (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  166. Aidan Lyon (forthcoming). Vague Credence. Synthese:1-24.
    It is natural to think of precise probabilities as being special cases of imprecise probabilities, the special case being when one’s lower and upper probabilities are equal. I argue, however, that it is better to think of the two models as representing two different aspects of our credences, which are often vague to some degree. I show that by combining the two models into one model, and understanding that model as a model of vague credence, a natural interpretation arises that (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  167. María Manzano & Enrique Alonso (forthcoming). Visions of Henkin. Synthese:1-16.
    Leon Henkin (1921–2006) was not only an extraordinary logician, but also an excellent teacher, a dedicated professor and an exceptional person. The first two sections of this paper are biographical, discussing both his personal and academic life. In the last section we present three aspects of Henkin’s work. First we comment part of his work fruit of his emphasis on teaching. In a personal communication he affirms that On mathematical induction, published in 1969, was the favourite among his articles with (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  168. Bruno Maresca (forthcoming). Vingt ans après les premières unités, un éclairage sur le développement des soins palliatifs en France Le secteur hospitalier et des soins à domicile. Synthese.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    | Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  169. George Masterton (forthcoming). What to Do with a Forecast? Synthese:1-27.
    In the literature one finds two non-equivalent responses to forecasts; deference and updating. Herein it is demonstrated that, under certain conditions, both responses are entirely determined by one’s beliefs as regards the calibration of the forecaster. Further it is argued that the choice as to whether to defer to, or update on, a forecast is determined by the aim of the recipient of that forecast. If the aim of the recipient is to match their credence with the prevailing objective chances, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  170. Conor McHugh (forthcoming). Engel on Doxastic Correctness. Synthese:1-12.
    In this paper I discuss Pascal Engel’s recent work on doxastic correctness. I raise worries about two elements of his view—the role played in it by the distinction between \ -correctness and \ -correctness, and the construal of doxastic correctness as an ideal of reason. I propose an alternative approach.
    Direct download (5 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  171. Conor McHugh (forthcoming). Attitudinal Control. Synthese:1-18.
    Beliefs are held to norms in a way that seems to require control over what we believe. Yet we don’t control our beliefs at will, in the way we control our actions. I argue that this problem can be solved by recognising a different form of control, which we exercise when we revise our beliefs directly for reasons. We enjoy this form of attitudinal control not only over our beliefs, but also over other attitudes, including intentions—that is, over the will (...)
    Direct download (4 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  172. Szabolcs Mikulás (forthcoming). The Equational Theories of Representable Residuated Semigroups. Synthese:1-8.
    We show that the equational theory of representable lower semilattice-ordered residuated semigroups is finitely based. We survey related results.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  173. B. Miller (forthcoming). When is Consensus Knowledge Based. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  174. Seumas Miller (forthcoming). Assertions, Joint Epistemic Actions and Social Practices. Synthese:1-24.
    In this paper I provide a theory of the speech act of assertion according to which assertion is a species of joint action. In doing so I rely on a theory of joint action developed in more detail elsewhere. Here we need to distinguish between the genus, joint action, and an important species of joint action, namely, what I call joint epistemic action. In the case of the latter, but not necessarily the former, participating agents have epistemic goals, e.g., the (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  175. Lucas Mix (forthcoming). Nested Explanation in Aristotle and Mayr. Synthese:1-16.
    Both Aristotle and Ernst Mayr present theories of dual explanation in biology, with proximal, clearly physical explanations and more distal, biology-specific explanations. Aristotle’s presentation of final cause explanations in Posterior Analytics relates final causes to the necessary material, formal, and efficient causes that mediate them. Johnson and Leunissen demonstrate the problematic nature of historical and recent interpretations and open the door for a new interpretation consistent with modern evolutionary theory. Mayr’s differentiation of proximate and ultimate/evolutionary causes provides a key to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  176. Matteo Mossio & Leonardo Bich (forthcoming). What Makes Biological Organisation Teleological? Synthese:1-26.
    This paper argues that biological organisation can be legitimately conceived of as an intrinsically teleological causal regime. The core of the argument consists in establishing a connection between organisation and teleology through the concept of self-determination: biological organisation determines itself in the sense that the effects of its activity contribute to determine its own conditions of existence. We suggest that not any kind of circular regime realises self-determination, which should be specifically understood as self-constraint: in biological systems, in particular, self-constraint (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  177. Wayne C. Myrvold (forthcoming). What is a Wavefunction? Synthese:1-28.
    Much of the the discussion of the metaphysics of quantum mechanics focusses on the status of wavefunctions. This paper is about how to think about wavefunctions, when we bear in mind that quantum mechanics—that is, the nonrelativistic quantum theory of systems of a fixed, finite number of degrees of freedom—is not a fundamental theory, but arises, in a certain approximation, valid in a limited regime, from a relativistic quantum field theory. We will explicitly show how the wavefunctions of quantum mechanics, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  178. Paul M. Näger (forthcoming). The Causal Problem of Entanglement. Synthese:1-29.
    This paper expounds that besides the well-known spatio-temporal problem there is a causal problem of entanglement: even when one neglects spatio-temporal constraints, the peculiar statistics of EPR/B experiment is inconsistent with usual principles of causal explanation as stated by the theory of causal Bayes nets. The conflict amounts to a dilemma that either there are uncaused correlations or there are caused independences . I argue that the central ideas of causal explanations can be saved if one accepts the latter horn (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  179. Marco J. Nathan & Guillermo Del Pinal (forthcoming). Mapping the Mind: Bridge Laws and the Psycho-Neural Interface. Synthese:1-21.
    Recent advancements in the brain sciences have enabled researchers to determine, with increasing accuracy, patterns and locations of neural activation associated with various psychological functions. These techniques have revived a longstanding debate regarding the relation between the mind and the brain: while many authors claim that neuroscientific data can be employed to advance theories of higher cognition, others defend the so-called ‘autonomy’ of psychology. Settling this significant issue requires understanding the nature of the bridge laws used at the psycho-neural interface. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  180. Jesús Navarro (forthcoming). No Achievement Beyond Intention. Synthese:1-31.
    According to robust versions of virtue epistemology, the reason why knowledge is incompatible with certain kinds of luck is that justified true beliefs must be achieved by the agent . In a recent set of papers, Pritchard has challenged these sorts of views, advancing different arguments against them. I confront one of them here, which is constructed upon scenarios affected by environmental luck, such as the fake barn cases. My objection to Pritchard differs from those offered until now by Carter (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  181. C. Newiger & R. K. Muts (forthcoming). Gezondheid in Goede Handen. Synthese.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  182. Alyssa Ney (forthcoming). Fundamental Physical Ontologies and the Constraint of Empirical Coherence: A Defense of Wave Function Realism. Synthese:1-20.
    This paper defends wave function realism against the charge that the view is empirically incoherent because our evidence for quantum theory involves facts about objects in three-dimensional space or space-time . It also criticizes previous attempts to defend wave function realism against this charge by claiming that the wave function is capable of grounding local beables as elements of a derivative ontology.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  183. Carlo Nicolai (forthcoming). Deflationary Truth and the Ontology of Expressions. Synthese:1-25.
    The existence of a close connection between results on axiomatic truth and the analysis of truth-theoretic deflationism is nowadays widely recognized. The first attempt to make such link precise can be traced back to the so-called conservativeness argument due to Leon Horsten, Stewart Shapiro and Jeffrey Ketland: by employing standard Gödelian phenomena, they concluded that deflationism is untenable as any adequate theory of truth leads to consequences that were not achievable by the base theory alone. In the paper I highlight, (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  184. Travis Norsen, Damiano Marian & Xavier Oriols (forthcoming). Can the Wave Function in Configuration Space Be Replaced by Single-Particle Wave Functions in Physical Space? Synthese:1-27.
    The ontology of Bohmian mechanics includes both the universal wave function (living in 3N-dimensional configuration space) and particles (living in ordinary 3-dimensional physical space). Proposals for understanding the physical significance of the wave function in this theory have included the idea of regarding it as a physically-real field in its 3N-dimensional space, as well as the idea of regarding it as a law of nature. Here we introduce and explore a third possibility in which the configuration space wave function is (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  185. Nikolaj Nottelmann (forthcoming). Against a Descriptive Vindication of Doxastic Voluntarism. Synthese:1-24.
    In this paper, I examine whether doxastic voluntarism should be taken seriously within normative doxastic ethics. First, I show that currently the psychological evidence does not positively support doxastic voluntarism, even if I accept recent conclusions by Matthias Steup that the relevant evidence does not decisively undermine voluntarism either. Thus, it would seem that normative doxastic ethics could not justifiedly appeal directly to voluntarist assumptions. Second, I attempt to bring out how doxastic voluntarists may nevertheless hope to stir methodological worries (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  186. Jay Odenbaugh (forthcoming). Nothing in Ethics Makes Sense Except in the Light of Evolution? Natural Goodness, Normativity, and Naturalism. Synthese:1-25.
    Foot , Hursthouse , and Thompson , along with other philosophers, have argued for a metaethical position, the natural goodness approach, that claims moral judgments are, or are on a par with, teleological claims made in the biological sciences. Specifically, an organism’s flourishing is characterized by how well they function as specified by the species to which they belong. In this essay, I first sketch the Neo-Aristotelian natural goodness approach. Second, I argue that critics who claim that this sort of (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  187. Hiroshi Ohtani (forthcoming). Wittgenstein on Context and Philosophical Pictures. Synthese:1-22.
    In this paper, I will investigate Wittgenstein’s idea about the context-sensitivity of utterance. It is the idea that there is a big gap between understanding a sentence in the sense of knowing the idioms and discerning the grammar in it, and what is said by using it in a particular context. Although context-sensitivity in this moderate sense is a familiar idea in Wittgensteinian scholarship, it has mainly been studied as an idea in “Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language.” However, Wittgenstein’s interest in (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  188. Peter Olen (forthcoming). A Forgotten Strand of Reception History: Understanding Pure Semantics. Synthese:1-21.
    I explore a strand of reception history that follows Rudolf Carnap’s shift from a purely syntactical analysis of constructed languages to his conception of pure semantics. My exploration focuses on Gustav Bergmann’s and Everett Hall’s interpretation of pure semantics , their understanding of what constitutes a ’formal’ investigation of language, and their arguments concerning the relationship between expressions and their extra-linguistic referents. I argue that Bergmann and Hall strongly misread Carnap’s semantic project and, subsequently, their misunderstanding is passed down through (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  189. Peter Olen (forthcoming). Erratum To: A Forgotten Strand of Reception History: Understanding Pure Semantics. Synthese:1-1.
    Erratum to: Synthese DOI 10.1007/s11229-015-0678-4The last two block quotes of this article should be cited as “Sellars 1947c”, not “Sellars 1947”. “Sellars 1947c” references the bibliography entry for a piece of correspondence housed in the special collections archive at the University of Iowa. It is not, as the bibliography lists, a published work.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  190. Søren Overgaard (forthcoming). The Unobservability Thesis. Synthese:1-18.
    The unobservability thesis states that the mental states of other people are unobservable. Both defenders and critics of UT seem to assume that UT has important implications for the mindreading debate. Roughly, the former argue that because UT is true, mindreaders need to infer the mental states of others, while the latter maintain that the falsity of UT makes mindreading inferences redundant. I argue, however, that it is unclear what ‘unobservability’ means in this context. I outline two possible lines of (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  191. Peter Pagin (forthcoming). Tolerance and Higher-Order Vagueness. Synthese:1-34.
    The idea of higher-order vagueness is usually associated with conceptions of vagueness that focus on the existence of borderline cases. What sense can be made of it within a conception of vagueness that focuses on tolerance instead? A proposal is offered here. It involves understanding ‘definitely’ not as a sentence operator but as a predicate modifier, and more precisely as an intensifier, that is, an operator that shifts the predicate extension along a scale. This idea is combined with the author’s (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  192. Spyridon Orestis Palermos (forthcoming). Active Externalism, Virtue Reliabilism and Scientific Knowledge. Synthese:1-32.
    Combining active externalism in the form of the extended and distributed cognition hypotheses with virtue reliabilism can provide the long sought after link between mainstream epistemology and philosophy of science. Specifically, by reading virtue reliabilism along the lines suggested by the hypothesis of extended cognition, we can account for scientific knowledge produced on the basis of both hardware and software scientific artifacts . Additionally, by bringing the distributed cognition hypothesis within the picture, we can introduce the notion of epistemic group (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  193. B. T. Paller & D. T. Campbell (forthcoming). Reconciling Maxwell and van Fraassen Through Sense-Organ Evolution, the Ostensive Basis of the Term “Observe”, and Optimal Justificatory Practice in Science. Synthese.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  194. Markus Pantsar (forthcoming). In Search of Aleph _{0}: How Infinity Can Be Created. Synthese:1-23.
    In this paper I develop a philosophical account of actual mathematical infinity that does not demand ontologically or epistemologically problematic assumptions. The account is based on a simple metaphor in which we think of indefinitely continuing processes as defining objects. It is shown that such a metaphor is valid in terms of mathematical practice, as well as in line with empirical data on arithmetical cognition.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  195. A. C. Paseau (forthcoming). A Measure of Inferential-Role Preservation. Synthese:1-22.
    The point of formalisation is to model various aspects of natural language. Perhaps the main use to which formalisation is put is to model and explain inferential relations between different sentences. Judged solely by this objective, a formalisation is successful in modelling the inferential network of natural language sentences to the extent that it mirrors this network. There is surprisingly little literature on the criteria of good formalisation, and even less on the question of what it is for a formalisation (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  196. A. C. Paseau (forthcoming). Erratum To: A Measure of Inferential-Role Preservation. Synthese:1-1.
    Erratum to: Synthese DOI 10.1007/s11229-015-0705-5In line 3 of footnote 8 on page 4, ‘allow’ should be ‘disallow’.In line 8 of page 5, \ should be \ and \ should be \. Similarly for lines 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 13 and 14 of page 6.The entry in row 20 column 6 of the table on page 5 should be 1 rather than 0.The entry \ in row 30 column 5 of the table on page 5 should be \.In line 27 (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  197. Erwin Paulus (forthcoming). Sprachsignalverarbeitung: Analyse, Erkennung. Synthese.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  198. Slobodan Perovic (forthcoming). Experimenter’s Regress Argument, Empiricism, and the Calibration of the Large Hadron Collider. Synthese:1-20.
    H. Collins has challenged the empiricist understanding of experimentation by identifying what he thinks constitutes the experimenter’s regress: an instrument is deemed good because it produces good results, and vice versa. The calibration of an instrument cannot alone validate the results: the regressive circling is broken by an agreement essentially external to experimental procedures. In response, A. Franklin has argued that calibration is a key reasonable strategy physicists use to validate production of results independently of their interpretation. The physicists’ arguments (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  199. Stefan Petkov (forthcoming). Explanatory Unification and Conceptualization. Synthese:1-23.
    There are several important criticisms against the unificationist model of scientific explanation: Unification is a broad and heterogeneous notion and it is hard to see how a model of explanation based exclusively on unification can make a distinction between genuine explanatory unification from cases of ordering or classification. Unification alone cannot solve the asymmetry and irrelevance problems. Unification and explanation pull in different directions and should be decoupled, because for good scientific explanation extra ad explanandum information is often required. I (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  200. Gabriella Pigozzi (forthcoming). Collective Decision-Making Without Paradoxes: An Argument-Based Account. Synthese.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  201. Chris Pincock (forthcoming). Modeling Reality. Synthese.
    Abstract: My aim in this paper is to articulate an account of scientific modeling that reconciles pluralism about modeling with a modest form of scientific realism. The central claim of this approach is that the models of a given physical phenomenon can present different aspects of the phenomenon. This allows us, in certain special circumstances, to be confident that we are capturing genuine features of the world, even when our modeling occurs in the absence of a fundamental theory. This framework (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  202. Duncan Pritchard (forthcoming). Engel on Pragmatic Encroachment and Epistemic Value. Synthese:1-10.
    I discuss Engel’s critique of pragmatic encroachment in epistemology and his related discussion of epistemic value. While I am sympathetic to Engel’s remarks on the former, I think he makes a crucial misstep when he relates this discussion to the latter topic. The goal of this paper is to offer a better articulation of the relationship between these two epistemological issues, with the ultimate goal of lending further support to Engel’s scepticism about pragmatic encroachment in epistemology. As we will see, (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  203. Questioning (forthcoming). An International Journal for Epistemology, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  204. Wlodek Rabinowicz (forthcoming). From Values to Probabilities. Synthese:1-29.
    According to the fitting-attitude analysis of value , to be valuable is to be a fitting object of a pro-attitude. In earlier publications, setting off from this format of analysis, I proposed a modelling of value relations which makes room for incommensurability in value. In this paper, I first recapitulate the value modelling and then move on to suggest adopting a structurally similar analysis of probability. Indeed, many probability theorists from Poisson onwards did adopt an analysis of this kind. This (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  205. Shahid Rahman (forthcoming). New Perspectives in Dialogical Logic. Synthese.
    No categories
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  206. William Ramsey (forthcoming). Must Cognition Be Representational? Synthese:1-18.
    In various contexts and for various reasons, writers often define cognitive processes and architectures as those involving representational states and structures. Similarly, cognitive theories are also often delineated as those that invoke representations. In this paper, I present several reasons for rejecting this way of demarcating the cognitive. Some of the reasons against defining cognition in representational terms are that doing so needlessly restricts our theorizing, it undermines the empirical status of the representational theory of mind, and it encourages wildly (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  207. Bryan Renne, Joshua Sack & Audrey Yap (forthcoming). Logics of Temporal-Epistemic Actions. Synthese:1-37.
    We present Dynamic Epistemic Temporal Logic, a framework for reasoning about operations on multi-agent Kripke models that contain a designated temporal relation. These operations are natural extensions of the well-known “action models” from Dynamic Epistemic Logic . Our “temporal action models” may be used to define a number of informational actions that can modify the “objective” temporal structure of a model along with the agents’ basic and higher-order knowledge and beliefs about this structure, including their beliefs about the time. In (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  208. Patricia Rich (forthcoming). Comparing the Axiomatic and Ecological Approaches to Rationality: Fundamental Agreement Theorems in SCOP. Synthese:1-19.
    There are two prominent viewpoints regarding the nature of rationality and how it should be evaluated in situations of interest: the traditional axiomatic approach and the newer ecological rationality. An obstacle to comparing and evaluating these seemingly opposite approaches is that they employ different language and formalisms, ask different questions, and are at different stages of development. I adapt a formal framework known as SCOP to address this problem by providing a comprehensive common framework in which both approaches may be (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  209. Robert C. Roberts & Ryan West (forthcoming). Natural Epistemic Defects and Corrective Virtues. Synthese:1-20.
    Cognitive psychologists have uncovered a number of natural tendencies to systematic errors in thinking. This paper proposes some ways that intellectual character virtues might help correct these sources of epistemic unreliability. We begin with an overview of some insights from recent work in dual-process cognitive psychology regarding ‘biases and heuristics’, and argue that the dozens of hazards the psychologists catalogue arise from combinations and specifications of a small handful of more basic patterns of thinking. We expound four of these, and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  210. Guillaume Rochefort-Maranda (forthcoming). On the Correct Interpretation of P Values and the Importance of Random Variables. Synthese:1-17.
    The p value is the probability under the null hypothesis of obtaining an experimental result that is at least as extreme as the one that we have actually obtained. That probability plays a crucial role in frequentist statistical inferences. But if we take the word ‘extreme’ to mean ‘improbable’, then we can show that this type of inference can be very problematic. In this paper, I argue that it is a mistake to make such an interpretation. Under minimal assumptions about (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  211. Mark Rowlands (forthcoming). Arguing About Representation. Synthese:1-18.
    The question of whether cognition requires representations has engendered heated discussion during the last two decades. I shall argue that the question is, in all likelihood, a spurious one. There may or may not be a fact of the matter concerning whether a given item qualifies as a representation. However, even if there is, attempts to establish whether cognition requires representation have neither practical nor theoretical utility.
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  212. Laura Ruetsche (forthcoming). The Shaky Game +25, Or: On Locavoracity. Synthese:1-18.
    Taking Arthur Fine’s The Shaky Game as my inspiration, and the recent 25 \({\textit{th}}\) anniversary of the publication of that work as the occasion to exercise that inspiration, I sketch an alternative to the “Naturalism” prevalent among philosophers of physics. Naturalism is a methodology eventuating in a metaphysics. The methodology is to seek the deep framework assumptions that make the best sense of science; the metaphysics is furnished by those assumptions and supported by their own support of science. The alternative (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  213. Juha Saatsi (forthcoming). Structuralism with and Without Causation. Synthese:1-17.
    This paper explores the status of causation in structuralist metaphysics of physics. What role (if any) does causation play in understanding ‘structure’ in ontological structural realism? I address this question by examining, in a structuralist setting, arguments for and against the idea that fundamental physics deals, perhaps exclusively, with causal properties. I will argue (against Esfeld, Dorato and others) that a structuralist interpretation of fundamental physics should diverge from ‘causal structuralism’. Nevertheless, causation outside fundamental physics, and the basic motivation for (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  214. Charles T. Sebens (forthcoming). Killer Collapse: Empirically Probing the Philosophically Unsatisfactory Region of GRW. Synthese:1-17.
    GRW theory offers precise laws for the collapse of the wave function. These collapses are characterized by two new constants, \ and \ . Recent work has put experimental upper bounds on the collapse rate, \ . Lower bounds on \ have been more controversial since GRW begins to take on a many-worlds character for small values of \ . Here I examine GRW in this odd region of parameter space where collapse events act as natural disasters that destroy branches (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  215. Maria Serban (forthcoming). The Scope and Limits of a Mechanistic View of Computational Explanation. Synthese:1-26.
    An increasing number of philosophers have promoted the idea that mechanism provides a fruitful framework for thinking about the explanatory contributions of computational approaches in cognitive neuroscience. For instance, Piccinini and Bahar :453–488, 2013) have recently argued that neural computation constitutes a sui generis category of physical computation which can play a genuine explanatory role in the context of investigating neural and cognitive processes. The core of their proposal is to conceive of computational explanations in cognitive neuroscience as a subspecies (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  216. Andrea Sereni (forthcoming). Equivalent Explanations and Mathematical Realism. Reply to “Evidence, Explanation, and Enhanced Indispensability”. Synthese:1-12.
    The author of “Evidence, Explanation, Enhanced Indispensability” advances a criticism to the Enhanced Indispensability Argument and the use of Inference to the Best Explanation in order to draw ontological conclusions from mathematical explanations in science. His argument relies on the availability of equivalent though competing explanations, and a pluralist stance on explanation. I discuss whether pluralism emerges as a stable position, and focus here on two main points: whether cases of equivalent explanations have been actually offered, and which ontological consequences (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  217. Dunja Šešelja & Christian Straßer (forthcoming). Epistemic Justification in the Context of Pursuit: A Coherentist Approach. Synthese:1-31.
    The aim of this paper is to offer an account of epistemic justification suitable for the context of theory pursuit, that is, for the context in which new scientific ideas, possibly incompatible with the already established theories, emerge and are pursued by scientists. We will frame our account paradigmatically on the basis of one of the influential systems of epistemic justification: Laurence Bonjour’s coherence theory of justification. The idea underlying our approach is to develop a set of criteria which indicate (...)
    Direct download (3 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  218. Joel Smith (forthcoming). What is Empathy For? Synthese:1-14.
    The concept of empathy has received much attention from philosophers and also from both cognitive and social psychologists. It has, however, been given widely conflicting definitions, with some taking it primarily as an epistemological notion and others as a social one. Recently, empathy has been closely associated with the simulationist approach to social cognition and, as such, it might be thought that the concept’s utility stands or falls with that of simulation itself. I suggest that this is a mistake. Approaching (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  219. J. D. Sneed & C. U. Moulines (forthcoming). A Program for the Individuation of Scientific Concepts. Synthese.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  220. Aris Spanos & Deborah G. Mayo (forthcoming). Error Statistical Modeling and Inference: Where Methodology Meets Ontology. Synthese:1-23.
    In empirical modeling, an important desiderata for deeming theoretical entities and processes as real is that they can be reproducible in a statistical sense. Current day crises regarding replicability in science intertwines with the question of how statistical methods link data to statistical and substantive theories and models. Different answers to this question have important methodological consequences for inference, which are intertwined with a contrast between the ontological commitments of the two types of models. The key to untangling them is (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  221. Maria Spychalska (forthcoming). At Least Not False, at Most Possible: Between Truth and Assertibility of Superlative Quantifiers. Synthese:1-32.
    Generalized Quantifier Theory defines superlative quantifiers at most n and at least n as truth-conditionally equivalent to comparative quantifiers fewer than n+1 and more than n \ 1. It has been demonstrated, however, that this standard theory cannot account for various linguistic differences between these two types of quantifiers. In this paper I discuss how the distinction between assertibility and truth-conditions can be applied to explain this phenomenon. I draw a parallel between the assertibility of disjunctions and superlative quantifiers, and (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  222. Mike Stannett (forthcoming). Motion and Observation in a Single-Particle Universe. Synthese:1-11.
    We outline an argument that a single-particle universe (a universe containing precisely one pointlike particle) can be described mathematically, in which observation can be considered meaningful despite the a priori impossibility of distinguishing between an observer and the observed. Moreover, we argue, such a universe can be observationally similar to the world we see around us. It is arguably impossible, therefore, to determine by experimental observation of the physical world whether the universe we inhabit contains one particle or many—modern scientific (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  223. Matthias Steup (forthcoming). Believing Intentionally. Synthese:1-22.
    According to William Alston, we lack voluntary control over our propositional attitudes because we cannot believe intentionally, and we cannot believe intentionally because our will is not causally connected to belief formation. Against Alston, I argue that we can believe intentionally because our will is causally connected to belief formation. My defense of this claim is based on examples in which agents have reasons for and against believing p, deliberate on what attitude to take towards p, and subsequently acquire an (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  224. Joshua Stuchlik (forthcoming). Epistemological Disjunctivism and Easy Knowledge. Synthese:1-19.
    Stewart Cohen argues that basic knowledge is problematic, as it implies that subjects can acquire knowledge or justified beliefs about certain matters in ways that are supposedly too easy. Cohen raises two versions of the problem of easy knowledge, one involving the principle of closure and the other track-record style bootstrapping reasoning. In this paper I confront the problem of easy knowledge from the perspective of epistemological disjunctivism about perception. I argue that disjunctivism can do a better job than dogmatism (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  225. Mauricio Suárez (forthcoming). Bohmian Dispositions. Synthese:1-26.
    This paper argues for a broadly dispositionalist approach to the ontology of Bohmian mechanics . It first distinguishes the ‘minimal’ and the ‘causal’ versions of Bohm’s theory, and then briefly reviews some of the claims advanced on behalf of the ‘causal’ version by its proponents. A number of ontological or interpretive accounts of the wave function in BM are then addressed in detail, including configuration space, multi-field, nomological, and dispositional approaches. The main objection to each account is reviewed, namely the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  226. Petr Švarný (forthcoming). Does Branching Explain Flow of Time or the Other Way Around? Synthese:1-20.
    The article discusses the relation between two intuitive properties of time, namely its flow and branching. Both properties are introduced first in an informal way and compared. The conclusion of this informal analysis is that the two properties do not entail each other nor are they in contradiction. In order to verify this, we briefly introduced the branching temporal structures called branching space-time, branching continuation and their versions Minkowski branching structure and branching time with Instants. Two possible ways how to (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  227. Kurt Sylvan (forthcoming). The Illusion of Discretion. Synthese:1-31.
    Having direct doxastic control would not be particularly desirable if exercising it required a failure of epistemic rationality. With that thought in mind, recent writers have invoked the view that epistemic rationality gives us options to defend the possibility of a significant form of direct doxastic control. Specifically, they suggest that when the evidence for p is sufficient but not conclusive, it would be epistemically rational either to believe p or to be agnostic on p, and they argue that we (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  228. David E. Taylor (forthcoming). Quine on Matters of Fact. Synthese:1-32.
    The idea of there being “no fact of the matter” features centrally in Quine’s indeterminacy theses. Yet there has been little discussion of how exactly Quine understands this idea. In this paper I identify, develop and then critically evaluate Quine’s conception of NFM. In Sects. 3–4 I consider a handful of intuitive semantic and ontological conceptions of NFM and argue that none is workable from within Quine’s philosophy. I conclude that the failure of each of these proposals is due to (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  229. K. Taylor (forthcoming). Sex, Breakfast, and Descriptus Interruptus', Forthcoming In. Synthese.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  230. Adam Toon (forthcoming). Where is the Understanding? Synthese:1-17.
    Recent work in epistemology and philosophy of science has argued that understanding is an important cognitive state that philosophers should seek to analyse. This paper offers a new perspective on understanding by looking to work in philosophy of mind and cognitive science. Understanding is normally taken to be inside the head. I argue that this view is mistaken. Often, understanding is a state that criss-crosses brain, body and world. To support this claim, I draw on extended cognition, a burgeoning framework (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  231. Tero Tulenheimo (forthcoming). The Two Faces of Compatibility with Justified Beliefs. Synthese:1-16.
    When discussing knowledge, two relations are of interest: justified doxastic accessibility \ , she is in \ ) and justification equivalence \ exactly the same justified beliefs that she has in \ ). Speaking of compatibility with the agent’s justified beliefs is potentially ambiguous: either of the two relations \ or \ can be meant. I discuss the possibility of identifying the relation of epistemic accessibility \ , she is in \ ) with the union of \ and \ . (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  232. John Turri (forthcoming). Evidence of Factive Norms of Belief and Decision. Synthese:1-22.
    According to factive accounts of the norm of belief and decision-making, you should not believe or base decisions on a falsehood. Even when the evidence misleadingly suggests that a false proposition is true, you should not believe it or base decisions on it. Critics claim that factive accounts are counterintuitive and badly mischaracterize our ordinary practice of evaluating beliefs and decisions. This paper reports four experiments that rigorously test the critic’s accusations and the viability of factive accounts. The results undermine (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  233. Sara L. Uckelman (forthcoming). The Logic of Categorematic and Syncategorematic Infinity. Synthese:1-17.
    The medieval distinction between categorematic and syncategorematic words is usually given as the distinction between words which have signification or meaning in isolation from other words and those which have signification only when combined with other words . Some words, however, are classified as both categorematic and syncategorematic. One such word is Latin infinita ‘infinite’. Because infinita can be either categorematic or syncategorematic, it is possible to form sophisms using infinita whose solutions turn on the distinction between categorematic and syncategorematic (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  234. Raphael van Riel (forthcoming). The Content of Model-Based Information. Synthese:1-20.
    The paper offers an account of the structure of information provided by models that relevantly deviate from reality. It is argued that accounts of scientific modeling according to which a model’s epistemic and pragmatic relevance stems from the alleged fact that models give access to possibilities fail. First, it seems that there are models that do not give access to possibilities, for what they describe is impossible. Secondly, it appears that having access to a possibility is epistemically and pragmatically idle. (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  235. Marij van Strien (forthcoming). Continuity in Nature and in Mathematics: Boltzmann and Poincaré. Synthese:1-21.
    The development of rigorous foundations of differential calculus in the course of the nineteenth century led to concerns among physicists about its applicability in physics. Through this development, differential calculus was made independent of empirical and intuitive notions of continuity, and based instead on strictly mathematical conditions of continuity. However, for Boltzmann and Poincaré, the applicability of mathematics in physics depended on whether there is a basis in physics, intuition or experience for the fundamental axioms of mathematics—and this meant that (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  236. J. P. Verhaeghe (forthcoming). Externe evaluatie van het Gentse SIF-brugfigurenproject. Beginmetingen. Synthese.
    No categories
    Translate to English
    |
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  237. Peter Vickers (forthcoming). Theory Flexibility and Inconsistency in Science. Synthese:1-16.
    For several decades now philosophers have discussed apparent examples of internally inconsistent scientific theories. However, there is still much controversy over how exactly we should conceive of scientific theories in the first place. Here I argue for a new approach, whereby all of the truly important questions about inconsistency in science can be asked and answered without disagreements about theories and theory-content getting in the way. Three examples commonly described as ‘internally inconsistent theories’ are analysed in the light of this (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  238. Vivian Weil & Jon Nordby (forthcoming). An International Journal for Epistemology, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Synthese.
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  239. James D. Wells (forthcoming). Higgs Naturalness and the Scalar Boson Proliferation Instability Problem. Synthese:1-14.
    Sensitivity to the square of the cutoff scale of quantum corrections of the Higgs boson mass self-energy has led many authors to conclude that the Higgs theory suffers from a naturalness or fine-tuning problem. However, speculative new physics ideas to solve this problem have not manifested themselves yet at high-energy colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. For this reason, the role of naturalness as a guide to theory model-building is being severely questioned. Most attacks suggest that one (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  240. Sylvia Wenmackers & Jan-Willem Romeijn (forthcoming). New Theory About Old Evidence. Synthese:1-26.
    We present a conservative extension of a Bayesian account of confirmation that can deal with the problem of old evidence and new theories. So-called open-minded Bayesianism challenges the assumption—implicit in standard Bayesianism—that the correct empirical hypothesis is among the ones currently under consideration. It requires the inclusion of a catch-all hypothesis, which is characterized by means of sets of probability assignments. Upon the introduction of a new theory, the former catch-all is decomposed into a new empirical hypothesis and a new (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  241. Lee John Whittington (forthcoming). Luck, Knowledge and Value. Synthese:1-19.
    In a recent set of publications Ballantyne :485–503, 2011, Synthese 185:319–334, 2012, Synthese 91:1391–1407, 2013) argues that luck does not have a significant role in understanding the concept of knowledge. The problem, Ballantyne argues, lies in what is commonly thought to be a necessary condition for luck—a significance or value condition :385–398, 2007; Lackey, in Austral J Philos 86:255–267, 2008, Ballantyne, in Can J Philos 41:485–503, 2011). For an event, like forming a true belief, to be lucky then it must (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  242. Rabinowicz Wlodek & Lina Ericsson (forthcoming). The Interference Problem for the Betting Interpretetation. Synthese.
    Direct download  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  243. Wai-Hung Wong & Zanja Yudell (forthcoming). A Normative Account of the Need for Explanation. Synthese:1-23.
    Although explanation is a central topic in the philosophy of science, there is an important issue concerning explanation that has not been discussed much, namely, why some phenomena need an explanation while some do not. In this paper we first explain why this is an important issue, and then discuss two accounts of the need for explanation that can be gathered from the literature. We argue that both accounts are inadequate. The main purpose of the paper is, however, to offer (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  244. Jack Woods (forthcoming). Assertion, Denial, Content, and Form. Synthese:1-14.
    I discuss Greg Restall’s attempt to generate an account of logical consequence from the incoherence of certain packages of assertions and denials. I take up his justification of the cut rule and argue that, in order to avoid counterexamples to cut, he needs, at least, to introduce a notion of logical form. I then suggest a few problems that will arise for his account if a notion of logical form is assumed. I close by sketching what I take to be (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  245. James Woodward (forthcoming). Methodology, Ontology, and Interventionism. Synthese:1-23.
    This paper defends an interventionist account of causation by construing this account as a contribution to methodology, rather than as a set of theses about the ontology or metaphysics of causation. It also uses the topic of causation to raise some more general issues about the relation between, on the one hand, methodology, and, on the other hand, ontology and metaphysics, as these are understood in contemporary philosophical discussion, particularly among so-called analytic metaphysicians. It concludes with the suggestion that issues (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  246. Stephen Wright (forthcoming). The Transmission of Knowledge and Justification. Synthese:1-19.
    This paper explains how the notion of justification transmission can be used to ground a notion of knowledge transmission. It then explains how transmission theories can characterise schoolteacher cases, which have prominently been presented as counterexamples to transmission theories.
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  247. Yongfeng Yuan & Shier Ju (forthcoming). Rational Evaluation in Belief Revision. Synthese:1-26.
    We introduce a new operator, called rational evaluation, in belief change. The operator evaluates new information according to the agent’s core beliefs, and then exports the plausible part of the new information. It belongs to the decision module in belief change. We characterize rational evaluation by axiomatic postulates and propose two functional constructions for it, based on the well-known constructions of kernel sets and remainder sets, respectively. The main results of the paper are two representation theorems with respect to the (...)
    No categories
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  248. Jiji Zhang & Peter Spirtes (forthcoming). The Three Faces of Faithfulness. Synthese:1-17.
    In the causal inference framework of Spirtes, Glymour, and Scheines , inferences about causal relationships are made from samples from probability distributions and a number of assumptions relating causal relations to probability distributions. The most controversial of these assumptions is the Causal Faithfulness Assumption, which roughly states that if a conditional independence statement is true of a probability distribution generated by a causal structure, it is entailed by the causal structure and not just for particular parameter values. In this paper (...)
    Direct download (2 more)  
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
  249. Peter Øhrstrøm & Per Fv Hasle (forthcoming). The Philosophy of Arthur N, Prior: Introduction to Special Volume of Synthese. Synthese.
    No categories
     
    My bibliography  
     
    Export citation  
 Previous issues
  
Next issues