122 found

Year:

Forthcoming articles
  1. Rogier De Langhe (forthcoming). To Specialize or to Innovate? An Internalist Account of Pluralistic Ignorance in Economics. Synthese 191.
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  2. Juha Saatsi (forthcoming). Inconsistency and Scientific Realism. Synthese 191:2941-2955.
    I erect a framework within the semantic view of theories for explaining the empirical success of internally inconsistent models and theories, with scientific realism in mind. The framework is an instance of the ‘content-driven’ approach to inconsistency, advocated by both Norton (Philos Sci 54:327–350, 1987) and Smith (Stud Hist Philos Sci 19:429–445, 1988a, In: Fine A, Leplin J (eds) PSA1988, 1988b), whose ideas my analysis aims to clarify and substantiate.
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  3. Arif Ahmed & Adam Caulton (forthcoming). Causal Decision Theory and EPR Correlations. Synthese:1-38.
    The paper argues that on three out of eight possible hypotheses about the EPR experiment we can construct novel and realistic decision problems on which (a) Causal Decision Theory and Evidential Decision Theory conflict (b) Causal Decision Theory and the EPR statistics conflict. We infer that anyone who fully accepts any of these three hypotheses has strong reasons to reject Causal Decision Theory. Finally, we extend the original construction to show that anyone who gives any of the three hypotheses any (...)
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  4. Jamin Asay & S. Seth Bordner (forthcoming). A Modest Defense of Manifestationalism. Synthese:1-15.
    As the debate between realists and empiricists in the philosophy of science drags on, one point of consensus has emerged: no one wants to be a manifestationalist. The manifestationalist is a kind of radical empiricist who argues that science provides theories that aim neither at a true picture of the entire world, nor even an empirically adequate picture that captures the world in all its observable respects. For manifestationalists, science aims only at providing theories that are true to the observed (...)
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  5. Miren Boehm (forthcoming). Hume's Definitions of 'Cause': Without Idealizations, Within the Bounds of Science. Synthese:1-17.
    Interpreters have found it exceedingly difficult to understand how Hume could be right in claiming that his two definitions of ‘cause’ are essentially the same. As J. A. Robinson points out, the definitions do not even seem to be extensionally equivalent. Don Garrett offers an influential solution to this interpretative problem, one that attributes to Hume the reliance on an ideal observer. I argue that the theoretical need for an ideal observer stems from an idealized concept of definition, which many (...)
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  6. Ryan Dawson (forthcoming). Wittgenstein on Pure and Applied Mathematics. Synthese:1-18.
    Some interpreters have ascribed to Wittgenstein the view that mathematical statements must have an application to extra-mathematical reality in order to have use and so any statements lacking extra-mathematical applicability are not meaningful (and hence not bona fide mathematical statements). Pure mathematics is then a mere signgame of questionable objectivity, undeserving of the name mathematics. These readings bring to light that, on Wittgenstein’s offered picture of mathematical statements as rules of description, it can be difficult to see the role of (...)
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  7. Marcello Di Bello (forthcoming). Epistemic Closure, Assumptions and Topics of Inquiry. Synthese:1-26.
    According to the principle of epistemic closure, knowledge is closed under known implication. The principle is intuitive but it is problematic in some cases. Suppose you know you have hands and you know that ‘I have hands’ implies ‘I am not a brain-in-a-vat’. Does it follow that you know you are not a brain-in-a-vat? It seems not; it should not be so easy to refute skepticism. In this and similar cases, we are confronted with a puzzle: epistemic closure is an (...)
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  8. Mauro Dorato (forthcoming). Dynamical Versus Structural Explanations in Scientific Revolutions. Synthese.
    By briefly reviewing three well-known scientific revolutions in fundamental physics (the discovery of inertia, of special relativity and of general relativity), I claim that problems that were supposed to be crying for a dynamical explanation in the old paradigm ended up receiving a structural explanation in the new one. This claim is meant to give more substance to Kuhn’s view that revolutions are accompanied by a shift in what needs to be explained, while suggesting at the same time the existence (...)
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  9. Torrengo Giuliano (forthcoming). The Grounding Problem and Presentist Explanations. Synthese.
    Opponents of presentism have often argued that the presentist has difficulty in accounting for what makes (presently) true past-tensed propositions (TptP) true in a way that is compatible with her metaphysical view of time and reality. The problem is quite general and concerns not only strong truth-maker principles, but also the requirement that truth be grounded in reality. In order to meet the challenge, presentists have proposed many peculiar present aspects of the world as grounds for truths concerning the past, (...)
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  10. Mark Jago (forthcoming). Hyperintensional Propositions. Synthese:1-17.
    Propositions play a central role in contemporary semantics. On the Russellian account, propositions are structured entities containing particulars, properties and relations. This contrasts sharply with the sets-of-possible-worlds view of propositions. I’ll discuss how to extend the sets-of-worlds view to accommodate fine-grained hyperintensional contents. When this is done in a satisfactory way, I’ll argue, it makes heavy use of entities very much like Russellian tuples. The two notions of proposition become inter-definable and inter-substitutable: they are not genuinely distinct accounts of how (...)
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  11. Brian Kim (forthcoming). The Locality and Globality of Instrumental Rationality: The Normative Significance of Preference Reversals. Synthese.
    When we ask a decision maker to express her preferences, it is typically assumed that we are eliciting a pre-existing set of preferences. However, empirical research has suggested that our preferences are often constructed on the fly for the decision problem at hand. This paper explores the ramifications of this empirical research for our understanding of instrumental rationality. First, I argue that these results pose serious challenges for the traditional decision-theoretic view of instrumental rationality, which demands global coherence amongst all (...)
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  12. David Liggins (forthcoming). Grounding and the Indispensability Argument. Synthese:1-18.
    There has been much discussion of the indispensability argument for the existence of mathematical objects. In this paper I reconsider the debate by using the notion of grounding, or non-causal dependence. First of all, I investigate what proponents of the indispensability argument should say about the grounding of relations between physical objects and mathematical ones. This reveals some resources which nominalists are entitled to use. Making use of these resources, I present a neglected but promising response to the indispensability argument—a (...)
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  13. Bruce Raymond Long (forthcoming). Information is Intrinsically Semantic but Alethically Neutral. Synthese:1-21.
    In this paper I argue that, according to a particular physicalist conception of information, information is both alethically neutral or non-alethic, and is intrinsically semantic. The conception of information presented is physicalist and reductionist, and is contrary to most current pluralist and non-reductionist philosophical opinion about the nature of information. The ontology assumed for this conception of information is based upon physicalist non-eliminative ontic structural realism. However, the argument of primary interest is that information so construed is intrinsically semantic on (...)
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  14. David Palmer (forthcoming). Deterministic Frankfurt Cases. Synthese.
    According to the principle of alternative possibilities (PAP), people are morally responsible for what they do only if they could have done otherwise. Over the last few decades, this principle has dominated discussions of free will and moral responsibility. One important strand of this discussion concerns the Frankfurt-type cases or Frankfurt cases, originally developed by Frankfurt (J Philos 66:829–839, 1969), which are alleged counterexamples to PAP. One way in which proponents of PAP have responded to these purported counterexamples is by (...)
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  15. Ilho Park (forthcoming). Confirmation Measures and Collaborative Belief Updating. Synthese.
    There are some candidates that have been thought to measure the degree to which evidence incrementally confirms a hypothesis. This paper provides an argument for one candidate—the log-likelihood ratio measure. For this purpose, I will suggest a plausible requirement that I call the Requirement of Collaboration. And then, it will be shown that, of various candidates, only the log-likelihood ratio measure l satisfies this requirement. Using this result, Jeffrey conditionalization will be reformulated so as to disclose explicitly what determines new (...)
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  16. Timothy Perrine (forthcoming). Undermining Truthmaker Theory. Synthese:1-16.
    Truthmaker theorists hold that there is a metaphysically explanatory relation that holds between true claims and what exists. While some critics (e.g. Merricks 2007) try to provide counterexamples to truthmaker theory, that response quickly leads to a dialectical standoff. The aim of this paper is to move beyond that standoff by attempting to undermine some standard arguments for truthmaker theory. Using realism about truth and a more pragmatic account of explanation, I show how some of those arguments can be undermined.
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  17. Alexander Reutlinger (forthcoming). Are Causal Facts Really Explanatorily Emergent? Ladyman and Ross on Higher-Level Causal Facts and Renormalization Group Explanation. Synthese.
    In their Every Thing Must Go, Ladyman and Ross defend a novel version of Neo- Russellian metaphysics of causation, which falls into three claims: (1) there are no fundamental physical causal facts (orthodox Russellian claim), (2) there are higher-level causal facts of the special sciences, and (3) higher-level causal facts are explanatorily emergent. While accepting claims (1) and (2), I attack claim (3). Ladyman and Ross argue that higher-level causal facts are explanatorily emergent, because (a) certain aspects of these higher-level (...)
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  18. David Rose (forthcoming). Persistence Through Function Preservation. Synthese.
    When do the folk think that material objects persist? Many metaphysicians have wanted a view which fits with folk intuitions, yet there is little agreement about what the folk intuit. I provide a range of empirical evidence which suggests that the folk operate with a teleological view of persistence: the folk tend to intuit that a material object survives alterations when its function is preserved. Given that the folk operate with a teleological view of persistence, I argue for a debunking (...)
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  19. Peter W. Ross & Dale Turner (forthcoming). Problems of Existence in Philosophy and Science. Synthese.
    We initially characterize what we’ll call existence problems as problems where there is evidence that a putative entity exists and this evidence is not easily dismissed; however, the evidence is not adequate to justify the claim that the entity exists, and in particular the entity hasn’t been detected. The putative entity is elusive. We then offer a strategy for determining whether an existence problem is philosophical or scientific. According to this strategy (1) existence problems are characterized in terms of causal (...)
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  20. Michael Schippers (forthcoming). Probabilistic Measures of Coherence: From Adequacy Constraints Towards Pluralism. Synthese.
    The debate on probabilistic measures of coherence flourishes for about 15 years now. Initiated by papers that have been published around the turn of the millennium, many different proposals have since then been put forward. This contribution is partly devoted to a reassessment of extant coherence measures. Focusing on a small number of reasonable adequacy constraints I show that (i) there can be no coherence measure that satisfies all constraints, and that (ii) subsets of these adequacy constraints motivate two different (...)
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  21. Vladimír Svoboda & Jaroslav Peregrin (forthcoming). Logical Form and Reflective Equilibrium. Synthese.
    Though, at first sight, logical formalization of natural language sentences and arguments might look like an unproblematic enterprise, the criteria of its success are far from clear and, surprisingly, there have only been a few attempts at making them explicit. This paper provides a picture of the enterprise of logical formalization that does not conceive of it as a kind of translation from one language (a natural one) into another language (a logical one), but rather as a construction of a (...)
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  22. Hao Tang (forthcoming). Wittgenstein and the Dualism of the Inner and the Outer. Synthese:1-22.
    A dualism characteristic of modern philosophy is the conception of the inner and the outer as two independently intelligible domains. Wittgenstein’s attack on this dualism contains deep insights. The main insight (excavated from §304 and §293 of the Philosophical Investigations) is this: our sensory consciousness is deeply shaped by language and this shaping plays a fundamental role in the etiology of the dualism. I locate this role in the learning of a sensation-language (as described in §244), by showing that this (...)
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  23. Justin Tiehen (forthcoming). A Psychofunctionalist Argument Against Nonconceptualism. Synthese.
    Let conceptualism be the thesis that conscious visual experiences are conceptual states, and nonconceptualism the thesis that they are nonconceptual states. In this paper I present a psychofunctionalist argument against nonconceptualism and in favor of conceptualism. The argument draws on the holistic character of functionalist accounts of mind, together with the “Two Visual Systems Hypothesis” notably defended by Melvyn Goodale and David Milner.
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  24. Jean-Yves Beziau (forthcoming). The Relativity and Universality of Logic. Synthese.
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  25. Thomas Mulligan (forthcoming). Disagreement, Peerhood, and Three Paradoxes of Conciliationism. Synthese:1-12.
    Conciliatory theories of disagreement require that one lower one’s confidence in a belief in the face of disagreement from an epistemic peer. One question about which people might disagree is who should qualify as an epistemic peer and who should not. But when putative epistemic peers disagree about epistemic peerhood itself, then Conciliationism makes contradictory demands and paradoxes arise.
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  26. Jon Robson (forthcoming). A Social Epistemology of Aesthetics: Belief Polarization, Echo Chambers and Aesthetic Judgement. Synthese.
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  27. Jeroen Smid (forthcoming). Tarski's One and Only Concept of Truth. Synthese.
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  28. Maribel Anacona, Luis Carlos Arboleda & F. Javier Pérez-Fernández (forthcoming). On Bourbaki's Axiomatic System for Set Theory. Synthese:1-30.
    In this paper we study the axiomatic system proposed by Bourbaki for the Theory of Sets in the Éléments de Mathématique. We begin by examining the role played by the sign \(\uptau \) in the framework of its formal logical theory and then we show that the system of axioms for set theory is equivalent to Zermelo–Fraenkel system with the axiom of choice but without the axiom of foundation. Moreover, we study Grothendieck’s proposal of adding to Bourbaki’s system the axiom (...)
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  29. Erik Angner (forthcoming). “To Navigate Safely in the Vast Sea of Empirical Facts”. Synthese:1-19.
    This paper examines issues of ontology and methodology in behavioral economics: the attempt to increase the explanatory and predictive power of economic theory by providing it with more psychologically plausible foundations. Of special interest is the epistemological status of neoclassical economic theory within behavioral economics, the runaway success story of contemporary economics. Behavioral economists aspire to replace the fundamental assumptions of orthodox, neoclassical economic theory. Yet, behavioral economists have gone out of their way to praise those very assumptions. Matthew Rabin, (...)
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  30. S. Awodey & A. W. Carus (forthcoming). Carnap and Gödel. Synthese.
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  31. Jody Azzouni (forthcoming). A New Characterization of Scientific Theories. Synthese:1-16.
    First, I discuss the older “theory-centered” and the more recent semantic conception of scientific theories. I argue that these two perspectives are nothing more than terminological variants of one another. I then offer a new theory-centered view of scientific theories. I argue that this new view captures the insights had by each of these earlier views, that it’s closer to how scientists think about their own theories, and that it better accommodates the phenomenon of inconsistent scientific theories.
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  32. K. Bach (forthcoming). You Don't Say', Forthcoming In. Synthese.
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  33. Sam Baron (forthcoming). The Explanatory Dispensability of Idealizations. Synthese:1-22.
    Enhanced indispensability arguments seek to establish realism about mathematics based on the explanatory role that mathematics plays in science. Idealizations pose a problem for such arguments. Idealizations, in a similar way to mathematics, boost the explanatory credentials of our best scientific theories. And yet, idealizations are not the sorts of things that are supposed to attract a realist attitude. I argue that the explanatory symmetry between idealizations and mathematics can potentially be broken as follows: although idealizations contribute to the explanatory (...)
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  34. Jeffrey A. Barrett (forthcoming). The Evolution, Appropriation, and Composition of Rules. Synthese:1-14.
    This paper concerns how rule-following behavior might evolve in the context of a variety of Skyrms–Lewis signaling game (Lewis, Convention, 1969; Skyrms, Signals evolution, learning, & information 2010), how such rules might subsequently evolve to be used in new contexts, and how such appropriation allows for the composition of evolved rules. We will also consider how the composition of simpler rules to form more complex rules may be significantly more efficient than evolving the complex rules directly. And we will review (...)
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  35. William Bechtel (forthcoming). Investigating Neural Representations: The Tale of Place Cells. Synthese:1-35.
    While neuroscientists often characterize brain activity as representational, many philosophers have construed these accounts as just theorists’ glosses on the mechanism. Moreover, philosophical discussions commonly focus on finished accounts of explanation, not research in progress. I adopt a different perspective, considering how characterizations of neural activity as representational contributes to the development of mechanistic accounts, guiding the investigations neuroscientists pursue as they work from an initial proposal to a more detailed understanding of a mechanism. I develop one illustrative example involving (...)
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  36. Delia Belleri (forthcoming). You Can Say What You Think: Vindicating the Effability of Our Thoughts. Synthese:1-20.
    The thesis of Ineffability has it that no proposition can be fully expressed by a sentence, this meaning that no sentence-type, or even sentence-token whose indexicality and ambiguities have been resolved, can fully encode a proposition. The thesis of the propositionality of thoughts has it that thoughts are propositional. An implication of the joint endorsement of these two theses is that thoughts are ineffable. The aim of this paper is to argue that this is not the case: there are effable (...)
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  37. Catherine Benjamin, Nadine Herrard, Magalie Houée & Isabelle Piot-Lepetit (forthcoming). Modèle mondial des productions et des échanges de grandes cultures. Synthese.
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  38. Tommaso Bertolotti & Lorenzo Magnani (forthcoming). An Epistemological Analysis of Gossip and Gossip-Based Knowledge. Synthese:1-31.
    Gossip has been the object of a number of different studies in the past 50 years, rehabilitating it not only as something worth being studied, but also as a pivotal informational and social structure of human cognition: Dunbar (Rev Gen Psychol 8(2):100–110, 2004) interestingly linked the emergence of language to nothing less than its ability to afford gossip. Different facets of gossip were analyzed by anthropologists, linguists, psychologists and philosophers, but few attempts were made to frame gossip within an epistemological (...)
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  39. Alexander Bird & Johannes Persson (forthcoming). Synthese Vol 149 No. 3 Metaphysics in Science. Synthese.
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  40. Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman, Robert C. Richardson, Achim Stephan & Hans V. Westerhoff (forthcoming). » Emergence and its Place in Nature: A Case Study of Biochemical Networks «, Erscheint In. Synthese.
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  41. Thomas N. P. A. Brouwer (forthcoming). A Paradox of Rejection. Synthese:1-14.
    Given any proposition, is it possible to have rationally acceptable attitudes towards it? Absent reasons to the contrary, one would probably think that this should be possible. In this paper I provide a reason to the contrary. There is a proposition such that, if one has any opinions about it at all, one will have a rationally unacceptable set of propositional attitudes—or if one doesn’t, one will end up being cognitively imperfect in some other manner. The proposition I am concerned (...)
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  42. Justin Bruner, Cailin O.’Connor, Hannah Rubin & Simon M. Huttegger (forthcoming). David Lewis in the Lab: Experimental Results on the Emergence of Meaning. Synthese:1-19.
    In this paper we use an experimental approach to investigate how linguistic conventions can emerge in a society without explicit agreement. As a starting point we consider the signaling game introduced by Lewis (Convention 1969). We find that in experimental settings, small groups can quickly develop conventions of signal meaning in these games. We also investigate versions of the game where the theoretical literature indicates that meaning will be less likely to arise—when there are more than two states for actors (...)
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  43. Denis Buehler (forthcoming). Incomplete Understanding of Complex Numbers Girolamo Cardano: A Case Study in the Acquisition of Mathematical Concepts. Synthese:1-22.
    In this paper, I present the case of the discovery of complex numbers by Girolamo Cardano. Cardano acquires the concepts of (specific) complex numbers, complex addition, and complex multiplication. His understanding of these concepts is incomplete. I show that his acquisition of these concepts cannot be explained on the basis of Christopher Peacocke’s Conceptual Role Theory of concept possession. I argue that Strong Conceptual Role Theories that are committed to specifying a set of transitions that is both necessary and sufficient (...)
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  44. John Cantwell (forthcoming). Reasoning with Conditonals. Synthese.
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  45. C. Castelfranchi & F. Paglieri (forthcoming). On the Integration of Goal Dynamics and Belief Structures', Department of Cognitive Science, University of Siena and University of Rome, to Appear In. Synthese.
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  46. Gabriel Catren & Julien Page (forthcoming). On the Notions of Indiscernibility and Indeterminacy in the Light of the Galois–Grothendieck Theory. Synthese:1-32.
    We analyze the notions of indiscernibility and indeterminacy in the light of the Galois theory of field extensions and the generalization to \(K\) -algebras proposed by Grothendieck. Grothendieck’s reformulation of Galois theory permits to recast the Galois correspondence between symmetry groups and invariants as a Galois–Grothendieck duality between \(G\) -spaces and the minimal observable algebras that discern (or separate) their points. According to the natural epistemic interpretation of the original Galois theory, the possible \(K\) -indiscernibilities between the roots of a (...)
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  47. Charles S. Chihara & Brian Skyrms (forthcoming). An International Journal for Epistemology, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Synthese.
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  48. Ivano A. Ciardelli & Floris Roelofsen (forthcoming). Inquisitive Dynamic Epistemic Logic. Synthese:1-45.
    Information exchange can be seen as a dynamic process of raising and resolving issues. The goal of this paper is to provide a logical framework to model and reason about this process. We develop an inquisitive dynamic epistemic logic (IDEL), which enriches the standard framework of dynamic epistemic logic (DEL), incorporating insights from recent work on inquisitive semantics. At a static level, IDEL does not only allow us to model the information available to a set of agents, like standard epistemic (...)
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  49. David Danks Clark Glymour, Frederick Eberhardt Bruce Glymour, Richard Scheines Joseph Ramsey, Choh Man Teng Peter Spirtes & Jiji Zhang (forthcoming). Actual Causation: A Stone Soup Essay. Synthese.
    We argue that current discussions of criteria for actual causation are ill-posed in several respects. (1) The methodology of current discussions is by induction from intuitions about an infinitesimal fraction of the possible examples and counterexamples; (2) cases with larger numbers of causes generate novel puzzles; (3) “neuron” and causal Bayes net diagrams are, as deployed in discussions of actual causation, almost always ambiguous; (4) actual causation is (intuitively) relative to an initial system state since state changes are relevant, but (...)
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  50. A. Coliva (forthcoming). Self-Knowledge: One More Constitutive View. Synthese.
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  51. Robert D. Cousins (forthcoming). The Jeffreys–Lindley Paradox and Discovery Criteria in High Energy Physics. Synthese:1-38.
    The Jeffreys–Lindley paradox displays how the use of a \(p\) value (or number of standard deviations \(z\) ) in a frequentist hypothesis test can lead to an inference that is radically different from that of a Bayesian hypothesis test in the form advocated by Harold Jeffreys in the 1930s and common today. The setting is the test of a well-specified null hypothesis (such as the Standard Model of elementary particle physics, possibly with “nuisance parameters”) versus a composite alternative (such as (...)
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  52. His Critics (forthcoming). Stich and His Critics. Synthese.
    Through a collection of original essays from leading philosophical scholars, Stich and His Critics provides a thorough assessment of the key themes in the career of philosopher Stephen Stich. Provides a collection of original essays from some of the world's most distinguished philosophersExplores some of philosophy's most hotly-debated contemporary topics, including mental representation, theory of mind, nativism, moral philosophy, and naturalized epistemology.
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  53. Raymond Dacey (forthcoming). Guest Editor's Preface: Formal Analysis in International Relations. Synthese.
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  54. John K. Davis (forthcoming). Faultless Disagreement, Cognitive Command, and Epistemic Peers. Synthese:1-24.
    Relativism and contextualism are the most popular accounts of faultless disagreement, but Crispin Wright once argued for an account I call divergentism. According to divergentism, parties who possess all relevant information and use the same standards of assessment in the same context of utterance can disagree about the same proposition without either party being in epistemic fault, yet only one of them is right. This view is an alternative to relativism, indexical contextualism, and nonindexical contextualism, and has advantages over those (...)
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  55. M. de Boer, D. Gabbay, X. Parent & M. Slavkova (forthcoming). Two Dimensional Deontic Logic. Synthese.
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  56. P. De Cuyper & L. Struyven (forthcoming). Under Construction. Bouwpool Antwerpen als voorbeeld van een sectorale cluster. Synthese.
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  57. Henk W. De Regt (forthcoming). Scientific Understanding: Truth or Dare? Synthese:1-17.
    It is often claimed—especially by scientific realists—that science provides understanding of the world only if its theories are (at least approximately) true descriptions of reality, in its observable as well as unobservable aspects. This paper critically examines this ‘realist thesis’ concerning understanding. A crucial problem for the realist thesis is that (as study of the history and practice of science reveals) understanding is frequently obtained via theories and models that appear to be highly unrealistic or even completely fictional. So we (...)
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  58. Peter Dennis (forthcoming). Criteria for Indefeasible Knowledge: John Mcdowell and 'Epistemological Disjunctivism'. Synthese:1-15.
    Duncan Pritchard has recently defended a view he calls ‘epistemological disjunctivism’, largely inspired by John McDowell. I argue that Pritchard is right to associate the view with McDowell, and that McDowell’s ‘inference-blocking’ argument against the sceptic succeeds only if epistemological disjunctivism is accepted. However, Pritchard also recognises that epistemological disjunctivism appears to conflict with our belief that genuine and illusory experiences are indistinguishable (the ‘distinguishability problem’). Since the indistinguishability of experiences is the antecedent in the inference McDowell intends to block, (...)
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  59. Anne Dujin & Bruno Maresca (forthcoming). Vingt ans après les premières unités, un éclairage sur le développement des soins palliatifs en France Le secteur médico-social. Synthese.
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  60. Michael Esfeld (forthcoming). How to Account for Quantum Non-Locality: Ontic Structural Realism and the Primitive Ontology of Quantum Physics. Synthese:1-16.
    The paper has two aims: (1) it sets out to show that it is well motivated to seek for an account of quantum non-locality in the framework of ontic structural realism (OSR), which integrates the notions of holism and non-separability that have been employed since the 1980s to achieve such an account. However, recent research shows that OSR on its own cannot provide such an account. Against this background, the paper argues that by applying OSR to the primitive ontology theories (...)
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  61. Complement Et & Sur la (forthcoming). Vieille Brioude Et le Bec D'Allier. Synthese.
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  62. Miklós Ferenczi (forthcoming). Probabilities Defined on Standard and Non-Standard Cylindric Set Algebras. Synthese:1-9.
    Cylindric set algebras are algebraizations of certain logical semantics. The topic surveyed here, i.e. probabilities defined on cylindric set algebras, is closely related, on the one hand, to probability logic (to probabilities defined on logical formulas), on the other hand, to measure theory. The set algebras occuring here are associated, in particular, with the semantics of first order logic and with non-standard analysis. The probabilities introduced are partially continous, they are continous with respect to so-called cylindric sums.
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  63. J. H. Fetzer (forthcoming). Frequencies and Propensities: Inference to the Best Explanation. Synthese.
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  64. Rosita Fibbi (forthcoming). Peter, Afrim Oder Mehmet–Der Name Macht den Unterschied. NFP 43. Synthese.
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  65. Chris Fox & Shalom Lappin (forthcoming). Type-Theoretic Logic with an Operational Account of Intensionality. Synthese:1-22.
    We formulate a Curry-typed logic with fine-grained intensionality within Turner’s typed predicate logic. This allows for an elegant presentation of a theory that corresponds to Fox and Lappin’s property theory with curry typing, but without the need for a federation of languages. We then consider how the fine-grained intensionality of this theory can be given an operational interpretation. This interpretation suggests itself as expressions in the theory can be viewed as terms in the untyped lambda-calculus, which provides a model of (...)
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  66. Allan Franklin (forthcoming). The Missing Piece of the Puzzle: The Discovery of the Higgs Boson. Synthese:1-16.
    The missing piece of the puzzle: the discovery of the Higgs boson On July 4, 2012 the CMS and ATLAS collaborations at the large hadron collider jointly announced the discovery of a new elementary particle, which resembled the Higgs boson, the last remaining undiscovered piece of the standard model of elementary particles. Both groups claimed to have observed a five-standard-deviation (five sigmas) effect above background, the gold standard for discovery in high-energy physics. In this essay I will briefly discuss the (...)
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  67. Simon Friederich, Robert Harlander & Koray Karaca (forthcoming). Philosophical Perspectives on Ad Hoc Hypotheses and the Higgs Mechanism. Synthese:1-21.
    We examine physicists’ charge of ad hocness against the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particle physics. We argue that even though this charge never rested on a clear-cut and well-entrenched definition of “ad hoc”, it is based on conceptual and methodological assumptions and principles that are well-founded elements of the scientific practice of high-energy particle physics. We further evaluate the implications of the recent discovery of a Higgs-like particle at the CERN’s Large Hadron Collider for the charge (...)
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  68. Roman Frigg & Julian Reiss (forthcoming). A Critical Look at the Philosophy of Simulation. Synthese.
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  69. Fermín Fulda (forthcoming). A Mechanistic Framework for Darwinism or Why Fodor's Objection Fails. Synthese:1-21.
    Fodor (Mind Lang 23:1–24, Mind Lang 2008a, 23:50–57, 2008b and Fodor and Piattelli-Palmarini (What Darwin go wrong, Picador, New York, 2011) argue that Darwinism cannot be true on the grounds that there are no laws of selection to support counterfactuals about why traits are selected-for. Darwinian explanations, according to this objection, amount to mere ‘plausible historical narratives’. I argue that the objection is predicated on two problematic assumptions: A nomic-subsumption account of causation and causal explanation, and a fine-grained view of (...)
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  70. Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung (forthcoming). Bewertung der externen Kosten des Strassen-und Schienenverkehrs in der Schweiz für das Jahr 2000. Synthese.
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  71. Rocco Gangle & Gianluca Caterina (forthcoming). The Sheet of Indication: A Diagrammatic Semantics for Peirce's EG-Alpha. Synthese:1-18.
    Following the guiding thread of Peirce’s use of diagrammatic syntax in his system of existential graphs (EG), which depends crucially on the role of the Sheet of Assertion, we introduce the notion of Sheet of Indication (SI) as the basis for a general diagrammatic semantics applicable to a wide range of diagrams. We then show how Peirce’s EG-alpha graphs may be understood as instances of SIs and how logically coherent models of the graphs are represented in the SI semantics.
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  72. Raoul Gervais (forthcoming). Mechanistic and Non-Mechanistic Varieties of Dynamical Models in Cognitive Science: Explanatory Power, Understanding, and the 'Mere Description' Worry. Synthese:1-24.
    In the literature on dynamical models in cognitive science, two issues have recently caused controversy. First, what is the relation between dynamical and mechanistic models? I will argue that dynamical models can be upgraded to be mechanistic as well, and that there are mechanistic and non-mechanistic dynamical models. Second, there is the issue of explanatory power. Since it is uncontested the mechanistic models can explain, I will focus on the non-mechanistic variety of dynamical models. It is often claimed by proponents (...)
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  73. Itzhak Gilboa, Andrew Postlewaite & David Schmeidler (forthcoming). Rationality of Belief. Synthese.
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  74. Thomas Grundmann (forthcoming). How Reliabilism Saves the Apriori/Aposteriori Distinction. Synthese:1-22.
    Contemporary epistemologists typically define a priori justification as justification that is independent of sense experience. However, sense experience plays at least some role in the production of many paradigm cases of a priori justified belief. This raises the question of when experience is epistemically relevant to the justificatory status of the belief that is based on it. In this paper, I will outline the answers that can be given by the two currently dominant accounts of justification, i.e. evidentialism and reliabilism. (...)
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  75. Chris Heunen, Nicolaas P. Landsman & Bas Spitters (forthcoming). Intuitionistic Quantum Logic for von Neumann Algebras. Synthese.
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  76. Jan Heylen (forthcoming). The Epistemic Significance of Numerals. Synthese:1-27.
    The central topic of this article is (the possibility of) de re knowledge about natural numbers and its relation with names for numbers. It is held by several prominent philosophers that (Peano) numerals are eligible for existential quantification in epistemic contexts (‘canonical’), whereas other names for natural numbers are not. In other words, (Peano) numerals are intimately linked with de re knowledge about natural numbers, whereas the other names for natural numbers are not. In this article I am looking for (...)
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  77. R. Hillerbrand (forthcoming). Scale Separation as a Condition for Quantitative Modelling. Why Mathematics Works for Some Problems and Fails for Others. Synthese.
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  78. Kevin D. Hoover (forthcoming). The Ontological Status of Shocks and Trends in Macroeconomics. Synthese:1-24.
    Modern empirical macroeconomic models, known as structural autoregressions (SVARs) are dynamic models that typically claim to represent a causal order among contemporaneously valued variables and to merely represent non-structural (reduced-form) co-occurence between lagged variables and contemporaneous variables. The strategy is held to meet the minimal requirements for identifying the residual errors in particular equations in the model with independent, though otherwise not directly observable, exogenous causes (“shocks”) that ultimately account for change in the model. In nonstationary models, such shocks accumulate (...)
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  79. Elizabeth Irvine (forthcoming). Models, Robustness, and Non-Causal Explanation: A Foray Into Cognitive Science and Biology. Synthese:1-17.
    This paper is aimed at identifying how a model’s explanatory power is constructed and identified, particularly in the practice of template-based modeling (Humphreys, Philos Sci 69:1–11, 2002; Extending ourselves: computational science, empiricism, and scientific method, 2004), and what kinds of explanations models constructed in this way can provide. In particular, this paper offers an account of non-causal structural explanation that forms an alternative to causal–mechanical accounts of model explanation that are currently popular in philosophy of biology and cognitive science. Clearly, (...)
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  80. Sándor Jenei & Franco Montagna (forthcoming). A Classification of Certain Group-Like FL_e-Chains. Synthese:1-27.
    Classification of certain group-like FL $_e$ -chains is given: We define absorbent-continuity of FL $_e$ -algebras, along with the notion of subreal chains, and classify absorbent-continuous, group-like FL $_e$ -algebras over subreal chains: The algebra is determined by its negative cone, and the negative cone can only be chosen from a certain subclass of BL-chains, namely, one with components which are either cancellative (that is, those components are negative cones of totally ordered Abelian groups) or two-element MV-algebras, and with no (...)
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  81. C. S. I. Jenkins & Masashi Kasaki (forthcoming). The Traditional Conception of the a Priori. Synthese:1-22.
    In this paper, we explore the traditional conception of a prioricity as epistemic independence of evidence from sense experience. We investigate the fortunes of the traditional conception in the light of recent challenges by Timothy Williamson. We contend that Williamson’s arguments can be resisted in various ways. En route, we argue that Williamson’s views are not as distant from tradition (in particular, from Kant) as they might seem at first glance.
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  82. Stephen John (forthcoming). Inductive Risk and the Contexts of Communication. Synthese:1-18.
    In recent years, the argument from inductive risk against value free science has enjoyed a revival. This paper investigates and clarifies this argument through means of a case-study: neonicitinoid research. Sect. 1 argues that the argument from inductive risk is best conceptualised as a claim about scientists’ communicative obligations. Sect. 2 then shows why this argument is inapplicable to “public communication”. Sect. 3 outlines non-epistemic reasons why non-epistemic values should not play a role in public communicative contexts. Sect. 4 analyses (...)
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  83. Philipp Koralus (forthcoming). Can Visual Cognitive Neuroscience Learn Anything From the Philosophy of Language? Ambiguity and the Topology of Neural Network Models of Multistable Perception. Synthese:1-24.
    The Necker cube and the productive class of related stimuli involving multiple depth interpretations driven by corner-like line junctions are often taken to be ambiguous. This idea is normally taken to be as little in need of defense as the claim that the Necker cube gives rise to multiple distinct percepts. In the philosophy of language, it is taken to be a substantive question whether a stimulus that affords multiple interpretations is a case of ambiguity. If we take into account (...)
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  84. Tapio Korte (forthcoming). Begriffsschrift as a Lingua Characteristica and the Classical Model of Science. Synthese.
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  85. Arnold Koslow (forthcoming). The Modality and Non-Extensionality of the Quantifiers. Synthese:1-10.
    We shall try to defend two non-standard views that run counter to two well-entrenched familiar views. The standard views are (1) the universal and existential quantifiers of first-order logic are not modal operators, and (2) the quantifiers are extensional. If that is correct then the counterclaims create genuine problems for some traditional philosophical doctrines.
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  86. J. Lawry (forthcoming). Appropriateness Measures: An Uncertainty Measure for Vague Concepts, to Appear In. Synthese.
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  87. Brian Leahy & Maximilian Huber (forthcoming). Two Arguments for the Etiological Theory Over the Modal Theory of Biological Function. Synthese:1-19.
    This paper contains a positive development and a negative argument. It develops a theory of function loss and shows how this undermines an objection raised against the etiological theory of function in support of the modal theory of function. Then it raises two internal problems for the modal theory of function.
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  88. María Manzano & Enrique Alonso (forthcoming). Visions of Henkin. Synthese:1-16.
    Leon Henkin (1921–2006) was not only an extraordinary logician, but also an excellent teacher, a dedicated professor and an exceptional person. The first two sections of this paper are biographical, discussing both his personal and academic life. In the last section we present three aspects of Henkin’s work. First we comment part of his work fruit of his emphasis on teaching. In a personal communication he affirms that On mathematical induction, published in 1969, was the favourite among his articles with (...)
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  89. Bruno Maresca (forthcoming). Vingt ans après les premières unités, un éclairage sur le développement des soins palliatifs en France Le secteur hospitalier et des soins à domicile. Synthese.
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  90. George Masterton (forthcoming). What to Do with a Forecast? Synthese:1-27.
    In the literature one finds two non-equivalent responses to forecasts; deference and updating. Herein it is demonstrated that, under certain conditions, both responses are entirely determined by one’s beliefs as regards the calibration of the forecaster. Further it is argued that the choice as to whether to defer to, or update on, a forecast is determined by the aim of the recipient of that forecast. If the aim of the recipient is to match their credence with the prevailing objective chances, (...)
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  91. Szabolcs Mikulás (forthcoming). The Equational Theories of Representable Residuated Semigroups. Synthese:1-8.
    We show that the equational theory of representable lower semilattice-ordered residuated semigroups is finitely based. We survey related results.
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  92. B. Miller (forthcoming). When is Consensus Knowledge Based. Synthese.
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  93. C. Newiger & R. K. Muts (forthcoming). Gezondheid in Goede Handen. Synthese.
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  94. B. T. Paller & D. T. Campbell (forthcoming). Reconciling Maxwell and van Fraassen Through Sense-Organ Evolution, the Ostensive Basis of the Term “Observe”, and Optimal Justificatory Practice in Science. Synthese.
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  95. Erwin Paulus (forthcoming). Sprachsignalverarbeitung: Analyse, Erkennung. Synthese.
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  96. Ahti-Veikko Pietarinen (forthcoming). Two Papers on Existential Graphs by Charles Peirce. Synthese:1-42.
    The following two articles comprise two sets of Charles Peirce’s manuscripts, “Recent Developments of Existential Graphs and their Consequences for Logic” (MS 498, MS 499, MS 490 & S-36, 1906) and “Assurance through Reasoning” (MS 669 & MS 670, 1911), written for the National Academy of Sciences meetings in 1906 and 1911. The papers are deposited at Houghton Library, Harvard University. Only some parts of MS 470 have been published before, and in somewhat defective form. Although “Assurance” follows “Recent Developments” (...)
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  97. Gabriella Pigozzi (forthcoming). Collective Decision-Making Without Paradoxes: An Argument-Based Account. Synthese.
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  98. Chris Pincock (forthcoming). Modeling Reality. Synthese.
    Abstract: My aim in this paper is to articulate an account of scientific modeling that reconciles pluralism about modeling with a modest form of scientific realism. The central claim of this approach is that the models of a given physical phenomenon can present different aspects of the phenomenon. This allows us, in certain special circumstances, to be confident that we are capturing genuine features of the world, even when our modeling occurs in the absence of a fundamental theory. This framework (...)
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  99. Matteo Plebani (forthcoming). Nominalistic Content, Grounding, and Covering Generalizations: Reply to 'Grounding and the Indispensability Argument'. Synthese:1-10.
    ‘Grounding and the indispensability argument’ presents a number of ways in which nominalists can use the notion of grounding to rebut the indispensability argument for the existence of mathematical objects. I will begin by considering the strategy that puts grounding to the service of easy-road nominalists (“Nominalistic content meets grounding” section). I will give some support to this strategy by addressing a worry some may have about it (“A misguided worry about the grounding strategy” section). I will then consider a (...)
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  100. Carl Pollard (forthcoming). Agnostic Hyperintensional Semantics. Synthese:1-28.
    A hyperintensional semantics for natural language is proposed which is agnostic about the question of whether propositions are sets of worlds or worlds are (maximal consistent) sets of propositions. Montague’s theory of intensional senses is replaced by a weaker theory, written in standard classical higher-order logic, of fine-grained senses which are in a many-to-one correspondence with intensions; Montague’s theory can then be recovered from the proposed theory by identifying the type of propositions with the type of sets of worlds and (...)
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  101. Questioning (forthcoming). An International Journal for Epistemology, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Synthese.
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  102. Shahid Rahman (forthcoming). New Perspectives in Dialogical Logic. Synthese.
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  103. F. Recanati (forthcoming). What Is Said', Forthcoming In. Synthese.
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  104. Laura Ruetsche (forthcoming). The Shaky Game +25, Or: On Locavoracity. Synthese:1-18.
    Taking Arthur Fine’s The Shaky Game as my inspiration, and the recent 25 \({\textit{th}}\) anniversary of the publication of that work as the occasion to exercise that inspiration, I sketch an alternative to the “Naturalism” prevalent among philosophers of physics. Naturalism is a methodology eventuating in a metaphysics. The methodology is to seek the deep framework assumptions that make the best sense of science; the metaphysics is furnished by those assumptions and supported by their own support of science. The alternative (...)
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  105. Israel Scheffler (forthcoming). Writings of Israel Scheffler. Synthese.
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  106. Dirk Schlimm (forthcoming). On the Creative Role of Axiomatics. Synthese.
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  107. Margaret Schmitt (forthcoming). Freedom and (Theoretical) Reason. Synthese:1-17.
    In a recent series of papers, Matthias Steup has defended doxastic voluntarism against longstanding objections. Many of his arguments center on the following conditional: if we accept a compatibilist notion of voluntary control, then, in most instances, belief-formation is voluntary and doxastic voluntarism the correct view. Steup defends two versions of this conditional. The first is universal, moving from compatibilism considered generally to doxastic voluntarism: if compatibilism is true, then doxastic voluntarism is true. The second is more particular, moving from (...)
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  108. Andrea Sereni (forthcoming). Equivalent Explanations and Mathematical Realism. Reply to “Evidence, Explanation, and Enhanced Indispensability”. Synthese:1-12.
    The author of “Evidence, Explanation, Enhanced Indispensability” advances a criticism to the Enhanced Indispensability Argument and the use of Inference to the Best Explanation in order to draw ontological conclusions from mathematical explanations in science. His argument relies on the availability of equivalent though competing explanations, and a pluralist stance on explanation. I discuss whether pluralism emerges as a stable position, and focus here on two main points: whether cases of equivalent explanations have been actually offered, and which ontological consequences (...)
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  109. Dunja Šešelja & Christian Straßer (forthcoming). Epistemic Justification in the Context of Pursuit: A Coherentist Approach. Synthese:1-31.
    The aim of this paper is to offer an account of epistemic justification suitable for the context of theory pursuit, that is, for the context in which new scientific ideas, possibly incompatible with the already established theories, emerge and are pursued by scientists. We will frame our account paradigmatically on the basis of one of the influential systems of epistemic justification: Laurence Bonjour’s coherence theory of justification. The idea underlying our approach is to develop a set of criteria which indicate (...)
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  110. J. D. Sneed & C. U. Moulines (forthcoming). A Program for the Individuation of Scientific Concepts. Synthese.
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  111. Mike Stannett (forthcoming). Motion and Observation in a Single-Particle Universe. Synthese:1-11.
    We outline an argument that a single-particle universe (a universe containing precisely one pointlike particle) can be described mathematically, in which observation can be considered meaningful despite the a priori impossibility of distinguishing between an observer and the observed. Moreover, we argue, such a universe can be observationally similar to the world we see around us. It is arguably impossible, therefore, to determine by experimental observation of the physical world whether the universe we inhabit contains one particle or many—modern scientific (...)
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  112. H. Orri Stefánsson (forthcoming). Desires, Beliefs and Conditional Desirability. Synthese:1-17.
    Does the desirability of a proposition depend on whether it is true? Not according to the Invariance assumption, held by several notable philosophers. The Invariance assumption plays an important role in David Lewis’ famous arguments against the so-called Desire-as-Belief thesis (DAB), an anti-Humean thesis according to which a rational agent desires a proposition exactly to the degree that she believes the proposition to be desirable. But the assumption is of interest independently of Lewis’ arguments, for instance since both Richard Jeffrey (...)
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  113. Brian Talbot (forthcoming). Why so Negative? Evidence Aggregation and Armchair Philosophy. Synthese:1-32.
    This paper aims to clarify a debate on philosophical method, and to give a probabilistic argument vindicating armchair philosophy under a wide range of plausible assumptions. The use of intuitions by so-called armchair philosophers has been criticized on empirical grounds. The debate between armchair philosophers and their empirical critics would benefit from greater clarity and precision in our understanding of what it takes for intuition-based approaches to philosophy to make sense. This paper discusses a set of rigorous, probability-based tools for (...)
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  114. K. Taylor (forthcoming). Sex, Breakfast, and Descriptus Interruptus', Forthcoming In. Synthese.
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  115. J. P. Verhaeghe (forthcoming). Externe evaluatie van het Gentse SIF-brugfigurenproject. Beginmetingen. Synthese.
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  116. Peter Vickers (forthcoming). Theory Flexibility and Inconsistency in Science. Synthese:1-16.
    For several decades now philosophers have discussed apparent examples of internally inconsistent scientific theories. However, there is still much controversy over how exactly we should conceive of scientific theories in the first place. Here I argue for a new approach, whereby all of the truly important questions about inconsistency in science can be asked and answered without disagreements about theories and theory-content getting in the way. Three examples commonly described as ‘internally inconsistent theories’ are analysed in the light of this (...)
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  117. Vivian Weil & Jon Nordby (forthcoming). An International Journal for Epistemology, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. Synthese.
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  118. Bartosz Więckowski (forthcoming). Constructive Belief Reports. Synthese:1-31.
    The paper develops a proof-theoretic semantics for belief reports by extending the constructive type-theoretical formalism presented in Więckowski (Stud Log 100:815–853, 2012) with a specific kind of set-forming operator suited for the representation of belief attitudes. The extended formalism allows us to interpret constructions which involve, e.g., iteration of belief, quantifying into belief contexts, and anaphora in belief reports. Moreover, constructive solutions to canonical instances of the problem of hyperintensionality are suggested. The paper includes a discussion of Ranta’s (Type-theoretical grammar, (...)
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  119. Rabinowicz Wlodek & Lina Ericsson (forthcoming). The Interference Problem for the Betting Interpretetation. Synthese.
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  120. James Woodward (forthcoming). Methodology, Ontology, and Interventionism. Synthese:1-23.
    This paper defends an interventionist account of causation by construing this account as a contribution to methodology, rather than as a set of theses about the ontology or metaphysics of causation. It also uses the topic of causation to raise some more general issues about the relation between, on the one hand, methodology, and, on the other hand, ontology and metaphysics, as these are understood in contemporary philosophical discussion, particularly among so-called analytic metaphysicians. It concludes with the suggestion that issues (...)
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  121. Dan Zahavi (forthcoming). Preface: The Mind Without, the World Within. Synthese.
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  122. Peter Øhrstrøm & Per Fv Hasle (forthcoming). The Philosophy of Arthur N, Prior: Introduction to Special Volume of Synthese. Synthese.
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