170 found

Year:

Forthcoming articles
  1.  9
    Andrew Aberdein (forthcoming). The Vices of Argument. Topoi.
    What should a virtue theory of argumentation say about fallacious reasoning? If good arguments are virtuous, then fallacies are vicious. Yet fallacies cannot just be identified with vices, since vices are dispositional properties of agents whereas fallacies are types of argument. Rather, if the normativity of good argumentation is explicable in terms of virtues, we should expect the wrongness of bad argumentation to be explicable in terms of vices. This approach is defended through analysis of several fallacies, with particular emphasis (...)
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  2.  14
    Andrew Aberdein & Daniel H. Cohen (forthcoming). Introduction: Virtues and Arguments. Topoi:1-5.
    It has been a decade since the phrase virtue argumentation was introduced, and while it would be an exaggeration to say that it burst onto the scene, it would be just as much of an understatement to say that it has gone unnoticed. Trying to strike the virtuous mean between the extremes of hyperbole and litotes, then, we can fairly characterize it as a way of thinking about arguments and argumentation that has steadily attracted more and more attention from argumentation (...)
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  3.  16
    Matthew Baddorf (forthcoming). An Argument From Divine Beauty Against Divine Simplicity. Topoi:1-8.
    Some versions of the doctrine of divine simplicity imply that God lacks really differentiated parts. I present a new argument against these views based on divine beauty. The argument proceeds as follows: God is beautiful. If God is beautiful, then this beauty arises from some structure. If God’s beauty arises from a structure, then God possesses really differentiated parts. If these premises are true, then divine simplicity is false. I argue for each of the argument’s premises and defend it against (...)
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  4.  79
    Berit Brogaard (forthcoming). Perception Without Representation? On Travis’s Argument Against the Representational View of Perception. Topoi.
  5.  56
    Fabrizio Cariani (forthcoming). Choice Points for a Modal Theory of Disjunction. Topoi:1-11.
    This paper investigates the prospects for a semantic theory that treats disjunction as a modal operator. Potential motivation for such a theory comes from the way in which modals embed within disjunctions. After reviewing some of the relevant data, I go on to distinguish a variety of modal theories of disjunction. I analyze these theories by considering pairs of conflicting desiderata, highlighting some of the tradeoffs they must face.
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  6.  97
    Glenn Carruthers & Elizabeth Schier (forthcoming). Why Are We Still Being Hornswoggled? Dissolving the Hard Problem of Consciousness. Topoi.
    In this paper we try to diagnose one reason why the debate regarding the Hard Problem of consciousness inevitably leads to a stalemate: namely that the characterisation of consciousness assumed by the Hard Problem is unjustified and probably unjustifiable. Following Dennett (2012; 1996, 2001; 1991) and Patricia Churchland (1996; 2002), we argue that there is in fact no non-question begging argument for the claim that consciousness is a uniquely Hard Phenomenon. That is; there is no non-question begging argument for the (...)
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  7.  16
    Giovanna Colombetti (forthcoming). Enactive Affectivity, Extended. Topoi:1-11.
    In this paper I advance an enactive view of affectivity that does not imply that affectivity must stop at the boundaries of the organism. I first review the enactive notion of “sense-making”, and argue that it entails that cognition is inherently affective. Then I review the proposal, advanced by Di Paolo, that the enactive approach allows living systems to “extend”. Drawing out the implications of this proposal, I argue that, if enactivism allows living systems to extend, then it must also (...)
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  8.  11
    Emmalon Davis (forthcoming). What is It to Share Contraceptive Responsibility? Topoi:1-11.
    There are three stages at which procreative outcomes can be prevented or altered: (1) prior to conception (2) during pregnancy and (3) after birth. Daniel Engster (Soc Theory Pract 36(2):233–262, 2010) has ably argued that plans to prevent or alter procreative outcomes at stages (2) and (3)—through abortion and adoption—introduce financial, physical, and emotional hardships to which women are disproportionately vulnerable. In this paper, I argue that plans to prevent or alter undesirable procreative outcomes at stage (1)—through contraception use—similarly disadvantage (...)
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  9.  25
    Manuel García-Carpintero (forthcoming). Accommodating Presuppositions. Topoi:1-8.
    In this paper I elaborate on previous criticisms of the influential Stalnakerian account of presuppositions, pointing out that the well-known practice of informative presupposition puts heavy strain on Stalnaker’s pragmatic characterization of the phenomenon of presupposition, in particular of the triggering of presuppositions. Stalnaker has replied to previous criticisms by relying on the well-taken point that we should take into account the time at which presupposition-requirements are to be computed. In defense of a different, ‘semantic’ account of the phenomenon of (...)
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  10.  25
    Christopher Gauker (forthcoming). Presuppositions as Anaphoric Duality Enablers. Topoi:1-12.
    The key to an adequate account of presupposition projection is to accommodate the fact that the presuppositions of a sentence cannot always be read off the sentence but can often be identified only on the basis of prior utterances in the conversation in which the sentence is uttered. In addition, an account of presupposition requires a three-valued semantics of assertibility and deniability in a context. Presuppositions can be explicated as sentences that belong to the conversation and the assertibility of which (...)
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  11.  14
    David Godden (forthcoming). On the Priority of Agent-Based Argumentative Norms. Topoi:1-13.
    This paper argues against the priority of pure, virtue-based accounts of argumentative norms [VA]. Such accounts are agent-based and committed to the priority thesis: good arguments and arguing well are explained in terms of some prior notion of the virtuous arguer arguing virtuously. Two problems with the priority thesis are identified. First, the definitional problem: virtuous arguers arguing virtuously are neither sufficient nor necessary for good arguments. Second, the priority problem: the goodness of arguments is not explained virtuistically. Instead, being (...)
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  12.  14
    Giovanni B. Grandi (forthcoming). Distance and Direction in Reid’s Theory of Vision. Topoi:1-14.
    Two theses appear to be central to Reid’s view of the visual field. By sight, we do not originally perceive depth or linear distance from the eye. By sight, we originally perceive the position that points on the surface of objects have with regard to the centre of the eye. In different terms, by sight, we originally perceive the compass direction and degree of elevation of points on the surface of objects with reference to the centre of the eye. I (...)
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  13.  10
    J. A. Judge (forthcoming). Does the ‘Missing Fundamental’ Require an Inferentialist Explanation? Topoi:1-11.
    In arbitrating between representational and relational theories of perception, perceptual illusions—cases in which a subject’s perceptual experience diverges from the way the world really is—constitute an important battleground. The debate has, however, been dominated by discussions of visual perception. In attempting to extend the debate to audition, it is appropriate to start by considering what is thought to be a key case of auditory illusion. I consider the phenomenon of the ‘missing fundamental’, as well as examining a notion that is (...)
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  14.  13
    Stephanie Julia Kapusta (forthcoming). Intersex Diagnostics and Prognostics: Imposing Sex-Predicate Determinacy. Topoi:1-10.
    I offer a reconstruction of contemporary medical procedures of sex assignment for infants with intersex conditions. In the perspective adopted, sex assignment to intersexed newborns can be understood as a procedure that imposes determinate sex predicates. The account describes two stages of sex assignment. At the first stage of the process, the sex predicates ‘female’, ‘male’, or ‘intersexed’ are taken to denote genital morphology. Initial genital assessment of newborns imposes clear boundaries upon the extensions of these predicates through diagnostic schemes (...)
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  15.  17
    Jonah Katz & Joe Salerno (forthcoming). Epistemic Modal Disagreement. Topoi:1-13.
    At the center of the debate between contextualist versus relativist semantics for epistemic modal claims is an empirical question about when competent subjects judge epistemic modal disagreement to be present. John MacFarlane’s relativist claims that we judge there to be epistemic modal disagreement across the widest range of cases. We wish to dispute the robustness of his data with the results of two studies. Our primary conclusion is that the actual disagreement data is not consistent with relativist predictions, and so, (...)
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  16.  25
    Ian James Kidd (forthcoming). Intellectual Humility, Confidence, and Argumentation. Topoi:1-8.
    In this paper, I explore the relationship of virtue, argumentation, and philosophical conduct by considering the role of the specific virtue of intellectual humility in the practice of philosophical argumentation. I have three aims: first, to sketch an account of this virtue; second, to argue that it can be cultivated by engaging in argumentation with others; and third, to problematize this claim by drawing upon recent data from social psychology. My claim is that philosophical argumentation can be conducive to the (...)
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  17.  95
    Daniel Kostić (forthcoming). Explanatory Perspectivalism: Limiting the Scope of the Hard Problem of Consciousness. Topoi:1-7.
    I argue that the hard problem of consciousness occurs only in very limited contexts. My argument is based on the idea of explanatory perspectivalism, according to which what we want to know about a phenomenon determines the type of explanation we use to understand it. To that effect the hard problem arises only in regard to questions such as how is it that concepts of subjective experience can refer to physical properties, but not concerning questions such as what gives rise (...)
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  18.  13
    Jack M. C. Kwong (forthcoming). Open-Mindedness as a Critical Virtue. Topoi.
    This paper proposes to examine Daniel Cohen’s recent attempt to apply virtues to argumentation theory, with special attention given to his explication of how open-mindedness can be regarded as an argumentational or critical virtue. It is argued that his analysis involves a contentious claim about open-mindedness as an epistemic virtue, which generates a tension for agents who are simultaneously both an arguer and a knower (or who strive to be both). I contend that this tension can be eased or resolved (...)
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  19.  13
    Hemmo Laiho (forthcoming). Kant on Representing Negative States of Affairs. Topoi:1-12.
    In this paper, I investigate Kant’s view of the cognitive role of perceptions, judgements, and the three categories of Quality in representing negative states of affairs. The paper addresses the following problem. In his account of empirical cognition, Kant seems to limit the legitimate application of the categories to things perceptually available to us, or, more generally, to positive cases. However, Kant also seems to hold that negative states of affairs, such as the absence of a thing, cannot be perceived. (...)
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  20.  9
    Nicholas Martin (forthcoming). Simplicity’s Deficiency: Al-Ghazali’s Defense of the Divine Attributes and Contemporary Trinitarian Metaphysics. Topoi:1-9.
    I reconstruct and analyze al-Ghazali’s arguments defending a plurality of real divine attributes in The Incoherence of the Philosophers. I show that one of these arguments can be made to engage with and defend Jeffrey E. Brower and Michael C. Rea’s “Numerical Sameness Without Identity” model of the Trinity. To that end, I provide some background on the metaphysical commitments at play in al-Ghazali’s arguments.
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  21.  16
    Hannes Ole Matthiessen (forthcoming). Empirical Conditions for a Reidean Geometry of Visual Experience. Topoi.
    Thomas Reid's Geometry of Visibles, according to which the geometrical properties of an object's perspectival appearance equal the geometrical properties of its projection on the inside of a sphere with the eye in its centre allows for two different interpretations. It may (1) be understood as a theory about phenomenal visual space – i.e. an account of how things appear to human observers from a certain point of view – or it may (2) be seen as a mathematical model of (...)
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  22.  8
    Phillip John Meadows (forthcoming). Space and the Sense Datum Inference. Topoi:1-9.
    In this paper I consider the relationship between the spatial properties of visual perceptual experience and the sense-datum inference. I argue that the sense datum inference should be accepted if spatial properties are not merely intentionally present in such experiences. This result serves to underline the seriousness of the difficulties that are presented to direct realism by a particular class of illusory spatial experiences based on the geometry of visual perceptual experience. In light of these considerations I argue that it (...)
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  23.  13
    Kevin Morris (forthcoming). Physicalism, Truthmaking, and Levels of Reality: Prospects and Problems. Topoi:1-10.
    This paper considers the extent to which the notion of truthmaking can play a substantive role in defining physicalism. While a truthmaking-based approach to physicalism is prima facie attractive, there is some reason to doubt that truthmaking can do much work when it comes to understanding physicalism, and perhaps austere metaphysical frameworks in general. First, despite promising to dispense with higher-level properties and states, truthmaking appears to make little progress on issues concerning higher-level items and how they are related to (...)
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  24.  13
    Miguel Ángel Sebastián (forthcoming). On a Confusion About Which Intuitions to Trust: From the Hard Problem to a Not Easy One. Topoi:1-10.
    Alleged self-evidence aside, conceivability arguments are one of the main reasons in favor of the claim that there is a Hard Problem. These arguments depend on the appealing Kripkean intuition that there is no difference between appearances and reality in the case of consciousness. I will argue that this intuition rests on overlooking a distinction between cognitive access and consciousness, which has received recently important empirical support. I will show that there are good reasons to believe that the intuition is (...)
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  25.  8
    Andreas De Block & Grant Ramsey (forthcoming). The Organism-Centered Approach to Cultural Evolution. Topoi.
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  26.  6
    Robert French (forthcoming). Apparent Distortions in Photography and the Geometry of Visual Space. Topoi.
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  27.  24
    Gualtiero Piccinini (forthcoming). Access Denied to Zombies. Topoi.
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  28.  15
    Stephen Rainey (forthcoming). The Method of Levels of Abstraction in Pluralism and Governance of Dialogical Interaction. Topoi:1-11.
    This paper deploys elements of the philosophy of information (PoI) in order to explore ideas of dialogical governance. Dialogue in the governance of contentious issues is at least partly a response to the recognition of pluralism among perspectives on various issues. This recognition is prevalent in the context of European governance. However, it is a first step to a better understanding of diverging opinion, rather than an end point. This paper argues that the PoI offers a fruitful path to follow (...)
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  29.  11
    Corrado Roversi (forthcoming). How Social Institutions Can Imitate Nature. Topoi.
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  30.  6
    Eileen Willis, Debra King, Judith Dwyer, Jo Wainer & Kei Owada (forthcoming). Women and Gynaecological Cancer: Gender and the Doctor–Patient Relationship. Topoi.
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  31.  33
    Barbara Abbott (forthcoming). An Information Packaging Approach to Presuppositions and Conventional Implicatures. Topoi:1-13.
    Within the relevant semantics and pragmatics literature the terms “presupposition” and “conventional implicature” are used in a variety of different, but frequently overlapping, ways. The overlaps are perhaps not surprising, given that the two categories of conveyed meaning share the property of remaining constant in the scope of other operators—the property usefully characterize as projectivity. One of my purposes in this paper will be to try to clarify these different usages. In addition to that we will explore two additional properties (...)
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  32.  11
    Scott F. Aikin & John P. Casey (forthcoming). Straw Men, Iron Men, and Argumentative Virtue. Topoi:1-10.
    The straw man fallacy consists in inappropriately constructing or selecting weak versions of the opposition’s arguments. We will survey the three forms of straw men recognized in the literature, the straw, weak, and hollow man. We will then make the case that there are examples of inappropriately reconstructing stronger versions of the opposition’s arguments. Such cases we will call iron man fallacies. The difference between appropriate and inappropriate iron manning clarifies the limits of the virtue of open-mindedness.
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  33.  5
    Michael J. Almeida (forthcoming). A Posteriori Anselmianism. Topoi:1-9.
    I argue that Anselmians ought to abandon traditional Anselmianism in favor of Moderate Anselmianism. Moderate Anselmianism advances the view that a being x = God iff for every essential property P of x, it is secondarily necessary that x has P, for most essential properties of x, it is not primarily necessary that x has P and the essential properties of x include omnipotence, omniscience, perfect goodness and necessary existence. Traditional Anselmians have no cogent response to most a priori atheological (...)
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  34.  5
    James M. Arcadi (forthcoming). God is Where God Acts: Reconceiving Divine Omnipresence. Topoi:1-9.
    In classical theism, God is typically conceived of as having the attribute of omnipresence. However, this attribute often falls prey to two puzzles, the immateriality puzzle and the intensity puzzle. A recent explication of omnipresence by Hud Hudson falls short of solving these puzzles. By attending to key narratives in the Hebrew Scriptures, I argue that one ought to conceive of God’s presence at a location as God’s acting at that location. Thus, God’s omnipresence is God’s acting at all locations.
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  35.  5
    Jean-Jacques Aubert (forthcoming). Les institores et le commerce maritime dans l'Empire romain. Topoi.
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  36.  11
    Sharon Bailin & Mark Battersby (forthcoming). Fostering the Virtues of Inquiry. Topoi:1-8.
    This paper examines what constitute the virtues of argumentation or critical thinking and how these virtues might be developed. We argue first that the notion of virtue is more appropriate for characterizing this aspect than the notion of dispositions commonly employed by critical thinking theorists and, further, that it is more illuminating to speak of the virtues of inquiry rather than of argumentation. Our central argument is that learning to think critically is a matter of learning to participate knowledgeably and (...)
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  37.  12
    Andrew Ball (forthcoming). Are Fallacies Vices? Topoi:1-7.
    Why are some arguments fallacious? Since argumentation is an intellectual activity that can be performed better or worse, do we evaluate arguments simply in terms of their content, or does it also make sense to evaluate the arguer in light of the content put forward? From a ‘virtue’ approach, I propose understanding fallacies as having some link with intellectual vice. Drawing from recent work by Paul Grice, Linda Zagzebski, Andrew Aberdein, and Douglas Walton, this essay argues that if there is (...)
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  38. J. Balty (forthcoming). À la recherche de l'Apamée hellénistique: les sources antiques. Topoi.
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  39.  9
    Xabier E. Barandiaran (forthcoming). Autonomy and Enactivism: Towards a Theory of Sensorimotor Autonomous Agency. Topoi:1-22.
    The concept of “autonomy”, once at the core of the original enactivist proposal in The Embodied Mind, is nowadays ignored or neglected by some of the most prominent contemporary enactivists approaches. Theories of autonomy, however, come to fill a theoretical gap that sensorimotor accounts of cognition cannot ignore: they provide a naturalized account of normativity and the resources to ground the identity of a cognitive subject in its specific mode of organization. There are, however, good reasons for the contemporary neglect (...)
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  40.  8
    Nathaniel F. Barrett (forthcoming). The Normative Turn in Enactive Theory: An Examination of Its Roots and Implications. Topoi:1-13.
    This paper traces the development of enactive concepts of value and normativity from their roots in the canonical work of Varela et al. through more recent works of Ezequiel Di Paolo and others. It aims to show the central importance of these concepts for enactive theory while exposing a potentially troublesome ambiguity in their definition. Most definitions of enactive normativity are purely proscriptive, but it seems that enactive theories of cognitive agency and experience demand something more. On the other hand, (...)
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  41.  3
    Guillaume Beaulac & Tim Kenyon (forthcoming). The Scope of Debiasing in the Classroom. Topoi:1-10.
    Critical thinking is often taught with some emphasis on categories and operations of cognitive biases. The underlying thought is that knowledge of biases equips students to reduce them. The empirical evidence, however, doesn’t provide much support for this thought. We have previously argued that the emphasis on debiasing in critical thinking education is worth preserving, but in light of a more explicit and broader conception of debiasing. We now argue that this broader conception of debiasing strategies obliges critical thinking instructors (...)
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  42. Antonio Benítez-Burraco, Constantina Theofanopoulou & Cedric Boeckx (forthcoming). Globularization and Domestication. Topoi:1-14.
    This paper aims to explore a potential connection between two hypotheses recently put forward in the context of language evolution. One hypothesis argues that some human-specific change in the hominin brain developmental program habilitated the neuronal workspace that enabled “cognitive modernity” to unfold, also resulting in our globularized braincase. The other argues that the cultural niche resulting from our self-domestication favored the emergence of natural languages. In this article we document numerous links between the genetic changes we have claimed may (...)
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  43.  7
    Lilian Bermejo-Luque (forthcoming). Giving Reasons Does Not Always Amount to Arguing. Topoi:1-10.
    Both because of the vagueness of the word ‘give’ when speaking about giving reasons, and because we lack an adequate definition of ‘reasons’, there is a harmful ambiguity in the expression ‘giving reasons’. Particularly, straightforwardly identifying argumentation with reasons giving would make of virtually any interplay a piece of argumentation. Besides, if we adopt the mainstream definition of reasons as “considerations that count in favour of doing or believing something”, then only good argumentation would count as argumentation. In this paper, (...)
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  44. P. Bernard (forthcoming). Les Origines Thessaliennes de l'Arménie Vues Par Deux Historiens Thessaliens de la Génération d'Alexandre. Topoi.
     
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  45. José Maia Bezerra Neto (forthcoming). Ousados E Insubordinados: Protesto E Fugas de Escravos Na Província Do Grão-Pará-1840/1860. Topoi.
     
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  46.  9
    Cory Bill, Jacopo Romoli, Florian Schwarz & Stephen Crain (forthcoming). Scalar Implicatures Versus Presuppositions: The View From Acquisition. Topoi:1-15.
    This paper reports an experimental investigation of presuppositions and scalar implicatures in language acquisition. Recent proposals posit the same mechanisms for generating both types of inferences, in contrast to the traditional view. We used a Covered Box picture selection task to compare the interpretations assigned by two groups of children and by adults, in response to sentences with presuppositions and ones with either ‘direct’ or ‘indirect’ scalar implicatures. The main finding was that the behavior of children and adults differed across (...)
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  47.  5
    John Bishop & Ken Perszyk (forthcoming). The Divine Attributes and Non-Personal Conceptions of God. Topoi:1-13.
    Analytical philosophers of religion widely assume that God is a person, albeit immaterial and of unique status, and the divine attributes are thus understood as attributes of this supreme personal being. Our main aim is to consider how traditional divine attributes may be understood on a non-personal conception of God. We propose that foundational theist claims make an all-of-Reality reference, yet retain God’s status as transcendent Creator. We flesh out this proposal by outlining a specific non-personal, monist and ‘naturalist’ conception (...)
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  48.  10
    Jean-François Bonnefon (forthcoming). The Pros and Cons of Identifying Critical Thinking with System 2 Processing. Topoi:1-7.
    The dual-process model of cognition but most especially its reflective component, system 2 processing, shows strong conceptual links with critical thinking. In fact, the salient characteristics of system 2 processing are so strikingly close to that of critical thinking, that it is tempting to claim that critical thinking is system 2 processing, no more and no less. In this article, I consider the two sides of that claim: Does critical thinking always require system 2 processing? And does system 2 processing (...)
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  49. Remy Boucharlat (forthcoming). Camp royal et résidences achéménides. Topoi.
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  50. Jennifer L. Bowie (forthcoming). Rhetorical Roots and Media Future: How Podcasting Fits Into the Computers and Writing Classroom. Topoi.
     
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  51.  83
    Bill Brewer (forthcoming). The Object View of Perception. Topoi:1-13.
    We perceive a world of mind-independent macroscopic material objects such as stones, tables, trees, and animals. Our experience is the joint upshot of the way these things are and our route through them, along with the various relevant circumstances of perception ; and it depends on the normal operation of our perceptual systems. How should we characterise our perceptual experience so as to respect its basis and explain its role in grounding empirical thought and knowledge? I offered an answer to (...)
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  52.  11
    Brett Jacob Bricker (forthcoming). Scientific Counterpublics: In Defense of the Environmental Scientist as Public Intellectual. Topoi:1-12.
    Global warming and climate change pose a significant threat to the livelihoods of future generations. Although there is a consensus among qualified climate scientists who believe that scientific evidence supports anthropogenic climate change theories, this has not translated into public understanding or trust in these theories. In this essay, I trace policy debates in the United States during the 1970s and 1980s concerning the link between CFC pollution and ozone depletion. Based on a rich tradition of counterpublic scholarship and empirical (...)
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  53.  3
    Brit Brogaard & Dimitria Electra Gatzia (forthcoming). Introduction: Epistemic Modals. Topoi:1-4.
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  54.  11
    Anke Bueter (forthcoming). Androcentrism, Feminism, and Pluralism in Medicine. Topoi:1-10.
    Gender-medicine has been very successful in discovering gaps in medical knowledge, disclosing biases in earlier research, and generating new results. It has superseded a more androcentric and sexist medicine. Yet, its development should not be understood in terms of a further approximation of value-freedom. Rather, it is a case of better value-laden science due to an enhanced pluralism in medicine and society. This interpretation is based on an account of the origins of gender-medicine in the feminist women’s health movement and (...)
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  55.  5
    Martin Capstick (forthcoming). Defending Dreyfus Against the ‘Expert in X’. Topoi:1-11.
    Since its introduction, Hubert Dreyfus’ account of expertise has been a topic of debate and continues to be. This article focuses on one particular critique: Selinger and Crease :245–279, 2002) argument that Dreyfus wrongfully denies expertise to those whose expertise is a matter of propositional knowledge, which they call an ‘expert in x’. This article sets out to defend Dreyfus against the ‘expert in x’ by showing that Selinger and Crease’s use of Gilbert Ryle’s distinction between know-how and know-that as (...)
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  56.  6
    Brandon Carey (forthcoming). The Power to Do the Impossible. Topoi:1-8.
    Several recent arguments purport to show that omnipotence is incompatible with the possession of various necessary properties. These arguments appeal to one of two plausible but false principles about the nature of power: that if it is metaphysically impossible for a being to actualize a state of affairs, then that being does not have the power to actualize that state of affairs, or that if it is impossible given some contingent facts about the world that a being actualize a state (...)
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  57. J. M. Carrié (forthcoming). Une rationalité quand même. Topoi.
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  58. Martin Carrier & Wolfgang Krohn (forthcoming). Scientific Expertise: Epistemic and Social Standards—The Example of the German Radiation Protection Commission. Topoi:1-12.
    In their self-understanding, expert committees solely draw on scientific knowledge to provide policy advice. However, we try to show, first, on the basis of material related to the German Radiation Protection Commission that much of their work consists in active model building. Second, expert advice is judged by criteria that diverge from standards used for judging epistemic research. In particular, the commitment to generality or universality is replaced by the criterion of specificity, and the value of precision gives way to (...)
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  59. Hector-Neri Castaneda (forthcoming). Objects, Identity, and Sameness. Topoi.
     
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  60. Abadie-Reynal Catherine & Gaborit Justine (forthcoming). Le développement urbain en Syrie du Nord, étude des cas de Séleucie et Apamée de l'Euphrate. Topoi.
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  61. Christophe Chandezon (forthcoming). Prélèvements royaux et fiscalité civique dans le royaume séleucide. Topoi.
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  62. Véronique Chankowski (forthcoming). Techniques financières, influences, performances dans les activités bancaires des sanctuaires grecs. Topoi.
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  63.  5
    Daniel H. Cohen (forthcoming). Argumentative Virtues as Conduits for Reason’s Causal Efficacy: Why the Practice of Giving Reasons Requires That We Practice Hearing Reasons. Topoi:1-8.
    Psychological and neuroscientific data suggest that a great deal, perhaps even most, of our reasoning turns out to be rationalizing. The reasons we give for our positions are seldom either the real reasons or the effective causes of why we have those positions. We are not as rational as we like to think. A second, no less disheartening observation is that while we may be very effective when it comes to giving reasons, we are not that good at getting reasons. (...)
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  64.  9
    Daniel H. Cohen & George Miller (forthcoming). What Virtue Argumentation Theory Misses: The Case of Compathetic Argumentation. Topoi:1-10.
    While deductive validity provides the limiting upper bound for evaluating the strength and quality of inferences, by itself it is an inadequate tool for evaluating arguments, arguing, and argumentation. Similar remarks can be made about rhetorical success and dialectical closure. Then what would count as ideal argumentation? In this paper we introduce the concept of cognitive compathy to point in the direction of one way to answer that question. It is a feature of our argumentation rather than my argument or (...)
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  65. Harry Collins (forthcoming). Studies of Expertise and Experience. Topoi:1-11.
    I describe the program of analysis of expertise known as ‘Studies of Expertise and Experience’, or ‘SEE’ and contrast it with certain philosophical approaches. SEE differs from many approaches to expertise in that it takes the degree of ‘esotericity’ of the expertise to be one of its characteristics: esotericity is not a defining characteristic of expertise. Thus, native language speaking is taken to be an expertise along with gravitational wave physics. Expertise is taken to be acquired by socialisation within expert (...)
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  66.  2
    Vasco Correia (forthcoming). Contextual Debiasing and Critical Thinking: Reasons for Optimism. Topoi:1-9.
    In this article I argue that most biases in argumentation and decision-making can and should be counteracted. Although biases can prove beneficial in certain contexts, I contend that they are generally maladaptive and need correction. Yet critical thinking alone seems insufficient to mitigate biases in everyday contexts. I develop a contextualist approach, according to which cognitive debiasing strategies need to be supplemented by extra-psychic devices that rely on social and environmental constraints in order to promote rational reasoning. Finally, I examine (...)
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  67.  7
    Stephen T. Davis (forthcoming). Divine Incomprehensibility: Can We Know The Unknowable God? Topoi:1-6.
    Christians traditionally hold that we know God as God is revealed to us, but that we do not know God in essence, as God is in himself. But that raises the question of whether God as revealed accurately represents God’s essence. Perhaps, given our cognitive limitations, God logically cannot reveal the divine essence to us. Or perhaps God knows that it would not be good for us were he to do so. Descartes raised the possibility that God is an Evil (...)
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  68.  5
    Ciro De Florio & Aldo Frigerio (forthcoming). A Note on Eternity. Topoi:1-8.
    The timeless solution to the problem of divine foreknowledge and human freedom has many advantages. Still, the relationship between a timeless God and temporal beings is problematic in a number of ways. In this paper, we focus on the specific problems the timeless view has to deal with when certain assumptions on the metaphysics of time are taken on board. It is shown that on static conception of time God’s omniscience is easily accounted for, but human freedom is threatened, while (...)
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  69.  1
    Ciro De Florio, Aldo Frigerio & Georg Gasser (forthcoming). Introduction: Divine Attributes. Topoi:1-4.
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  70.  13
    Jan Degenaar & J. Kevin O’Regan (forthcoming). Sensorimotor Theory and Enactivism. Topoi:1-15.
    The sensorimotor theory of perceptual consciousness offers a form of enactivism in that it stresses patterns of interaction instead of any alleged internal representations of the environment. But how does it relate to forms of enactivism stressing the continuity between life and mind? We shall distinguish sensorimotor enactivism, which stresses perceptual capacities themselves, from autopoietic enactivism, which claims an essential connection between experience and autopoietic processes or associated background capacities. We show how autopoiesis, autonomous agency, and affective dimensions of experience (...)
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  71.  22
    Jérôme Dokic & Jean-Rémy Martin (forthcoming). Felt Reality and the Opacity of Perception. Topoi:1-11.
    We investigate the nature of the sense of presence that usually accompanies perceptual experience. We show that the notion of a sense of presence can be interpreted in two ways, corresponding to the sense that we are acquainted with an object, and the sense that the object is real. In this essay, we focus on the sense of reality. Drawing on several case studies such as derealization disorder, Parkinson’s disease and virtual reality, we argue that the sense of reality is (...)
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  72.  3
    Guy Dove (forthcoming). Redefining Physicalism. Topoi:1-10.
    Philosophers have traditionally treated physicalism as an empirically informed metaphysical thesis. This approach faces a well-known problem often referred to as Hempel’s dilemma: formulations of physicalism tend to be either false or indeterminate. The generally preferred strategy to address this problem involves an appeal to a hypothetical complete and ideal physical theory. After demonstrating that this strategy is not viable, I argue that we should redefine physicalism as an interdisciplinary research program seeking to explain the mental in terms of the (...)
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  73.  37
    Iovan Drehe (forthcoming). Argumentational Virtues and Incontinent Arguers. Topoi:1-10.
    Argumentation virtue theory is a new field in argumentation studies. As in the case of virtue ethics and virtue epistemology, the study of virtue argumentation draws its inspiration from the works of Aristotle. First, I discuss the specifics of the argumentational virtues and suggest that they have an instrumental nature, modeled on the relation between the Aristotelian intellectual virtue of ‘practical wisdom’ and the moral virtues. Then, inspired by Aristotle’s discussion of akrasia, I suggest that a theory of fallacy in (...)
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  74.  26
    Naomi Eilan (forthcoming). Perceptual Objectivity and Consciousness: A Relational Response to Burge’s Challenge. Topoi:1-12.
    My question is: does phenomenal consciousness have a critical role in explaining the way conscious perceptions achieve objective import? I approach it through developing a dilemma I label ‘Burge’s Challenge’, which is implicit in his approach to perceptual objectivity. It says, crudely: either endorse the general structure of his account of how objective perceptual import is achieved, and give up on a role for consciousness. Or, relinquish Caused Representation, and possibly defend a role for consciousness. Someone I call Burge* holds (...)
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  75.  2
    Robert H. Ennis (forthcoming). Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum: A Vision. Topoi:1-20.
    This essay offers a comprehensive vision for a higher education program incorporating critical thinking across the curriculum at hypothetical Alpha College, employing a rigorous detailed conception of critical thinking called “The Alpha Conception of Critical Thinking”. The program starts with a 1-year, required, freshman course, two-thirds of which focuses on a set of general critical thinking dispositions and abilities. The final third uses subject-matter issues to reinforce general critical thinking dispositions and abilities, teach samples of subject matter, and introduce subject-specific (...)
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  76.  7
    Lorne Falkenstein (forthcoming). Reid’s Account of the “Geometry of Visibles”: Some Lessons From Helmholtz. Topoi:1-26.
    Drawing on work done by Helmholtz, I argue that Reid was in no position to infer that objects appear as if projected on the inner surface of a sphere, or that they have the geometric properties of such projections even though they do not look concave towards the eye. A careful consideration of the phenomena of visual experience, as further illuminated by the practice of visual artists, should have led him to conclude that the sides of visible appearances either look (...)
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  77. Saba Fares (forthcoming). La Chronologie des Inscriptions Dédanites Et Lihyânites d'Al-'Ulâ: État de la Question. Topoi.
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  78.  12
    Carlos Fico (forthcoming). Prezada Censura”: cartas ao regime militar. Topoi.
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  79. G. Fink (forthcoming). L'économie et le roi au Levant sud d'apres les sources archéologiques et textuelles'. Topoi.
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  80. Steven Fraiberg (forthcoming). Military Mashups: Remixing Literacy Practices. Topoi.
     
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  81.  6
    Sylvie Gambaudo (forthcoming). The Regulation of Gender in Menopause Theory. Topoi:1-11.
    ‘The regulation of gender in menopause theory’ offers a critical commentary on some key theories of menopause experience. It aims to show that the theorisation of menopause keeps to the same epistemic and ideological lines as hegemonic understandings of gender identity. Narratives of menopause has become one of the means by which one can learn to cite women’s gender correctly. In reverse, relating menopause experience against the grain of established narratives is becoming the means by which one may resist epistemic (...)
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  82. Jean-Claude Gardin (forthcoming). À propos de l'“entité politique bactrienne”. Topoi.
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  83.  9
    José Ángel Gascón (forthcoming). Virtue and Arguers. Topoi:1-10.
    Is a virtue approach in argumentation possible without committing the ad hominem fallacy? My answer is affirmative, provided that the object study of our theory is well delimited. My proposal is that a theory of argumentative virtue should not focus on argument appraisal, as has been assumed, but on those traits that make an individual achieve excellence in argumentative practices. An agent-based approach in argumentation should be developed, not in order to find better grounds for argument appraisal, but to gain (...)
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  84. Jean-Jacques Glassner (forthcoming). „Signes d'écriture et classification: L'exemple des Ovi-Caprinés.“. Topoi.
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  85.  3
    Alvin I. Goldman (forthcoming). Expertise. Topoi:1-8.
    This paper offers a sizeable menu of approaches to what it means to be an expert. Is it a matter of reputation within a community, or a matter of what one knows independently of reputation? An initial proposal characterizes expertise in dispositional terms—an ability to help other people get answers to difficult questions or execute difficult tasks. What cognitive states, however, ground these abilities? Do the grounds consist in “veritistic” states or in terms of evidence or justifiedness? To what extent (...)
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  86. D. Graf (forthcoming). Arabs in Syria: Demography and Epigraphy,”. Topoi.
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  87.  3
    Adam Green (forthcoming). Omnisubjectivity and Incarnation. Topoi:1-9.
    In her 2013 Aquinas lecture and a previous article, Linda Zagzebski argues for a new divine trait, that of omnisubjectivity. In brief, omnisubjectivity is God’s ability to know what it is like for each of God’s creatures to be themselves. This knowledge is not merely propositional but ascribes to God knowledge of the sort that one typically associates with a first-person perspective on the self. Zagzebski’s considered opinion about what grounds omnisubjectivity appears to be that it is grounded in simulations (...)
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  88. Jacqueline Hermann (forthcoming). Dom Sebastião Contra Napoleão: A Guerra Sebástica Contra as Tropas Francesas. Topoi.
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  89. Helen Hodges, Wilfrid Hodges & Johan van Benthem (forthcoming). Logic and Psychology', Guest Issue Of. Topoi.
     
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  90. Michael H. G. Hoffmann (forthcoming). Stimulating Reflection and Self-Correcting Reasoning Through Argument Mapping: Three Approaches. Topoi:1-15.
    A large body of research in cognitive science differentiates human reasoning into two types: fast, intuitive, and emotional “System 1” thinking, and slower, more reflective “System 2” reasoning. According to this research, human reasoning is by default fast and intuitive, but that means that it is prone to error and biases that cloud our judgments and decision making. To improve the quality of reasoning, critical thinking education should develop strategies to slow it down and to become more reflective. The goal (...)
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  91. Od Hoover (forthcoming). Ceci N'est Pas L'Autonomie: The Coinage of Seleucid Phoenicia as Royal and Civic Power Discourse. Topoi.
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  92. A. Houghton (forthcoming). Seleucid Coinage and Monetary Policy of the 2nd C. BC Reflections on the Monetization of the Seleucid Economy. Topoi.
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  93.  5
    Daniel Howard-Snyder (forthcoming). Who or What is God, According to John Hick? Topoi:1-16.
    I summarize John Hick’s pluralistic theory of the world’s great religions, largely in his own voice. I then focus on the core posit of his theory, what he calls “the Real,” but which I less tendentiously call “Godhick”. Godhick is supposed to be the ultimate religious reality. As such, it must be both possible and capable of explanatory and religious significance. Unfortunately, Godhick is, by definition, transcategorial, i.e. necessarily, for any creaturely conceivable substantial property F, it is neither an F (...)
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  94.  2
    Frances Howard-Snyder (forthcoming). Divine Freedom. Topoi:1-6.
    In “Divine Freedom,” I argue that morally significant incompatibilist freedom is a great good. So God possesses morally incompatibilist freedom. So, God can do wrong or at least can do worse than the best action He can do. So, God is not essentially morally perfect. After careful consideration of numerous objections, I conclude that this argument is undefeated.
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  95.  24
    Daniel D. Hutto (forthcoming). Ludwig Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus. Topoi:1-10.
    Readers beware! This book is other than it first seems. Ludwig Wittgenstein’s latest philosophical offering is unlike anything that we have had from him to date. Its preface warns that the Tractatus is no textbook. This is an extreme understatement; really it is a deep puzzle—one that must be handled with great care. As the first lines signal there has been a radical change in the author’s characteristic style. Gone are the ingenious, probing explorations of topics undertaken in his highly (...)
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  96.  9
    Daniel D. Hutto (forthcoming). REC: Revolution Effected by Clarification. Topoi:1-15.
    This paper shows how a radical approach to enactivism provides a way of clarifying and unifying different varieties of enactivism and enactivist-friendly approaches so as to provide a genuine alternative to classical cognitivism. Section 1 reminds readers of the broad church character of the enactivism framework. Section 2 explicates how radical enactivism is best understood not as a kind of enactivism per se but as a programme for radicalizing and consolidating the many different enactivist offerings. The main work of radical (...)
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  97.  31
    Elizabeth Irvine (forthcoming). Explaining What? Topoi:1-12.
    The Hard Problem is surrounded by a vast literature, to which it is increasingly hard to contribute to in any meaningful way. Accordingly, the strategy here is not to offer any new metaphysical or ‘in principle’ arguments in favour of the success of materialism, but to assume a Type Q approach and look to contemporary consciousness science to see how the concept of consciousness fares there, and what kind of explanations we can hope to offer of it. It is suggested (...)
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  98.  19
    Ivan V. Ivanov (forthcoming). Property-Awareness and Representation. Topoi:1-12.
    Is property-awareness constituted by representation or not? If it were, merely being aware of the qualities of physical objects would involve being in a representational state. This would have considerable implications for a prominent view of the nature of successful perceptual experiences. According to naïve realism, any such experience—or more specifically its character—is fundamentally a relation of awareness to concrete items in the environment. Naïve realists take their view to be a genuine alternative to representationalism, the view on which the (...)
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  99. Vitor Izecksohn (forthcoming). Deportação ou integração. Os dilemas negros de Lincoln1. Topoi.
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  100.  15
    Jeppe Sinding Jensen (forthcoming). How Institutions Work in Shared Intentionality and ‘We-Mode’ Social Cognition. Topoi:1-12.
    The topics of social ontology, culture, and institutions constitute a problem complex that involves a broad range of human social and cultural cognitive capacities. We-mode social cognition and shared intentionality appear to be crucial in the formation of social ontology and social institutions, which, in turn, provide the bases for the social manifestation of collective and shared psychological attitudes. Humans have ‘hybrid minds’ that inhabit cultural–cognitive ecosystems. Essentially, these consist of social institutions and distributed cognition that afford the common grounds (...)
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  101.  5
    Jari Kaukua (forthcoming). Avicenna on Negative Judgement. Topoi:1-10.
    Avicenna’s logical theory of negative judgement can be seen as a systematic development of the insights Aristotle had laid out in the De interpretatione. However, in order to grasp the full extent of his theory one must extend the examination from the logical works to the metaphysical and psychological bases of negative judgement. Avicenna himself often refrains from the explicit treatment of the connections between logic and metaphysics or psychology, or treats them in a rather oblique fashion. Time and again (...)
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  102. Jean Kellens (forthcoming). Les achéménides dans le contexte indo-iranien». Topoi.
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  103.  8
    Katarzyna Kijania-Placek (forthcoming). Descriptive Indexicals and Epistemic Modality. Topoi:1-10.
    In this paper I argue for a non-referential interpretation of some uses of indexicals embedded under epistemic modals. The so-called descriptive uses of indexicals come in several types and it is argued that those embedded within the scope of modal operators do not require non-referential interpretation, provided the modality is interpreted as epistemic. I endeavor to show that even if we allow an epistemic interpretation of modalities, the resulting interpretation will still be inadequate as long as we retain a referential (...)
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  104.  13
    Jan Koenderink (forthcoming). “Towards a New Theory of Vision” Revisited. Topoi:1-11.
    I consider the geometrical structure of the apparent visual field. Although the optics of vision is well understood, the nature of visual awareness remains largely in the dark. A famous attempt at a formal description of the apparent visual field was by Helmholtz, in the late nineteenth century. It purportedly explains the phenomenon of the subjective curvatures often reported when viewing objectively straight lines of great extent. I consider the general problem, and suggest an alternative formal account. On phenomenological grounds (...)
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  105. Hendrik Kraay (forthcoming). Definindo Nação E Estado: Rituais Cívicos Na Bahia Pós-Independência (1823-1850). Topoi.
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  106.  5
    Deanna Kuhn (forthcoming). A Role for Reasoning in a Dialogic Approach to Critical Thinking. Topoi:1-8.
    We note the development of the widely employed but loosely defined construct of critical thinking from its earliest instantiations as a measure of individual ability to its current status, marked by efforts to better connect the construct to the socially-situated thinking demands of real life. Inquiry and argument are identified as key dimensions in a process-based account of critical thinking. Argument is identified as a social practice, rather than a strictly individual competency. Yet, new empirical evidence is presented documenting a (...)
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  107.  3
    Julia Langkau (forthcoming). Metaphilosophy and the Role of Intuitions. Topoi:1-9.
    The practice of appealing to intuitions as evidence has recently been criticized by experimental philosophers. While some traditional philosophers defend intuitions as a trustworthy source of evidence, others try to undermine the challenge this criticism poses to philosophical methodology. This paper argues that some recent attempts to undermine the challenge from experimental philosophy fail. It concludes that the metaphilosophical question whether intuitions play a role in philosophy cannot be decided by analyzing our use of the word ‘intuition’ or related terms, (...)
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  108. Robin Law (forthcoming). A Carreira de Francisco Félix de Souza Na África Ocidental (1800-1849). Topoi.
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  109.  7
    Marcin Lewiński (forthcoming). Argumentative Discussion: The Rationality of What? Topoi:1-14.
    Most dialectical models view argumentation as a process of critically testing a standpoint. Further, they assume that what we critically test can be analytically reduced to individual and bi-polar standpoints. I argue that these two assumptions lead to the dominant view of dialectics as a bi-partisan argumentative discussion in which the yes-side argues against the doubter or the no-side. I scrutinise this binary orientation in understanding argumentation by drawing on the main tenets of normative pragmatic and pragma-dialectical theories of argumentation. (...)
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  110.  5
    Lis Lindeman & Gregory O. Smith (forthcoming). Literature and Digital Illumination. Topoi.
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  111. A. López Eire (forthcoming). Retórica escrita y Epistolografía en la obra de Libanio. Topoi.
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  112.  11
    Peter Ludlow (forthcoming). Incorporation and Alleged Epistemic Modals. Topoi:1-5.
    Part of what makes working with modals such a tricky business is that apparent modal forms are deployed in all sorts of ways in language. In this paper I explore an interesting example of an apparent modal—the Blofeld case—which was introduced by Gilles and von Fintel as part of their argument against context of assessment accounts of epistemic modals. I argue that the example is subtle, and that the apparent modal may not be an epistemic modal at all—it could be (...)
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  113. Mc Marcellesi (forthcoming). Milet et les Séleucides, aspects économiques de l'évergétisme royal. Topoi.
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  114.  9
    James A. Marcum (forthcoming). Clinical Decision-Making, Gender Bias, Virtue Epistemology, and Quality Healthcare. Topoi:1-8.
    Robust clinical decision-making depends on valid reasoning and sound judgment and is essential for delivering quality healthcare. It is often susceptible, however, to a clinician’s biases such as towards a patient’s age, gender, race, or socioeconomic status. Gender bias in particular has a deleterious impact, which frequently results in cognitive myopia so that a clinician is unable to make an accurate diagnosis because of a patient’s gender—especially for female patients. Virtue epistemology provides a means for confronting gender bias in clinical (...)
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  115.  6
    M. G. F. Martin (forthcoming). Elusive Objects. Topoi:1-25.
    Do we directly perceive physical objects? What is the significance of the qualification ‘directly’ here? Austin famously denied that there was a unique interpretation by which we could make sense of the traditional debate in the philosophy of perception. I look here at Thompson Clarke’s discussion of G. E. Moore and surface perception to answer Austin’s scepticism.
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  116. L. Martinez-Seye (forthcoming). La fiscalité séleucide: bilan et perspectives de recherche. Topoi.
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  117.  9
    Hannes Ole Matthiessen (forthcoming). Introduction: The Geometry of the Visual Field—Early Modern and Contemporary Approaches. Topoi:1-3.
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  118. J. Maucourant (forthcoming). Le néoinstitutionnalisme tardif et l'histoire économique. Topoi.
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  119. Tom McClelland (forthcoming). The Problem of Consciousness: Easy, Hard or Tricky? Topoi:1-14.
    Phenomenal consciousness presents a distinctive explanatory problem. Some regard this problem as ‘hard’, which has troubling implications for the science and metaphysics of consciousness. Some regard it as ‘easy’, which ignores the special explanatory difficulties that consciousness offers. Others are unable to decide between these two uncomfortable positions. All three camps assume that the problem of consciousness is either easy or hard. I argue against this disjunction and suggest that the problem may be ‘tricky’—that is, partly easy and partly hard. (...)
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  120.  5
    Leah McClimans (forthcoming). Place of Birth: Ethics and Evidence. Topoi:1-8.
    In the US and UK Births in obstetric units vastly outnumber births that take place outside of an obstetric unit. Still non-obstetric births are increasing in both countries. Is it professionally responsible to support a non-obstetric birth? It is morally responsible to choose to give birth at home? This debate has become heated with those on both sides finding empirical support for their positions. Indeed this moral debate is often carried out in terms of empirical evidence. While to some this (...)
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  121.  2
    Andrew Melnyk (forthcoming). In Defense of a Realization Formulation of Physicalism. Topoi:1-11.
    In earlier work, I proposed and defended a formulation of physicalism that was distinctive in appealing to a carefully-defined relation of physical realization. Various philosophers have since presented challenges to this formulation. In the present paper, I aim to show that these challenges can be overcome.
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  122. Leopold Migeotte (forthcoming). La situation fiscale des cités grecques dans le royaume séleucide. Topoi.
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  123.  5
    Derek N. Mueller (forthcoming). Views From a Distance: A Nephological Model of the CCCC Chairs' Addresses, 1977-2011. Topoi.
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  124.  11
    Michael Neal, Katherine Bridgman & Stephen J. McElroy (forthcoming). Making Meaning at the Intersections: Developing a Digital Archive for Multimodal Research. Topoi.
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  125.  80
    Joseph Neisser (forthcoming). What Subjectivity Is Not. Topoi:1-13.
    An influential thesis in contemporary philosophy of mind is that subjectivity is best conceived as inner awareness of qualia. (Purple Haze: The Puzzle of Consciousness. Oxford University Press, London, 2001) has argued that this unique subjective awareness generates a paradox which resists empirical explanation. On account of this “paradox of subjective duality,” Levine concludes that the hardest part of the hard problem of consciousness is to explain how anything like a subjective point of view could arise in the world. Against (...)
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  126.  4
    Graham Oppy (forthcoming). Divine Causation. Topoi:1-10.
    This paper compares the doxastic credentials of the claim that nothing comes from nothing with the doxastic credentials of the claim that there is no causing without changing. I argue that comparison of these two claims supports my contention that considerations about causation do nothing to make theism more attractive than naturalism.
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  127. Francesco Orilia (forthcoming). Identity Across Frames. Topoi.
     
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  128.  12
    Michael O’Sullivan (forthcoming). Number and Illusion: Representation and Numerosity Perception. Topoi:1-8.
    It has been claimed that empirical work in psychology requires the attribution of representational content to perceptual states: that is, the attribution of veridicality conditions to those states. This is a claim that can only be evaluated by the examination of actual empirical research. In this paper I argue that talk of ‘representation’ in at least one area of research in the psychology of perception can be reinterpreted so as to avoid the attribution of veridicality conditions. This area is the (...)
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  129.  16
    Michael Pauen (forthcoming). The Functional Mapping Hypothesis. Topoi:1-12.
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  130.  10
    Michele Prandi (forthcoming). Selection Restrictions as Ultimate Presuppositions of Natural Ontology. Topoi:1-9.
    The combinatory restriction known in linguistics as ‘selection restrictions’ are generally assumed to be a kind of linguistic structures, either syntactic or semantic, or at best cognitive structures. The idea discussed in this paper is that selection restrictions, although relevant for the description of complex meanings of linguistic expressions, do not belong to the structure of either language or cognition in any reasonable sense. Instead, they are criteria for conceptual consistency. They form a layer of shared presuppositions that lie at (...)
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  131.  72
    Giuseppe Primiero & Laszlo Kosolosky (forthcoming). The Semantics of Untrustworthiness. Topoi:1-14.
    We offer a formal treatment of the semantics of both complete and incomplete mistrustful or distrustful information transmissions. The semantics of such relations is analysed in view of rules that define the behaviour of a receiving agent. We justify this approach in view of human agent communications and secure system design. We further specify some properties of such relations.
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  132.  19
    Katrina Przyjemski (forthcoming). Strong Epistemic Possibility and Evidentiality. Topoi:1-13.
    The paper distinguishes between weak and strong epistemic possibility and argues that the notion of strong epistemic possibility is the key to solving some of the most vexing puzzles about the semantics of epistemic modality.
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  133. Christian Quast (forthcoming). Expertise: A Practical Explication. Topoi:1-17.
    In this paper I will introduce a practical explication for the notion of expertise. At first, I motivate this attempt by taking a look on recent debates which display great disagreement about whether and how to define expertise in the first place. After that I will introduce the methodology of practical explications in the spirit of Edward Craig’s Knowledge and the state of nature along with some conditions of adequacy taken from ordinary and scientific language. This eventually culminates in the (...)
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  134. Dominic Rathbone (forthcoming). Economic Rationalism and the Heroninos Archive. Topoi.
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  135.  5
    Jan Retsö (forthcoming). The Concept of Ethnicity, Nationality and the Study of Ancient History. Topoi.
  136.  4
    J. Brendan Ritchie (forthcoming). The Zombie Attack, Perry’s Parry, and a Riposte: A Slight Softening of the “Hard Problem” of Consciousness. Topoi:1-11.
    The “hard problem” of consciousness is a challenge for explanations of the nature of our phenomenal experiences. Chalmers has claimed that physicalist solutions to the challenge are ill-suited due, in part, to the zombie argument against physicalism. Perry has suggested that the zombie argument begs the question against the physicalist, and presents no relevant threat to the view. Although seldom discussed in the literature, I show there is defensive merit to Perry’s “parry” of the zombie attack. The success of the (...)
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  137.  9
    William S. Robinson (forthcoming). Red is the Hardest Problem. Topoi:1-12.
    Philip Pettit has advocated a “looks as powers” theory (LAPT) as an alternative to theories that rely on instances of qualia in their account of looking red. Andy Clark has offered a similar view. If these accounts are successful, the Hard Problem (HP) is moribund. This paper asks how red (assumed to be typical of sensory qualities) comes into cases of something’s looking red to someone. A likely suggestion leads to a conundrum for LAPT: the physical complexity that it attributes (...)
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  138. Margaret Cool Root (forthcoming). Cultural Pluralisms on the Persepolis Fortification Tablets. Topoi.
     
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  139.  2
    William H. Rosar (forthcoming). The Dimensionality of Visual Space. Topoi:1-40.
    The empirical study of visual space has centered on determining its geometry, whether it is a perspective projection, flat or curved, Euclidean or non-Euclidean, whereas the topology of space consists of those properties that remain invariant under stretching but not tearing. For that reason distance is a property not preserved in topological space whereas the property of spatial order is preserved. Specifically the topological properties of dimensionality, orientability, continuity, and connectivity define “real” space as studied by physics and are the (...)
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  140. S. Rubinelli (forthcoming). The Ancient Argumentative Game. Topoi.
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  141.  7
    Clarence Burton Sheffield (forthcoming). Promoting Critical Thinking in Higher Education: My Experiences as the Inaugural Eugene H. Fram Chair in Applied Critical Thinking at Rochester Institute of Technology. Topoi:1-9.
    From 2012 to 2015 I was the first Eugene H. Fram Chair in Applied Critical Thinking at Rochester Institute of Technology, in Rochester, NY. To the best of my knowledge it is the only such endowed position devoted solely to this at a major North American university. It was made possible by a generous 3 million dollar gift from an anonymous alumnus who wished to honor a retired faculty member who had taught for 51 years. The honoree was revered for (...)
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  142. G. Sintes (forthcoming). Les paysages thasiens à l'arrivée des Pariens: Hypothèses sur les premières modifications. Topoi.
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  143.  4
    Jeff Speaks (forthcoming). Permissible Tinkering with the Concept of God. Topoi:1-11.
    In response to arguments against the existence of God, and in response to perceived conflicts between divine attributes, theists often face pressure to give up some pretheoretically attractive thesis about the divine attributes. One wonders: when does this unacceptably water down our concept of God, and when is it, as van Inwagen says, ‘permissible tinkering’ with the concept of God? A natural and widely deployed answer is that it is permissible tinkering iff it is does not violate the claim that (...)
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  144.  12
    Benjamin Spector (forthcoming). Multivalent Semantics for Vagueness and Presupposition. Topoi:1-11.
    Both the phenomenon of presupposition and that of vagueness have motivated the use of one form or another of trivalent logic, in which a declarative sentence can not only receive the standard values true and false , but also a third, non-standard truth-value which is usually understood as ‘undefined’ . The goal of this paper is to propose a multivalent framework which can deal simultaneously with presupposition and vagueness, and, more specifically, capture their projection properties as well as their different (...)
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  145.  19
    Katharina Stevens (forthcoming). The Virtuous Arguer: One Person, Four Roles. Topoi:1-9.
    When evaluating the arguer instead of the argument, we soon find ourselves confronted with a puzzling situation: what seems to be a virtue in one argumentative situation could very well be called a vice in another. This paper will present the idea that there are in fact two sets of virtues an arguer has to master—and with them four sometimes very different roles.
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  146.  1
    Francesco Suman (forthcoming). An Updated Evolutionary Research Programme for the Evolution of Language. Topoi:1-9.
    Language evolution, intended as an open problem in the evolutionary research programme, will be here analyzed from the theoretical perspective advanced by the supporters of the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis. Four factors and two associated concepts will be matched with a selection of critical examples concerning genus Homo evolution, relevant for the evolution of language, such as the evolution of hominin life-history traits, the enlargement of the social group, increased cooperation among individuals, behavioral change and innovations, heterochronic modifications leading to increased (...)
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  147.  6
    Richard Swinburne (forthcoming). Causation, Time, and God’s Omniscience. Topoi:1-10.
    The cause of an event must continue over a period at which the effect is not occurring and the whole period at which it is occurring. It follows that simultaneous causation and backward causation are metaphysically impossible. I distinguish among events said to occur at a time, ‘hard’ events which really occur solely at that time and ‘soft’ events which occur partly at another time. God’s beliefs at a time are hard events at that time. It follows that if God (...)
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  148.  10
    Mariarosaria Taddeo (forthcoming). Just Information Warfare. Topoi:1-12.
    In this article I propose an ethical analysis of information warfare, the warfare waged in the cyber domain. The goal is twofold: filling the theoretical vacuum surrounding this phenomenon and providing the conceptual grounding for the definition of new ethical regulations for information warfare. I argue that Just War Theory is a necessary but not sufficient instrument for considering the ethical implications of information warfare and that a suitable ethical analysis of this kind of warfare is developed when Just War (...)
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  149.  2
    Gabor Tahin (forthcoming). Cicero on Pompey’s Command: Heuristic Rhetoric and Teaching the Art of Strategic Reasoning. Topoi:1-12.
    Through the example of a paradigmatic deliberative speech from classical oratory, the paper addresses two fundamental questions of teaching rhetorical reasoning. First, the paper shows that a speech from ancient Greek and Roman political or judicial oratory could provide effective means to teach a variety of argumentation skills, the recognition of fallacies and an awareness of biases in the target audience. Second, the paper uses the speech to consider an elusive problem of rhetorical or critical reasoning instruction, namely how students (...)
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  150.  8
    Ian Tattersall (forthcoming). Language Origins: An Evolutionary Framework. Topoi:1-8.
    Opinions have varied wildly as to whether the roots of language run extremely deep in the human lineage, or, alternatively, whether this unprecedented capacity is a recent acquisition. The question has been exacerbated by the fact that language itself does not preserve, so that its possession by earlier hominids has had to be inferred from indirect material proxies. Here I argue that while most technological putative proxies from the Paleolithic are certainly evidence of highly complex cognitive states among our precursors, (...)
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  151.  8
    Juli K. Thorson (forthcoming). Thick, Thin, and Becoming a Virtuous Arguer. Topoi:1-8.
    A virtue account is focused on the character of those who argue. It is frequently assumed, however, that virtues are not action guiding, since they describe how to be and so fail to give us specific actions to take in a sticky situation. In terms of argumentation, we might say that being a charitable arguer is virtuous, but knowing so provides no details about how to argue successfully. To close this gap, I develop a parallel with the thick-thin distinction from (...)
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  152.  4
    Jeremy Tirrell (forthcoming). A Geographical History of Online Rhetoric and Composition Journals. Topoi.
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  153.  26
    Charles Travis (forthcoming). Deliverances. Topoi:1-18.
    What makes a veil of perception? Is it merely would-be objects of perceptual awareness, extraneous to the ‘environmental realities’ of which we judge? Or is it merely the presence of something extraneous along the route from perceptual awareness to awareness that our environment is thus and so? In his Mark Sacks lecture John McDowell seems to suppose something like the first answer. This essay argues for the second, thus that he himself imposes such a veil.
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  154. Edoardo Lombardi Vallauri & Viviana Masia (forthcoming). Facilitating Automation in Sentence Processing: The Emergence of Topic and Presupposition in Human Communication. Topoi:1-12.
    Human attention is limited in its capacity and duration. In language, this is manifested in many ways, but more conspicuously in the strategies by which information is distributed in utterances, that is, their information structures. We contend that the pragmatic categories of Topic and Presupposition precisely meet the necessity to modulate attentional resources on sentence contents, and they do this by “directing” certain contents to automatic and others to controlled processing mechanisms. We discuss experimental findings suggesting that presupposed or topicalized (...)
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  155. R. J. Van der Spek (forthcoming). Palace, Temple and Market in Seleucid Babylonia. Topoi.
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  156. Victor Vitanza, Virginia Kuhn, Robert Leston, Justin Hodgson, Jason Helms, Geoffrey V. Carter, Sarah J. Arroyo & Bahareh Alaei (forthcoming). MoMLA: From Gallery to Webtext. Topoi.
     
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  157.  8
    Michael Vlerick (forthcoming). Explaining Universal Social Institutions: A Game-Theoretic Approach. Topoi:1-10.
    Universal social institutions, such as marriage, commons management and property, have emerged independently in radically different cultures. This requires explanation. As Boyer and Petersen point out ‘in a purely localist framework would have to constitute massively improbable coincidences’ . According to Boyer and Petersen, those institutions emerged naturally out of genetically wired behavioural dispositions, such as marriage out of mating strategies and borders out of territorial behaviour. While I agree with Boyer and Petersen that ‘unnatural’ institutions cannot thrive, this one-sided (...)
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  158.  8
    Mark Wagner & Anthony J. Gambino (forthcoming). Variations in the Anisotropy and Affine Structure of Visual Space: A Geometry of Visibles with a Third Dimension. Topoi:1-16.
    A meta-analysis and an experiment show that the degree of compression of the in-depth dimension of visual space relative to the frontal dimension increases quickly as a function of the distance between the stimulus and the observer at first, but the rate of change slows beyond 7 m from the observer, reaching an apparent asymptote of about 50 %. In addition, the compression of visual space is greater for monocular and reduced cue conditions. The pattern of compression of the in-depth (...)
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  159. Mark Wagner & Anthony J. Gambino (forthcoming). Erratum To: Variations in the Anisotropy and Affine Structure of Visual Space: A Geometry of Visibles with a Third Dimension. Topoi:1-1.
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  160. Rebecca Walton (forthcoming). Bridges & Barriers to Development: Communication Modes, Media, and Devices. Topoi.
     
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  161. Ch E. Watanabe & D. Parayre (forthcoming). The Lion Metaphor in the Mesopotamian Royal Context. Topoi.
     
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  162.  6
    Robert Watkins (forthcoming). Words Are the Ultimate Abstraction. Topoi.
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  163.  8
    Gerald Westheimer (forthcoming). Idomenian Vision: The Empirical Basis of Thomas Reid’s Geometry of Visibles. Topoi:1-5.
    Thomas Reid claims to have learned of Idomenians, “an order of beings” in “sublunary regions” whose visual system is very much like ours except that they could detect only the direction of rays reaching their eyes, not the distance of origin. The properties of Idomenian vision are here examined in the light of the physiological optics of Reid’s time and of the scientific developments that have since augmented our knowledge of the discipline.
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  164.  16
    Michael Wheeler (forthcoming). The Revolution Will Not Be Optimised: Radical Enactivism, Extended Functionalism and the Extensive Mind. Topoi:1-16.
    Optimising the 4E revolution in cognitive science arguably requires the rejection of two guiding commitments made by orthodox thinking in the field, namely that the material realisers of cognitive states and processes are located entirely inside the head, and that intelligent thought and action are to be explained in terms of the building and manipulation of content-bearing representations. In other words, the full-strength 4E revolution would be secured only by a position that delivered externalism plus antirepresentationalism. I argue that one (...)
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  165. B. Wilkens (forthcoming). Archaeozoology. Westwards: The Fauna of Tell Afis (Syria). Topoi.
     
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  166.  21
    Thomas Williams (forthcoming). Anselm's Proslogion. Topoi:1-4.
    Up to this point, Anselm has been known for two quite different kinds of work: his devotional writings, which aim to move and inspire the reader and are marked by an ornate style that relies heavily on alliteration and antitheses and suchlike ornaments, and his Monologion, a work of what has come to be known as analytic theology, written in straightforward, unadorned, philosophical prose that aspires only to clarity and precision. In his new work, Proslogion, Anselm attempts to combine the (...)
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  167.  1
    D. Gene Witmer (forthcoming). Physicality for Physicalists. Topoi:1-16.
    How should the “physical” in “physicalism” be understood? I here set out systematic criteria of adequacy, propose an account, and show how the account meets those criteria. The criteria of adequacy focus on the idea of rational management: to vindicate philosophical practice, the account must make it plausible that we can assess various questions about physicalism. The account on offer is dubbed the “Ideal Naturalist Physics” account, according to which the physical is that which appears in an ideal theory that (...)
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  168.  7
    Melanie Yergeau, Kathryn Wozniak & Peter Vandenberg (forthcoming). Expanding the Space of F2f: Writing Centers and Audio-Visual-Textual Conferencing. Topoi.
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  169. Frank Zenker (forthcoming). Introduction: Reasoning, Argumentation, and Critical Thinking Instruction. Topoi:1-2.
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  170.  5
    Natalia Żyluk, Karolina Karpe, Mikołaj Michta, Weronika Potok, Katarzyna Paluszkiewicz & Mariusz Urbański (forthcoming). Assessing Levels of Epistemological Understanding: The Standardized Epistemological Understanding Assessment. Topoi:1-13.
    This article describes the process of modification and Polish adaptation of an instrument constructed to assess the level of epistemological understanding. The original tool was developed by Kuhn et al. in order to account for transitions between, and coordination of, subjective and objective dimensions of knowing across different judgement domains. Our aim was to improve its psychometric properties. The main changes included extending the list of test items, a new administration procedure and the introduction of a quantitative scoring method. The (...)
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