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  1. Pamela Andanda & Sandra Govender (2015). Regulation of Biobanks in South Africa. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):787-800.
    The availability of biological samples and data is critical for the establishment of biobanks for health research purposes. Such availability should be ensured in accordance with relevant national legislation and ethical principles. In this article, we consider the extent to which the current legal and ethical regulatory frameworks in South Africa are capable of governing the use of stored biological samples in a manner that facilitates health research while at the same time protecting the interests of sample donors. These two (...)
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  2. Don Chalmers (2015). Biobanking and Privacy Laws in Australia. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):703-713.
    Australian biobanks are largely autonomous and funded by local health care institutions, although some biobanks also receive funding from the National Health and Medical Research Council. There is no formal biobank legislation, but the NHMRC has developed biobanking guidelines. The regulation of biobanks is mainly through privacy laws and human research ethics committees. Australia is moving toward the use of broad consent for biobanking. International data sharing is permitted.
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  3.  1
    Haidan Chen, Benny Chan & Yann Joly (2015). Privacy and Biobanking in China: A Case of Policy in Transition. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):726-742.
    Disease-based biobanks have operated in hospitals and research institutes in China for decades, and China has recently embarked on a plan to establish further biobank networks with the aim of promoting data sharing among the existing biobanks. Although the Chinese Constitution has only recently begun to recognize individual privacy as a distinct and independent constitutional right, biobanking in China has been loosely regulated under a patchwork of sometimes overlapping laws and regulatory instruments, as well as and the policies of individual (...)
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  4. Sueli Gandolfi Dallari, Felipe Angel Bocchi Castellaro & Iara Coelho Zito Guerriero (2015). Biobanking and Privacy Law in Brazil. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):714-725.
    This article analyzes the current regulatory framework for biobanking, genomic research, and protection of privacy in Brazil. It is divided in four parts. The first describes the biobanking context in Brazil and its evolution in recent years. In the second, the entire regulatory framework on biobanking and genomic research is analyzed. The third part focuses on the critical evaluation of this regulatory framework, specifically on some major ethical dilemmas in biobanking. The fourth part describes the characteristics of the Brazilian biobanking (...)
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  5.  1
    Edward S. Dove (2015). Biobanks, Data Sharing, and the Drive for a Global Privacy Governance Framework. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):675-689.
    Biobanks are a key emerging biomedical research infrastructure. They manifest the turn towards greater global sharing of genomic and health-related data, which is considered by many to be an ethical and scientific imperative. Our collective interests lie in improving the health and welfare of individuals, communities, and populations; improving health and welfare requires access to, and use of, widely dispersed quality data. But sharing these individual and familial data requires in turn that due thought be given to the ethical and (...)
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  6. Chien‐Te Fan, Tzu‐Hsun Hung & Chan‐Kun Yeh (2015). Taiwan Regulation of Biobanks. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):816-826.
    This paper introduces legal framework and governance structure in relation to the management and development of biobanks in Taiwan. At first, we briefly describe Taiwan's population, political system and health care system. Secondly, this research introduces biobanking framework of Taiwan including 25 biobanks established with the approval of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In those biobanks, “Taiwan Biobank” is the first and the largest government-supported biobank which comprises population-based cohort study and disease- oriented study. Since the collection of information, (...)
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  7.  1
    Mette Hartlev (2015). Genomic Databases and Biobanks in Denmark. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):743-753.
    Biobanking in Denmark is regulated via patients' rights laws, data protection laws, and research ethics reviews. Danish law recognizes tissue samples as personal data for purposes of the data protection laws, meaning research with tissue samples may be subject to research ethics review, data protection laws, and patients' rights requirements depending on the circumstances of collection. However, research on information gained through whole genome sequencing is subject only to data protection laws, despite the similarity in the nature of the information. (...)
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  8. James G. Hodge, Kim Weidenaar, Andy Baker‐White, Leila Barraza, Brittney Crock Bauerly, Alicia Corbett, Corey Davis, Leslie T. Frey, Megan M. Griest, Colleen Healy, Jill Krueger, Kerri McGowan Lowrey & William Tilburg (2015). Legal Innovations to Advance a Culture of Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):904-912.
    As conceptualized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and its partners, a culture of health centers on a society in which health flourishes across all populations and sectors. Law, among other tools, is critical to advancing a culture of health across multiple arenas. In this manuscript, Network for Public Health Law colleagues illustrate how legal innovations at all levels of government contribute to societal health. Examples include modern laws that promote healthy and safe low-income housing, telemedicine reimbursement, paid sick and (...)
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  9. Tamara Lange, Michael Hoefges & Kurt M. Ribisl (2015). Regulating Tobacco Product Advertising and Promotions in the Retail Environment: A Roadmap for States and Localities. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):878-896.
    Recent amendments to federal law and a burgeoning body of research have intensified public health officials' interest in reducing youth initiation of tobacco use, including by regulating the time, place, or manner of tobacco product advertising at the point of sale. This article analyzes legal obstacles to various strategies for reducing youth initiation.
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  10. Haavi Morreim (2015). Conflict Resolution in the Clinical Setting: A Story Beyond Bioethics Mediation. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):843-856.
    Because ethics consults are often more about conflict than moral puzzlement, the skills of conflict resolution and communication facilitation are now deemed a core competency for ethics consultants. Those skills range beyond the traditional ambit of “bioethics mediation,” as illustrated here by a recent mediation regarding a difficult discharge. As conflict permeates healthcare, often spawning downstream ethical issues, conflict resolution services might be deemed a genre of preventive ethics suitably offered by ethics committees. If so, a strong distinction must be (...)
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  11. Pilar Nicolás (2015). Spanish Regulation of Biobanks. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):801-815.
    The Spanish legal framework for the processing of samples and data with biomedical research purposes has sought to encourage scientific research, protect the right to freedom of research, and guarantee the interests of donors. The pillars of this legal framework are firstly, the duty to inform the donor in order to ensure that he or she is aware of the importance and the consequences of the donation; secondly, the control by ethics committees ; and third, the supplementary application of the (...)
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  12. Obiajulu Nnamuchi (2015). Biobank/Genomic Research in Nigeria: Examining Relevant Privacy and Confidentiality Frameworks. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):776-786.
    Nigeria's commitment to genomic research and biobanking is beyond dispute. Proof, if there is need for one, is that the country is one of only six nations involved in the International HapMap Project. The HapMap Project is an innovative enterprise aimed at developing a haplotype map of the human genome, a tool that is helpful to studying the genetic basis of disease as well as the genetic or hereditary factors that contribute to variation in response to environmental factors, in susceptibility (...)
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  13. Anya E. R. Prince, John M. Conley, Arlene M. Davis, Gabriel Lázaro‐Muñoz & R. Jean Cadigan (2015). Automatic Placement of Genomic Research Results in Medical Records: Do Researchers Have a Duty? Should Participants Have a Choice? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):827-842.
    In genomics research, it is becoming common practice to return individualized primary and incidental findings to participants and several ongoing major studies have begun to automatically transfer these results to a participant's clinical medical record. This paper explores who should decide whether to place genomic research findings into a clinical medical record. Should participants make this decision, or does a researcher's duty to place this information in a medical record override the participant's autonomy? We argue that there are no clear (...)
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  14. Emmanuelle Rial‐Sebbag & Anna Pigeon (2015). Regulation of Biobanks in France. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):754-765.
    The privacy of biobank research participants in France is protected by a combination of bioethics laws, research laws, and data protection laws. Although the law has attempted to facilitate research by creating an opt-out regime for research with pre-existing samples, other aspects of the law hinder research. The requirement for multiple consents throughout the process of biobank sample collection and use, the lack of acceptance of a broad consent for biobanking, and genetic exceptionalism in the law all complicate biobank research. (...)
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  15. Philip M. Rosoff & Kelly M. Leong (2015). An Ethical and Legal Framework for Physicians as Surrogate Decision‐Makers for Their Patients. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):857-877.
    In Western industrialized countries, it is well established that legally competent individuals may choose a surrogate healthcare decision-maker to represent their interests should they lose the capacity to do so themselves. There are few limitations on who they may select to fulfill this function. However, many jurisdictions place restrictions on or prohibit the patient's attending physician or other provider involved with an individual's care to serve in this role. Several authors have previously suggested that respect for the autonomy of patients (...)
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  16. Mark A. Rothstein & Bartha Maria Knoppers (2015). INTRODUCTION: Harmonizing Privacy Laws to Enable International Biobank Research. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):673-674.
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  17. Mark A. Rothstein, John T. Wilbanks & Kyle B. Brothers (2015). Citizen Science on Your Smartphone: An ELSI Research Agenda. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):897-903.
    The prospect of newly-emerging, technology-enabled, unregulated citizen science health research poses a substantial challenge for traditional research ethics. Unquestionably, a significant amount of research ethics study is needed to prepare for the inevitable, widespread introduction of citizen science health research. Using the case study of mobile health research, this article provides an ethical, legal, and social implications research agenda for citizen science health research conducted outside conventional research institutions. The issues for detailed analysis include the role of IRBs, recruitment, inclusion (...)
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  18. Gil Siegal (2015). Genomic Databases and Biobanks in Israel. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):766-775.
    Large-scale biobanks represents an important scientific and medical as well as a commercial opportunity. However, realizing these and other prospects requires social, legal, and regulatory conducive climate, as well as a capable scientific community and adequate infrastructure. Israel has been grappling with the appropriate approach to establishing such a repository, and debates over the governance, structure, finance, and mode of operation shed a bright light on the underlying social norms, civic engagement and scientific clout in steering a governmental response to (...)
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  19.  4
    Adrian Thorogood & Ma'N. H. Zawati (2015). International Guidelines for Privacy in Genomic Biobanking. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (4):690-702.
    This article reviews international privacy norms governing human genomic biobanks and databases, and how they address issues related to consent, secondary use, de- identification, access, security, and governance. A range of international instruments were identified, varying in substance — e.g., human rights, data protection, research ethics, biobanks, and genetics — and legal character. Some norms detail processes for broad consent, namely, that even where potential participants cannot consent to specific users and uses, they should be given clear information on access (...)
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  20. Laura M. Amendola, Martha Horike‐Pyne, Susan B. Trinidad, Stephanie M. Fullerton, Barbara J. Evans, Wylie Burke & Gail P. Jarvik (2015). Patients' Choices for Return of Exome Sequencing Results to Relatives in the Event of Their Death. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):476-485.
    The informed consent process for genetic testing does not commonly address preferences regarding disclosure of results in the event of the patient's death. Adults being tested for familial colorectal cancer were asked whether they want their exome sequencing results disclosed to another person in the event of their death prior to receiving the results. Of 78 participants, 92% designated an individual and 8% declined to. Further research will help refine practices for informed consent.
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  21. Laura M. Beskow & P. Pearl O'Rourke (2015). Return of Genetic Research Results to Participants and Families: IRB Perspectives and Roles. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):502-513.
    We surveyed IRB chairs' perspectives on offering individual genetic research results to participants and families, including family members of deceased participants, and the IRB's role in addressing these issues. Given a particular hypothetical scenario, respondents favored offering results to participants but not family members, giving choices at the time of initial consent, and honoring elicited choices. They felt IRBs should have authority regarding the process issues, but a more limited role in medical and scientific issues.
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  22.  1
    Stan L. Block (2015). The Pediatrician's Dilemma: Refusing the Refusers of Infant Vaccines. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):648-653.
    Dealing with the continuously increasing rates of families wanting to either significantly delay or completely postpone their infant's vaccines has created an alarmingly untenable dilemma for the general pediatricians dealing with these families on a daily basis. Pediatricians must decide whether to continue to provide substandard care by foregoing many or most of the infant's highly recommended protective vaccines, or whether to dismiss from the practice the family who refuses vaccines. Much has been written about why they should retain these (...)
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  23.  1
    Rebecca Branum & Susan M. Wolf (2015). International Policies on Sharing Genomic Research Results with Relatives: Approaches to Balancing Privacy with Access. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):576-593.
    Returning genetic research results to relatives raises complex issues. In order to inform the U.S. debate, this paper analyzes international law and policies governing the sharing of genetic research results with relatives and identifies key themes and lessons. The laws and policies from other countries demonstrate a range of approaches to balancing individual privacy and autonomy with family access for health benefit, offering important lessons for further development of approaches in the United States.
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  24.  1
    Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Gloria M. Petersen, Susan M. Wolf, Kari G. Chaffee, Marguerite E. Robinson, Deborah R. Gordon, Noralane M. Lindor & Barbara A. Koenig (2015). Preferences Regarding Return of Genomic Results to Relatives of Research Participants, Including After Participant Death: Empirical Results From a Cancer Biobank. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):464-475.
    Data are lacking with regard to participants' perspectives on return of genetic research results to relatives, including after the participant's death. This paper reports descriptive results from 3,630 survey respondents: 464 participants in a pancreatic cancer biobank, 1,439 family registry participants, and 1,727 healthy individuals. Our findings indicate that most participants would feel obligated to share their results with blood relatives while alive and would want results to be shared with relatives after their death.
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  25.  2
    Ellen Wright Clayton (2015). How Much Control Do Children and Adolescents Have Over Genomic Testing, Parental Access to Their Results, and Parental Communication of Those Results to Others? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):538-544.
    Adolescents may often have opinions about whether they want genetic and genomic testing in both the clinic and research and about who should have access to the results. This legal analysis demonstrates that the law provides very little protection to minors' wishes.
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  26.  1
    Mary B. Daly (2015). A Family‐Centered Model for Sharing Genetic Risk. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):545-551.
    The successes of the Human Genome Project have ushered in a new era of genomic science. To effectively translate these discoveries, it will be critical to improve the communication of genetic risk within families. This will require a systematic approach that accounts for the nature of family relationships and sociocultural beliefs. This paper proposes the application of the Family Systems Illness Model, used in the setting of cancer care, to the evolving field of genomics.
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  27.  6
    Douglas S. Diekema (2015). Physician Dismissal of Families Who Refuse Vaccination: An Ethical Assessment. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):654-660.
    Thousands of U.S. parents choose to refuse or delay the administration of selected vaccines to their children each year, and some choose not to vaccinate their children at all. While most physicians continue to provide care to these families over time, using each visit as an opportunity to educate and encourage vaccination, an increasing number of physicians are choosing to dismiss these families from their practice unless they agree to vaccinate their children. This paper will examine this emerging trend along (...)
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  28. Conrad V. Fernandez, P. Pearl O'Rourke & Laura M. Beskow (2015). Canadian Research Ethics Board Leadership Attitudes to the Return of Genetic Research Results to Individuals and Their Families. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):514-522.
    Genomic research may uncover results that have direct actionable benefit to the individual. An emerging debate is the degree to which researchers may have responsibility to offer results to the biological relatives of the research participant. In a companion study to one carried out in the United States, we describe the attitudes of Canadian Research Ethics Board chairs to this issue and their opinions as to the role of the REB in developing related policy.
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  29.  2
    Nanibaa'A. Garrison (2015). Considerations for Returning Research Results to Culturally Diverse Participants and Families of Decedents. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):569-575.
    There has been considerable debate on which genomic research results to return to participants and when those results should be returned, but little attention to how those results should be returned, especially to minority and culturally diverse participants. This paper explores the cultural and ethical considerations around returning research results to participants and families of culturally diverse backgrounds, with a special focus on considerations when the research participant is deceased, and raises points for further discussion.
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  30. Jason Keehn, Eve Howell, Mark V. Sauer & Robert Klitzman (2015). How Agencies Market Egg Donation on the Internet: A Qualitative Study. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):610-618.
    We systematically examined the content of the websites of 46 agencies that buy and sell human eggs to understand how they market themselves to both donors and recipients. We found that these websites use marketing techniques that obscure the realities of egg donation, presenting egg donation as a mutually beneficial and fulfilling experience. Sites emphasize egg donors' emotional fulfillment and address recipients' anxieties by stressing the ability to find the perfect “fit” or “match”, suiting recipients’“preferences”/“desires”, and even designing/customizing a child. (...)
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  31. Michelle Huckaby Lewis & Aaron J. Goldenberg (2015). Return of Results From Research Using Newborn Screening Dried Blood Samples. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):559-568.
    There may be compelling reasons to return to parents a limited subset of results from research conducted using residual newborn screening dried blood samples. This article explores the circumstances under which research results might be returned, as well as the mechanisms by which state newborn screening programs might facilitate the return of research results. The scope of any responsibility to return results of research conducted using DBS should be assessed in light of the potential impact on the primary mission of (...)
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  32.  2
    Jessica Mantel (2015). Ethical Integrity in Health Care Organizations: Currents in Contemporary Bioethics. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):661-665.
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  33. Charlotte A. Moser, Dorit Reiss & Robert L. Schwartz (2015). Funding the Costs of Disease Outbreaks Caused by Non‐Vaccination. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):633-647.
    While vaccination rates in the United States are high — generally over 90 percent — rates of exemptions have been going up, and preventable diseases coming back. Aside from their human cost and the financial cost of treatment imposed on those who become ill, outbreaks impose financial costs on an already burdened public health system, diverting resources from other areas. This article examines the financial costs of non-vaccination, showing how high they can be and what they include. It makes a (...)
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  34.  1
    Alberto Ortiz‐Osorno, Linda A. Ehler & Judith Brooks (2015). Considering Actionability at the Participant's Research Setting Level for Anticipatable Incidental Findings From Clinical Research. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):619-632.
    Determining what constitutes an anticipatable incidental finding from clinical research and defining whether, and when, this IF should be returned to the participant have been topics of discussion in the field of human subject protections for the last 10 years. It has been debated that implementing a comprehensive IF-approach that addresses both the responsibility of researchers to return IFs and the expectation of participants to receive them can be logistically challenging. IFs have been debated at different levels, such as the (...)
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  35. Gloria M. Petersen & Brian Van Ness (2015). Returning a Research Participant's Genomic Results to Relatives: Perspectives From Managers of Two Distinct Research Biobanks. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):523-528.
    Research biobanks are heterogeneous and exist to manage diverse biosample types with the goal of facilitating and serving biomedical discovery. The perspectives of biobank managers are reviewed, and the perspectives of two biobank directors, one with experience in institutional biobanks and the other with national cooperative group banks, are presented. Most research biobanks are not designed, nor do they have the resources, to return research results and incidental findings to participants or their families.
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  36. Sarah Scollon, Katie Bergstrom, Laurence B. McCullough, Amy L. McGuire, Stephanie Gutierrez, Robin Kerstein, D. Williams Parsons & Sharon E. Plon (2015). Pediatric Cancer Genetics Research and an Evolving Preventive Ethics Approach for Return of Results After Death of the Subject. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):529-537.
    The return of genetic research results after death in the pediatric setting comes with unique complexities. Researchers must determine which results and through which processes results are returned. This paper discusses the experience over 15 years in pediatric cancer genetics research of returning research results after the death of a child and proposes a preventive ethics approach to protocol development in order to improve the quality of return of results in pediatric genomic settings.
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  37. Benjamin S. Wilfond, Conrad V. Fernandez & Robert C. Green (2015). Disclosing Secondary Findings From Pediatric Sequencing to Families: Considering the “Benefit to Families”. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):552-558.
    Secondary findings for adult-onset diseases in pediatric clinical sequencing can benefit parents or other family members. In the absence of data showing harm, it is ethically reasonable for parents to request such information, because in other types of medical decision-making, they are often given discretion unless their decisions clearly harm the child. Some parents might not want this information because it could distract them from focusing on the child's underlying condition that prompted sequencing. Collecting family impact data may improve future (...)
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  38. Leslie E. Wolf, Mayank J. Patel, Brett A. Williams Tarver, Jeffrey L. Austin, Lauren A. Dame & Laura M. Beskow (2015). Certificates of Confidentiality: Protecting Human Subject Research Data in Law and Practice. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):594-609.
    The federal Certificate of Confidentiality plays an important role in research on sensitive topics by authorizing researchers to refuse to disclose identifiable research data in response to subpoenas in any legal setting. However, there is little known about how effective Certificates are in practice. This article draws on our legal and empirical research on this topic to fill this information gap. It includes a description of the purpose of Certificates, their legislative and regulatory history, and a summary of the few (...)
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  39. Susan M. Wolf (2015). INTRODUCTION: Return of Research Results: What About the Family? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):437-439.
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  40.  1
    Susan M. Wolf, Rebecca Branum, Barbara A. Koenig, Gloria M. Petersen, Susan A. Berry, Laura M. Beskow, Mary B. Daly, Conrad V. Fernandez, Robert C. Green, Bonnie S. LeRoy, Noralane M. Lindor, P. Pearl O'Rourke, Carmen Radecki Breitkopf, Mark A. Rothstein, Brian Van Ness & Benjamin S. Wilfond (2015). Returning a Research Participant's Genomic Results to Relatives: Analysis and Recommendations. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):440-463.
    Genomic research results and incidental findings with health implications for a research participant are of potential interest not only to the participant, but also to the participant's family. Yet investigators lack guidance on return of results to relatives, including after the participant's death. In this paper, a national working group offers consensus analysis and recommendations, including an ethical framework to guide investigators in managing this challenging issue, before and after the participant's death.
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  41. Susan M. Wolf, Wylie Burke & Barbara A. Koenig (2015). Mapping the Ethics of Translational Genomics: Situating Return of Results and Navigating the Research‐Clinical Divide. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (3):486-501.
    Both bioethics and law have governed human genomics by distinguishing research from clinical practice. Yet the rise of translational genomics now makes this traditional dichotomy inadequate. This paper pioneers a new approach to the ethics of translational genomics. It maps the full range of ethical approaches needed, proposes a “layered” approach to determining the ethics framework for projects combining research and clinical care, and clarifies the key role that return of results can play in advancing translation.
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  42.  8
    Paula Abrams (2015). The Bad Mother: Stigma, Abortion and Surrogacy. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):179-191.
    Stigma taints individuals with a spoiled identity and loss of status or discrimination. This article is the first to examine the stigma attached to abortion and surrogacy and consider how law may stigmatize women for failing to conform to social expectations about maternal roles. Courts should consider evidence of stigma when evaluating laws regulating abortion or surrogacy to determine whether these laws are based on impermissible gender stereotyping.
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  43.  1
    Erin B. Bernstein (2015). Disclosure Two Ways. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):245-254.
    This article is an initial attempt to compare the pre-abortion disclosure mandates that have proliferated in the two decades since the Court decided Planned Parenthood v. Casey with laws that, in the context of assisted reproduction and reproductive health, require specific disclosures beyond a state's baseline informed consent requirements. While some scholars have characterized pre-abortion disclosure laws as sui generis, they share some important common features with disclosure mandates in the context of oocyte donation and other reproductive health procedures. This (...)
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  44.  2
    Valarie K. Blake, Michelle L. McGowan & Aaron D. Levine (2015). Conflicts of Interest and Effective Oversight of Assisted Reproduction Using Donated Oocytes. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):410-424.
    Oocyte donation raises conflicts of interest and commitment for physicians but little attention has been paid to how to reduce these conflicts in practice. Yet the growing popularity of assisted reproduction has increased the stakes of maintaining an adequate oocyte supply and minimizing conflicts. A growing body of professional guidelines, legal challenges to professional self-regulation, and empirical research on the practice of oocyte donation all call for renewed attention to the issue. As empirical findings better inform existing conflicts and their (...)
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  45.  2
    June Carbone & Naomi Cahn (2015). The Triple System for Regulating Women's Reproduction. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):275-288.
    Analysis of ART and abortion must include the experiences of women at the emerging center of American life, as well as those at the top and bottom of the socioeconomic scale. Our contribution explores the triple system of fertility regulation, analyzing the intersections between fertility and class and using the experiences of women in the middle to add depth to our understanding of women's exercises of autonomy.
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  46.  4
    I. Glenn Cohen (2015). Complexifying Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):307-311.
    This commentary on Madeira's paper complicates the relationships between commodification, consumption, abortion, and assisted reproductive technologies she draws in two ways. First, I examine under what conditions the commodification of ARTs, gametes, and surrogacy lead to patients becoming consumers. Second, I show that there are some stark difference between applying commodification critiques to ART versus abortion.
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  47.  2
    Mary Crossley (2015). Normalizing Disability in Families. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):224-227.
    This comment shifts Ouellette's frame of reference in linking prenatal selection against disability, laws prohibiting prenatal sex selection, and fertility specialists' discrimination against disabled adults. Viewing decisions about who can reproduce and what children will be born as fundamentally decisions about family suggests ways to promote acceptance of people with disabilities as valued family members — without limiting reproductive liberties.
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  48.  1
    Judith Daar (2015). Distinctions in Disclosure: Mandated Informed Consent in Abortion and ART. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):255-258.
    Enactment of mandated pre-procedure disclosures in abortion and assisted reproductive technology services has swelled in recent years. Calls to equally regard these mandates as neutral tools in furtherance of patient protection fail to acknowledge key substantive and structural differences in these reproduction-affecting mandates. While ART mandates permit physicians to use their medical judgment to protect presumptively vulnerable egg donors and gestational carriers, abortion disclosures impart scientifically suspect messaging aimed at dissuading women from pursuing pregnancy termination. These and other distinctions counsel (...)
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  49.  1
    Judith Daar & Kimberly Mutcherson (2015). INTRODUCTION: Intersections in Reproduction: Perspectives on Abortion and Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):174-178.
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  50.  2
    Dov Fox (2015). The State's Interest in Potential Life. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):345-357.
    Courts have resolved a range of controversies by casual appeal to the state's interest in “potential life” that Roe held capable of overriding even fundamental rights. My analysis of this potential-life interest reveals its use to mean not one but four species of concern. I call these prenatal welfare, postnatal welfare, social values, and social effects and demonstrate how they operate under different conditions and with varying levels of strength.
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  51.  1
    Michele Goodwin (2015). The Invisible Classes in High Stakes Reproduction. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):289-292.
    This essay argues that what separates poor mothers from their middle class counterparts are many factors — not simply couples' ability to plan, the power of their choices, and agency. For example, power, social clout, and access to health care influence status and parenting. Historically, for white women choice has been about abortion; for many women of color, choice is about being able to be a mother. This essay begs the question whether real parallels can be drawn on questions of (...)
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  52.  4
    Steven J. Hoffman & Kevin Outterson (2015). What Will It Take to Address the Global Threat of Antibiotic Resistance? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):363-368.
    In March 2015, the Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation convened a workshop in Uppsala, Sweden to address questions about antibiotic resistance, in partnership with the Global Strategy Lab, the Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, and ReAct – Action on Antibiotic Resistance. Eleven concise articles were commissioned to explore whether ABR depended on global collective action, and if so, what tools could help states and non-state actors to achieve it. This article introduces that collection, which is (...)
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  53.  9
    Ana S. Iltis (2015). Organ Donation, Brain Death and the Family: Valid Informed Consent. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):369-382.
    I argue that valid informed consent is ethically required for organ donation from individuals declared dead using neurological criteria. Current policies in the U.S. do not require this and, not surprisingly, current practices inhibit the possibility of informed consent. Relevant information is withheld, opportunities to ensure understanding and appreciation are extremely limited, and the ability to make and communicate a free and voluntary decision is hindered by incomplete disclosure and other practices. Current practices should be revised to facilitate valid informed (...)
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  54.  1
    Sujatha Jesudason & Tracy Weitz (2015). Eggs and Abortion: “Women‐Protective” Language Used by Opponents in Legislative Debates Over Reproductive Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):259-269.
    In this paper we undertake an examination of the presence of similar “women-protective” discourses in policy debates occurring over two bills on reproductive-related topics considered during the 2013 California legislature session. The first bill, now signed into law, allows nurse practitioners, certified nurse midwives, and physician assistants to perform first-trimester aspiration abortions. The second bill, had it passed, would remove the prohibition on paying women for providing eggs to be used for research purposes. Using frame analysis we find evidence of (...)
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  55.  1
    Dawn Johnsen (2015). Respecting Intent and Dispelling Stereotypes by Reducing Unintended Pregnancy. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):341-344.
    In “Expectant Fathers, Abortion, and Embryos,” Dara Purvis evaluates the concepts of intent and gender stereotypes in connection with “expectational fathers” in the related contexts of abortion and assisted reproductive technologies. This comment seeks to build upon Purvis's own analysis to obviate her concern that abortion discourse promotes harmful stereotypes of men as disinterested fathers. To the contrary, for men — no less than for women — a desire to avoid or terminate pregnancy is fully consistent with loving and shared (...)
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  56.  1
    Paul A. Lombardo (2015). How to Escape the Doctor's Dilemma? De‐Medicalize Reproductive Technologies. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):326-329.
    Kara Swanson details the professional evolution of Alan Guttmacher, and the quandary he faced when the law interfered with prerogatives he wished to exercise in his practice of reproductive medicine. This response focuses on how decoupling reproductive technologies from a regime requiring medical licensure could lead to more complete reproductive autonomy for women.
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  57.  1
    Jody Lyneé Madeira (2015). Conceiving of Products and the Products of Conception: Reflections on Commodification, Consumption, ART, and Abortion. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):293-306.
    Assisted reproductive technologies and abortion prompt serious questions about how we should understand the complex relationship between money, markets, choice, and the care relationship. This essay defines “patient” and “consumer,” and then describes how they are less important than their attributes. Then it describes theories of commodification and consumption in reproductive contexts and their consequences, from compliance and coercion to resistance and creativity. It also examines whether ART and abortion are “markets.” Finally, this essay explores how the attributes which comprise (...)
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  58.  1
    Maxwell J. Mehlman (2015). Reproductive Information and Reproductive Decision‐Making. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):241-244.
    Opponents of reproductive choice are attempting to limit reproductive decisions based on certain underlying reasons. This commentary explores the rationales for these limitations and the objections to them. It concludes that reasoned-based limitations are unsupportable and unenforceable.
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  59.  2
    Seema Mohapatra (2015). False Framings: The Co‐Opting of Sex‐Selection by the Anti‐Abortion Movement. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):270-274.
    Jesudason and Weitz's article examines two public policy debates in California, where both sides of the debate used similar language that had the potential to be detrimental to women. Specifically, they show how anti-abortion crusaders in California used similar language to describe why women's rights should be curtailed as pro-choice advocates use when fighting for more choice and privacy for women's reproductive decisions. This commentary builds upon their article by demonstrating the harm that such co-opting causes to women's rights using (...)
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  60.  1
    Stephanie R. Morain, Steven Joffe, Eric G. Campbell & Michelle M. Mello (2015). Institutional Oversight of Faculty‐Industry Consulting Relationships in U.S. Medical Schools: A Delphi Study. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):383-396.
    The conflicts of interest that may arise in relationships between academic researchers and industry continue to prompt controversy. The bulk of attention has focused on financial aspects of these relationships, but conflicts may also arise in the legal obligations that faculty acquire through consulting contracts. However, oversight of faculty members' consulting agreements is far less vigorous than for financial conflicts, creating the potential for faculty to knowingly or unwittingly contract away important rights and freedoms. Increased regulation could prevent this, but (...)
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  61.  3
    Kimberly Mutcherson (2015). When Is an Abortion Not an Abortion? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):206-210.
    Discussion about the similarities and differences between abortion and multi-fetal pregnancy reduction, including the tug-of-war over naming, highlights ongoing contestation about the relationship between the law, ethics, and women's bodies. Ultimately, the law must root itself in the realities of pregnancy including the physical and social consequences that any pregnancy creates for the woman who carries it.
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  62.  7
    Alicia Ouellette (2015). Selection Against Disability: Abortion, ART, and Access. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):211-223.
    This essay re-examines the disability critique of prenatal and pre-implantation screening in light of evidence about the larger context in which fertility and reproductive healthcare is rendered in the U.S. It argues that efforts to identify acceptable criteria for trait-based selection or otherwise impose reasons-based limitations on reproductive choice should be avoided because such limitations tend to perpetuate the discrimination encountered by adults with disabilities seeking fertility and reproductive health services.
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  63.  4
    Dara E. Purvis (2015). Expectant Fathers, Abortion, and Embryos. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):330-340.
    One thread of abortion criticism, arguing that gender equality requires that men be allowed to terminate legal parental status and obligations, has reinforced the stereotype of men as uninterested in fatherhood. As courts facing disputes over stored pre-embryos weigh the equities of allowing implantation of the pre-embryos, this same gender stereotype has been increasingly incorporated into a legal balancing test, leading to troubling implications for ART and family law.
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  64.  2
    Radhika Rao (2015). Selective Reduction: “A Soft Cover for Hard Choices” or Another Name for Abortion? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):196-205.
    Selective reduction and abortion both involve the termination of fetal life, but they are classified by different designations to underscore the notion that they are regarded as fundamentally different medical procedures: the two are performed using distinct techniques by different types of physicians, upon women under very different circumstances, in order to further dramatically different objectives. Hence, the two procedures appear to call for a distinct moral calculus, and they have traditionally evoked contradictory reactions from society. This essay posits that (...)
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  65.  1
    Rachel Rebouché (2015). Non‐Invasive Testing, Non‐Invasive Counseling. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):228-240.
    This article describes a new prenatal genetic test that is painless, early, and increasingly available. State legislatures have reacted by prohibiting abortion for reason of fetal sex or of fetal diagnosis and managing genetic counseling. This article explores these legislative responses and considers how physicians and genetic counselors currently communicate post-testing options. The article then examines the challenges ahead for genetic counseling, particularly in light of the troubling grip of abortion politics on conversations about prenatal diagnosis.
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  66.  3
    John A. Robertson (2015). Legal Change and Stigma in Surrogacy and Abortion. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):192-195.
    Stigma marks both surrogacy and abortion. Legal change lessens stigma but may not remove it altogether. Post-legalization regulation may reinstall stigma by surrounding a legalized practice with barriers that make exercise of that right more difficult. As a result, law may reenact stigma even as it purports to take it away.
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  67.  6
    Mark A. Rothstein (2015). Ethical Issues in Big Data Health Research: Currents in Contemporary Bioethics. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):425-429.
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  68.  3
    Kara W. Swanson (2015). The Doctor's Dilemma: Paternalisms in the Medicolegal History of Assisted Reproduction and Abortion. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):312-325.
    This article analyzes the comparative history of the law and practice of abortion and assisted reproduction in the United States to consider the interplay between medical paternalism and legal paternalism. It supplements existing critiques of paternalism as harmful to women's equality with the medical perspective, as revealed through the writings of Alan F. Guttmacher, to consider when legal regulation might be warranted.
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  69.  1
    Danielle Whicher, Nancy Kass & Ruth Faden (2015). Stakeholders' Views of Alternatives to Prospective Informed Consent for Minimal‐Risk Pragmatic Comparative Effectiveness Trials. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):397-409.
    As interest in comparative effectiveness research grows, questions have emerged regarding whether it is ever acceptable to alter informed consent requirements for research when patients are randomly assigned to widely-used therapies. This paper reports on interviews with Institutional Review Board members and researchers and on focus groups with patients from Geisinger and Johns Hopkins health systems. The objective was to elicit participants' views of the acceptability of four different disclosure and authorization models for low-risk pragmatic comparative effectiveness trials of widely-used (...)
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  70.  2
    Jonathan F. Will (2015). Membership Has Its Privileges? Life, Personhood, and Potential in Discussions About Reproductive Choice. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (2):358-362.
    As Professor Dov Fox points out in his essay, reference to “potential life” in American abortion jurisprudence is both indeterminate and underspecified. This commentary highlights that use of the phrase “potential life” by courts also obscures the fact that a position has been taken that biological life is not the equivalent of legal personhood. Worse, the position has been imposed on those who do not share it without offering reasons to justify its imposition in terms that those who oppose it (...)
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  71.  3
    Aziza Ahmed (2015). Informed Decision Making and Abortion: Crisis Pregnancy Centers, Informed Consent, and the First Amendment. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):51-58.
    Shifting laws and regulations increasingly displace the centrality of women's health concerns in the provision of abortion services. This is exemplified by the growing presence of deceptive Crisis Pregnancy Centers alongside new informed consent laws designed to dissuade women from seeking abortions. Litigation on informed consent is further complicated in the clinical context due to the increased mobilization of facts – such as the gestational age or sonogram of the fetus – delivered with the intent to dissuade women from accessing (...)
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  72.  13
    I. Glenn Cohen (2015). Are All Abortions Equal? Should There Be Exceptions to the Criminalization of Abortion for Rape and Incest? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):87-104.
    Politics, public discourse, and legislation restricting abortion has settled on a moderate orthodoxy: restrict abortion, but leave exceptions for pregnancies that result from rape and incest. I challenge that consensus and suggest it may be much harder to defend than those who support the compromise think. From both Pro-Life and Pro-Choice perspectives, there are good reasons to treat all abortions as equal.
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  73. Cameron O'Brien Flynn & Robin Fretwell Wilson (2015). When States Regulate Emergency Contraceptives Like Abortion, What Should Guide Disclosure? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):72-86.
    State laws dictating “informed consent” about surgical and chemical abortions sometimes ensnare emergency contraceptives, as the science surrounding EC shows. Courts evaluating mandated disclosures gravitate to professional norms rather than the information most women would value: basic factual information about EC so that they can decide for themselves whether to use these drugs.
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  74.  3
    Scott W. Gaylord (2015). A Matter of Context: Casey and the Constitutionality of Compelled Physician Speech. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):35-50.
    Under the Supreme Court's compelled speech cases, the context of government-mandated disclosures determines the standard of review. Pursuant to Casey, Zauderer, and Whalen, compelled disclosures in the medical context, such as speech-and-display ultrasound laws, are subject to – and survive – a form of rational basis scrutiny.
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  75.  1
    Melissa M. Goldstein & Daniel G. Bowers (2015). The Patient as Consumer: Empowerment or Commodification? Currents in Contemporary Bioethics. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):162-165.
    Discussions surrounding patient engagement and empowerment often use the terms “patient” and “consumer” interchangeably. But do the two terms hold the same meaning, or is a “patient” a passive actor in the health care arena and a “consumer” an informed, rational decision-maker? Has there been a shift in our usage of the two terms that aligns with the increasing commercialization of health care in the U.S. or has the patient/consumer dynamic always been a part of the buying and selling of (...)
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  76.  1
    B. Jessie Hill (2015). Casey Meets the Crisis Pregnancy Centers. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):59-71.
    Recent cases have found factual disclosure requirements to be constitutional when imposed on abortion providers but unconstitutional when imposed on crisis pregnancy centers. This paper argues that the outcomes in both kinds of cases can be explained by courts' perception of abortion as an ideological, political, or moral act rather than as health care.
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  77. Megan E. Larkin (2015). Acoustic Separation and Biomedical Research: Lessons From Indian Regulation of Compensation for Research Injury. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):105-115.
    In early 2013, the Indian government introduced new rules governing the conduct of clinical trials involving human participants. Among other provisions, the law requires that sponsors of research compensate participants who are injured during the course of their research participation. This article examines the effects of India's compensation law and the efforts that policymakers in India have made to tailor the law since its passage. I use the legal concept of acoustic separation as a framework to explain and justify the (...)
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  78.  1
    Thomas May (2015). On the Justifiability of ACMG Recommendations for Reporting of Incidental Findings in Clinical Exome and Genome Sequencing. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):134-142.
    This paper examines three possible justifications for original ACMG recommendations to return incidental findings from whole exome or genome sequencing independent of patient preferences. The first two potential justifications, based on a patient's authentic values, then on harms to others, are founding lacking as a basis of justification for these recommendations. The third, grounded in analogous professional practices, might serve as a potential justification if several controversies can be avoided. However, given the nature of these controversies and the need to (...)
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  79. David Orentlicher (2015). Abortion and Compelled Physician Speech. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):9-21.
    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading.
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  80. Wendy Parmet (2015). INTRODUCTION: Free Speech and the Regulation of Reproductive Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):6-8.
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  81.  3
    Bridget Pratt & Adnan A. Hyder (2015). Global Justice and Health Systems Research in Low‐ and Middle‐Income Countries. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):143-161.
    Scholarship focusing on how international research can contribute to justice in global health has primarily explored requirements for the conduct of clinical trials. Yet health systems research in low- and middle-income countries has increasingly been identified as vital to the reduction of health disparities between and within countries. This paper expands an existing ethical framework based on the health capability paradigm – research for health justice – to externally-funded health systems research in LMICs. It argues that a specific form of (...)
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  82.  2
    Sonia M. Suter (2015). The First Amendment and Physician Speech in Reproductive Decision Making. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):22-34.
    Courts are divided as to whether abortion informed consent mandates violate the First Amendment. This article argues that given the doctor's and patient's unique expertise, the patient's strong interests in autonomous decision making, and the fact that these laws regulate speech, rather than conduct, heighted or strict scrutiny should apply to such mandates.
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  83.  1
    Jennifer E. F. Teitcher, Walter O. Bockting, José A. Bauermeister, Chris J. Hoefer, Michael H. Miner & Robert L. Klitzman (2015). Detecting, Preventing, and Responding to “Fraudsters” in Internet Research: Ethics and Tradeoffs. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (1):116-133.
    Internet-based health research is increasing, and often offers financial incentives but fraudulent behavior by participants can result. Specifically, eligible or ineligible individuals may enter the study multiple times and receive undeserved financial compensation. We review past experiences and approaches to this problem and propose several new strategies. Researchers can detect and prevent Internet research fraud in four broad ways: through the questionnaire/instrument ; through participants' non-questionnaire data and seeking external validation through computer information,, and 4) through study design. These approaches (...)
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  84.  2
    Manica Balasegaram, Charles Clift & John-Arne R.⊘Ttingen (2015). The Global Innovation Model for Antibiotics Needs Reinvention. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S3):22-26.
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  85. Jennifer S. Bard (2015). Introducing Law Students to Public Health Law Through a Bed Bug Scenario. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S2):7-11.
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  86.  2
    Tamar F. Barlam & Kalpana Gupta (2015). Antibiotic Resistance Spreads Internationally Across Borders. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S3):12-16.
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  87.  3
    Asha Behdinan, Steven J. Hoffman & Mark Pearcey (2015). Some Global Policies for Antibiotic Resistance Depend on Legally Binding and Enforceable Commitments. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S3):68-73.
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  88. Micah L. Berman & Annice E. Kim (2015). Bridging the Gap Between Science and Law: The Example of Tobacco Regulatory Science. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):95-98.
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  89. Alexander M. Capron (2015). Personal Beliefs Exemption From Mandatory Immunization of Children for School Entry. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S2):12-21.
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  90.  2
    Jerilyn Church, Chinyere O. Ekechi, Aila Hoss & Anika Jade Larson (2015). Tribal Water Rights: Exploring Dam Construction in Indian Country. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):60-63.
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  91. Mary Crossley (2015). Including Public Health Content in a Bioethics and Law Course: Vaccine Exemptions, Tort Liability, and Public Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S2):22-32.
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  92.  4
    Nils Daulaire, Abhay Bang, Göran Tomson, Joan N. Kalyango & Otto Cars (2015). Universal Access to Effective Antibiotics is Essential for Tackling Antibiotic Resistance. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S3):17-21.
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  93. Brent Davidson, Susan Sherman, Leila Barraza & Maria Julia Marinissen (2015). Legal Challenges to the International Deployment of Government Public Health and Medical Personnel During Public Health Emergencies: Impact on National and Global Health Security. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):103-106.
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  94. Corey S. Davis, Alexander Y. Walley & Colleen M. Bridger (2015). Lessons Learned From the Expansion of Naloxone Access in Massachusetts and North Carolina. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):19-22.
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  95. Shannon Frattaroli, Keshia M. Pollack, Jessica L. Young & Jon S. Vernick (2015). State Health Department Employees, Policy Advocacy, and Political Campaigns: Protections and Limits Under the Law. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):64-68.
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  96. Hosea H. Harvey, Dionne L. Koller & Kerri M. Lowrey (2015). The Four Stages of Youth Sports TBI Policymaking: Engagement, Enactment, Research, and Reform. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):87-90.
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  97. James G. Hodge, Matthew S. Penn, Montrece Ransom & Jane E. Jordan (2015). Domestic Legal Preparedness and Response to Ebola. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):15-18.
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  98. Sharona Hoffman (2015). Improving Regulatory Enforcement in the Face of Inadequate Resources. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S2):33-44.
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  99.  1
    Steven J. Hoffman & Trygve Ottersen (2015). Addressing Antibiotic Resistance Requires Robust International Accountability Mechanisms. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S3):53-64.
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  100.  1
    Steven J. Hoffman & Kevin Outterson (2015). INTRODUCTION: What Will It Take to Address the Global Threat of Antibiotic Resistance? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S3):6-11.
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  101.  3
    Aidan Hollis & Peter Maybarduk (2015). Antibiotic Resistance Is a Tragedy of the Commons That Necessitates Global Cooperation. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S3):33-37.
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  102. Nancy Kaufman & Margaret Mahoney (2015). E-Cigarettes: Policy Options and Legal Issues Amidst Uncertainty. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):23-26.
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  103. Jill Krueger, Paul Biedrzycki & Sara Pollock Hoverter (2015). Human Health Impacts of Climate Change: Implications for the Practice and Law of Public Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):79-82.
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  104. Donna E. Levin (2015). INTRODUCTION: Putting Law to Work to Improve Public Health: A National Convening. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):7-9.
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  105.  1
    Browne Lewis (2015). Disaster Relief: Restricting and Regulating Public Health Interventions. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S2):45-48.
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  106. Michelle Huckaby Lewis (2015). Lessons From the Residual Newborn Screening Dried Blood Sample Litigation. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):32-35.
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  107. Angela K. McGowan, Gretchen G. Musicant, Sharonda R. Williams & Virginia R. Niehaus (2015). Community Experiments in Public Health Law and Policy. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):10-14.
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  108. Frances H. Miller (2015). INTRODUCTION: Teaching Public Health Law: Time for a Status Upgrade. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S2):5-6.
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  109.  1
    Daniel G. Orenstein & Y. Tony Yang (2015). From Beginning to End: The Importance of Evidence-Based Policymaking in Vaccination Mandates. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):99-102.
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  110.  2
    Scott H. Podolsky, Robert Bud, Christoph Gradmann, Bård Hobaek, Claas Kirchhelle, Tore Mitvedt, María Jesús Santesmases, Ulrike Thoms, Dag Berild & Anne Kveim Lie (2015). History Teaches Us That Confronting Antibiotic Resistance Requires Stronger Global Collective Action. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S3):27-32.
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  111. Claudia Polsky, Kendall Stagg, Maxim Gakh & Christine T. Bozlak (2015). The Health in All Policies Approach and the Law: Preliminary Lessons From California and Chicago. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):52-55.
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  112. Jennifer L. Pomeranz & Sabrina Adler (2015). Defining Commercial Speech in the Context of Food Marketing. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):40-43.
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  113. David Presley, Thomas Reinstein, Damika Webb-Barr & Scott Burris (2015). Creating Legal Data for Public Health Monitoring and Evaluation: Delphi Standards for Policy Surveillance. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):27-31.
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  114. Polly J. Price (2015). Public Health Control Measures in Response to Global Pandemics and Drug Resistance. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S2):49-56.
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  115.  1
    Tara Ramanathan, Cason Schmit, Akshara Menon & Chanelle Fox (2015). The Role of Law in Supporting Secondary Uses of Electronic Health Information. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):48-51.
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  116. Victor Richardson, Sallie Milam & Denise Chrysler (2015). Is Sharing De-Identified Data Legal? The State of Public Health Confidentiality Laws and Their Interplay with Statistical Disclosure Limitation Techniques. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):83-86.
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  117.  1
    Zain Rizvi & Steven J. Hoffman (2015). Effective Global Action on Antibiotic Resistance Requires Careful Consideration of Convening Forums. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S3):74-78.
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  118. Lainie Rutkow, Holly A. Taylor & Lance Gable (2015). Emergency Preparedness and Response for Disabled Individuals: Implications of Recent Litigation. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):91-94.
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  119.  2
    Anthony D. So, Tejen A. Shah, Steven Roach, Yoke Ling Chee & Keeve E. Nachman (2015). An Integrated Systems Approach is Needed to Ensure the Sustainability of Antibiotic Effectiveness for Both Humans and Animals. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (S3):38-45.
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  120. Martha H. Somerville, Laura Seeff, Daniel Hale & Daniel J. O'Brien (2015). Hospitals, Collaboration, and Community Health Improvement. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):56-59.
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  121.  1
    Nicolas Terry (2015). Navigating the Incoherence of Big Data Reform Proposals. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):44-47.
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  122. Jon S. Vernick, Emma E. McGinty & Lainie Rutkow (2015). Mental Health Emergency Detentions and Access to Firearms. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):76-78.
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  123. Lindsay F. Wiley, Wendy E. Parmet & Peter D. Jacobson (2015). Adventures in Nannydom: Reclaiming Collective Action for the Public's Health. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):73-75.
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  124.  1
    Cara L. Wilking, Angie L. Cradock & Steven L. Gortmaker (2015). Harnessing the Public Health Power of Model Codes to Increase Drinking Water Access in Schools and Childcare. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):69-72.
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  125. Benjamin D. Winig, John O. Spengler & Alexis M. Etow (2015). Shared Use and Safe Routes to School: Managing the Fear of Liability. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 43 (s1):36-39.
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