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  1.  1
    Yemima Ben-Menahem (2016). If Counterfactuals Were Excluded From Historical Reasoning.. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (3):370-381.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 370 - 381 The argument of this paper is that counterfactuals are indispensable in reasoning in general and historical reasoning in particular. It illustrates the role of counterfactuals in the study of history and explores the connection between counterfactuals and the notions of historical necessity and contingency. Entertaining alternatives to the actual course of events is conducive to the assessment of the relative weight and impact of the various factors that combine to bring (...)
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  2. Richard J. Evans (2016). Response. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (3):457-467.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 457 - 467 This reply to the critiques by Daniel Woolf, Cass R. Sunstein and Daniel Nolan of my book _Altered Pasts: Counterfactuals in History_, takes each of their contributions in turn, and reasserts the centrality to counterfactual history of positing definite, long term alternative timelines rather than a vague claim that things might have turned out differently to the way they actually did. Such alternate timelines have no claim to either truth or (...)
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  3.  1
    Alexander Maar (2016). Applying D. K. Lewis’s Counterfactual Theory of Causation to the Philosophy of Historiography. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (3):349-369.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 349 - 369 A theory of causation suitable for historiography must accommodate the many types of causal claims historians make. In this paper, I examine the advantages of applying D. K. Lewis’s counterfactual theory of causation to the philosophy of historiography. I contend that Lewis’s possible world semantics offers a superior framework for making sense of historical causation, and that it lays the foundation for historians to look at history as causal series of (...)
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  4.  38
    Daniel Nolan (2016). The Possibilities of History. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (3):441-456.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 441 - 456 Several kinds of historical alternatives are distinguished. Different kinds of historical alternatives are valuable to the practice of history for different reasons. Important uses for historical alternatives include representing different sides of historical disputes; distributing chances of different outcomes over alternatives; and offering explanations of why various alternatives did _not_ in fact happen. Consideration of counterfactuals about what would have happened had things been different in particular ways plays particularly useful (...)
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  5.  1
    Gavriel D. Rosenfeld (2016). The Ways We Wonder “What If?”. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (3):382-411.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 382 - 411 In this essay, I seek to refine our understanding of historical counterfactuals by classifying them into a new typology. After providing a systematic definition of counterfactuals, I divide them up into five different categories: causal, emotive, temporal, spatial, and manneristic. Within each of these categories, I identify eighteen different types of counterfactuals, which I classify with descriptive names and illustrate with specific examples from recent works of historiography. The different types (...)
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  6.  2
    Cass R. Sunstein (2016). Historical Explanations Always Involve Counterfactual History. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (3):433-440.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 433 - 440 Historical explanations are a form of counterfactual history. To offer an explanation of what happened, historians have to identify causes, and whenever they identify causes, they immediately conjure up a counterfactual history, a parallel world. No one doubts that there is a great deal of distance between science fiction novelists and the world’s great historians, but along an important dimension, they are playing the same game.
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  7.  1
    Aviezer Tucker (2016). Historiographic Counterfactuals and the Philosophy of Historiography. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (3):333-348.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 333 - 348 Philosophers and historians debate not only the correct analysis of historiographic counterfactuals and their possible utilities for historiography and its philosophy but whether they can be more than speculative. This introduction presents the articles in the special issue on historiographic counterfactuals, show how they hang together and what are the main agreements and disagreements among the authors. Finally, it argues that the debate over historiographic counterfactuals spills over now into the (...)
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  8. Daniel Woolf (2016). Concerning Altered Pasts: Reflections of an Early Modern Historian. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (3):413-432.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 413 - 432 This essay provides an extended commentary on Richard Evans’ book _Altered Pasts_ from the perspective of a historian of a much earlier period, the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The essay considers much of the literature discussed by Evans, explores the “scope” and “range” of counterfactual arguments, and offers suggestions as to how and when legitimate counterfactual historical thinking itself came into being. The essay also argues that the problems inherent in (...)
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  9.  8
    James Alexander (2016). The Philosophy of Political History in Oakeshott and Collingwood. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):279-303.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 279 - 303 Every political philosopher has a philosophy of political history, if sometimes not a very good one. Oakeshott and Collingwood are two twentieth century political philosophers who were particularly concerned with the significance of history for political philosophy; and who both, in the 1940s, sketched what I call philosophies of political history: that is, systematic schemes which could make sense of the entire history of political philosophy. In this article I observe (...)
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  10.  30
    Michael Beaney (2016). Historiography, Philosophy of History and the Historical Turn in Analytic Philosophy. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):211-234.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 211 - 234 This article has three main interconnected aims. First, I illustrate the historiographical conceptions of three early analytic philosophers: Frege, Russell and Wittgenstein. Second, I consider some of the historiographical debates that have been generated by the recent historical turn in analytic philosophy, looking at the work of Scott Soames and Hans-Johann Glock, in particular. Third, I discuss Arthur Danto’s _Analytic Philosophy of History_, published 50 years ago, and argue for a (...)
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  11.  5
    James Connelly (2016). Italian Triangulations: R.G. Collingwood and His Italian Colleagues. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):305-324.
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  12.  7
    Doris Gerber (2016). The Concept of Action and the Relevance of Intentional Collective Action in History. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):235-247.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 235 - 247 The article starts with the theses that it is the very concept of action that is at stake in many debates between philosophers and historians. Whereas in philosophy actions are conceptualized by reference to their beginning, namely their motives or intentions, in historiography the consequences of actions are much more in the focus of interest. Especially the debate about the dualism of structure and agency is characterized by different concepts of (...)
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  13.  3
    D. Timothy Goering (2016). Absolutized Logic is Ideology. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):170-194.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 170 - 194 This essay wishes to probe why in the 1960s and 1970s the German historical discipline did not integrate debates promoted by analytic philosophy into its own debates about theory of history, even though the topics debated by both camps were strikingly similar. I concentrate on the so-called Positivism Dispute, the Ritter School and research group “Poetik und Hermeneutik” and show how some of the writings of analytic philosophers were received and (...)
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  14.  2
    D. Timothy Goering (2016). Introduction to the Forum. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):163-169.
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  15.  2
    Martin Jay (2016). Experience and History: Phenomenological Perspectives and the Historical World_ _, Written by David Carr. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):325-331.
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  16.  5
    Peter Vogt (2016). What Was “Geschichtsphilosophie”? Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):195-210.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 195 - 210 This paper looks at modern philosophy of history in the sense of the German concept of “Geschichtsphilosophie”. “Geschichtsphilosophie”, as it was formulated since the heydays of German Idealism, always implied the belief that it is possible to make true statements about the future. I will take a closer look at such a version of philosophy of history by reconstructing Odo Marquard’s arguments against “Geschichtsphilosophie” and Heinz Dieter Kittsteiner’s defense of it. (...)
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  17.  4
    Mark A. Winstanley (2016). Genetic Epistemology, a Universalist Approach to the History of Science. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (2):249-278.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 249 - 278 GER Lloyd discerns two conflicting hypotheses concerning human cognition: cross-cultural universality and cultural relativity. The history of science is one discipline among many actively contributing to our understanding of human cognition at present. Not surprisingly, then, the dichotomy is also present in the history of science. In contrast to current approaches to the history of science, which highlight cultural relativity, genetic epistemology, which is conceived by Jean Piaget as a science (...)
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  18.  11
    James Alexander (2016). A Systematic Theory of Tradition. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (1):1-28.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 1 - 28 We still lack a systematic or complete theory of tradition. By referring to the works of many major figures of the last century – Arendt, Boyer, Eisenstadt, Eliot, Gadamer, Goody, Hobsbawm, Kermode, Leavis, MacIntyre, Oakeshott, Pieper, Pocock, Popper, Prickett, Shils and others – I show that a theory of tradition must include insights taken not only from the study of sociology and anthropology, but also from the study of literature and (...)
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  19.  8
    Robin Attfield (2016). Progress and Directionality in Science, the Humanities, Society and Evolution. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (1):29-50.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 29 - 50 This essay discusses progress and directionality, both in nature, in science and in society, treating as its starting-point the reflections, parallelisms and comparisons of Ruse’s essay, ‘A Threefold Parallelism for Our Time? Progressive Development in Society, Science and the Organic World’, but reaching substantially different conclusions. The essay thus ranges over progress and directionality in the world of natural evolution, in the sciences and the humanities, and in history and society. (...)
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  20.  4
    David Carr (2016). The Sage Handbook of Historical Theory_ _, Written by Nancy Partner and Sarah Foot. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (1):157-161.
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  21.  3
    Josef Chytry (2016). A Yank at Oxford. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (1):136-155.
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  22.  15
    A. A. Johannis (2016). The New Wittgensteins. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (1):117-135.
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  23.  10
    Craig Lundy (2016). The Necessity and Contingency of Universal History. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (1):51-75.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 51 - 75 History occupies a somewhat awkward position in the work of Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari. Although they often criticise history as a practice and advance alternatives that are explicitly anti-historical, such as ‘nomadology’ and ‘geophilosophy’, their scholarship is nevertheless littered with historical encounters and deeply influenced by historians such as Fernand Braudel. One of Deleuze and Guattari’s more significant engagements with history occurs through their reading and theory of universal history. (...)
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  24.  6
    Davide Perdomi (2016). Melvin Richter’s Contribution to the Reception of Begriffsgeschichte and to Its “Contextualization”. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (1):76-97.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 76 - 97 This article presents an account of those works, related to conceptual history and historiographical issues, written by the American historian of political thought Melvin Richter. The attention is primarily directed toward the reception of the German historiographical style called “_Begriffsgeschichte_”, and especially on its reception among Anglophone scholars. Therefore, the main objective of the article is to throw light on Richter’s understanding of _Begriffsgeschichte_, and to sum up his efforts to (...)
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  25.  7
    Adam Timmins (2016). Towards an Evolutionary Epistemology of History. Journal of the Philosophy of History 10 (1):98-115.
    _ Source: _Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 98 - 115 What has come to be known as the ‘linguistic turn’ in historical theory over the past forty years or so has finished what the two World Wars began in demolishing the confidence that the historical discipline possessed at the turn of the twentieth century. This confidence was most memorably expressed by Lord Acton that one day we would possess ‘ultimate history’. Today most historians are probably more inclined to subscribe to (...)
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