17 found

Year:

Forthcoming articles
  1. Eric Racine, Emily Bell, Natalie Zizzo & Courtney Green (forthcoming). Public Discourse on the Biology of Alcohol Addiction: Implications for Stigma, Self-Control, Essentialism, and Coercive Policies in Pregnancy. Neuroethics:1-10.
    International media have reported cases of pregnant women who have had their children apprehended by social services, or who were incarcerated or forced into treatment programs based on a history of substance use or lack of adherence to addiction treatment programs. Public discourse on the biology of addiction has been criticized for generating stigma and a diminished perception of self-control in individuals with an addiction, potentially contributing to coercive approaches and criminalization of women who misuse substances during pregnancy. We explored (...)
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  2. Anthony I. Barnett & Craig L. Fry (forthcoming). The Clinical Impact of the Brain Disease Model of Alcohol and Drug Addiction: Exploring the Attitudes of Community-Based AOD Clinicians in Australia. Neuroethics:1-12.
    Despite recent increasing support for the brain disease model of alcohol and drug addiction, the extent to which the model may clinically impact addiction treatment and client behaviour remains unclear. This qualitative study explored the views of community-based clinicians in Australia and examined: whether Australian community-based clinicians support the BDM of addiction; their attitudes on the impact the model may have on clinical treatment; and their views on how framing addiction as a brain disease may impact addicted clients’ behaviour. Six (...)
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  3. Laura Y. Cabrera, Nicholas S. Fitz & Peter B. Reiner (forthcoming). Reasons for Comfort and Discomfort with Pharmacological Enhancement of Cognitive, Affective, and Social Domains. Neuroethics:1-14.
    The debate over the propriety of cognitive enhancement evokes both enthusiasm and worry. To gain further insight into the reasons that people may have for endorsing or eschewing pharmacological enhancement , we used empirical tools to explore public attitudes towards PE of twelve cognitive, affective, and social domains . Participants from Canada and the United States were recruited using Mechanical Turk and were randomly assigned to read one vignette that described an individual who uses a pill to enhance a single (...)
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  4. Laura Y. Cabrera, Nicholas S. Fitz & Peter B. Reiner (forthcoming). Empirical Support for the Moral Salience of the Therapy-Enhancement Distinction in the Debate Over Cognitive, Affective and Social Enhancement. Neuroethics:1-14.
    The ambiguity regarding whether a given intervention is perceived as enhancement or as therapy might contribute to the angst that the public expresses with respect to endorsement of enhancement. We set out to develop empirical data that explored this. We used Amazon Mechanical Turk to recruit participants from Canada and the United States. Each individual was randomly assigned to read one vignette describing the use of a pill to enhance one of 12 cognitive, affective or social domains. The vignettes described (...)
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  5. Athina Demertzi, Eric Racine, Marie-Aurélie Bruno, Didier Ledoux, Olivia Gosseries, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Marie Thonnard, Andrea Soddu, Gustave Moonen & Steven Laureys (forthcoming). Pain Perception in Disorders of Consciousness: Neuroscience, Clinical Care, and Ethics in Dialogue. Neuroethics.
  6. Veljko Dubljević (forthcoming). Neurostimulation Devices for Cognitive Enhancement: Toward a Comprehensive Regulatory Framework. Neuroethics:1-12.
    There is mounting evidence that non-invasive brain stimulation devices - transcranial direct current stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation could be used for cognitive enhancement. However, the regulatory environment surrounding such uses of stimulation devices is less clear than for stimulant drugs—a fact that has already been commercially exploited by several companies. In this paper, the mechanism of action, uses and adverse effects of non-invasive neurostimulation devices are reviewed, along with social and ethical challenges pertaining to their use as cognitive enhancements. (...)
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  7. Farah Focquaert & Maartje Schermer (forthcoming). Moral Enhancement: Do Means Matter Morally? Neuroethics:1-13.
    One of the reasons why moral enhancement may be controversial, is because the advantages of moral enhancement may fall upon society rather than on those who are enhanced. If directed at individuals with certain counter-moral traits it may have direct societal benefits by lowering immoral behavior and increasing public safety, but it is not directly clear if this also benefits the individual in question. In this paper, we will discuss what we consider to be moral enhancement, how different means may (...)
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  8. Cynthia Forlini, Jan Schildmann, Patrik Roser, Radim Beranek & Jochen Vollmann (forthcoming). Knowledge, Experiences and Views of German University Students Toward Neuroenhancement: An Empirical-Ethical Analysis. Neuroethics:1-10.
    Across normative and empirical disciplines, considerable attention has been devoted to the prevalence and ethics of the non-medical use of prescription and illegal stimulants for neuroenhancement among students. A predominant assumption is that neuroenhancement is prevalent, in demand, and calls for appropriate policy action. In this paper, we present data on the prevalence, views and knowledge from a large sample of German students in three different universities (n = 1,026) and analyze the findings from a moral pragmatics perspective. The results (...)
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  9. Barbro Fröding & Niklas Juth (forthcoming). Cognitive Enhancement and the Principle of Need. Neuroethics:1-12.
    In this article we argue that the principle of need, on some interpretations, could be used to justify the spending of publically funded health care resources on cognitive enhancement and that this also holds true for individuals whose cognitive capacities are considered normal.The increased, and to an extent, novel demands that the modern technology and information society places on the cognitive capacities of agents, e.g., regarding good and responsible decision-making, have blurred the line between treatment and enhancement. More specifically, it (...)
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  10. Frederic Gilbert (forthcoming). Self-Estrangement & Deep Brain Stimulation: Ethical Issues Related to Forced Explantation. Neuroethics:1-8.
    Although being generally safe, the use of Deep Brain Stimulation has been associated with a significant number of patients experiencing postoperative psychological and neurological harm within experimental trials . A proportion of these postoperative severe adverse effects have lead to the decision to medically prescribe device deactivation or removal. However, there is little debate in the literature as to what is in the patient’s best interest when device removal has been prescribed; in particular, what should be the conceptual approach to (...)
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  11. Irena Ilieva (forthcoming). Enhancement of Healthy Personality Through Psychiatric Medication: The Influence of SSRIs on Neuroticism and Extraversion. Neuroethics:1-11.
    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors’ wide use, combined with the blurry limit between health and psychological illness, have led neuroscientists, clinicians and ethicists to envision the possibility of these medications’ use in non-clinical populations. This prospect has evoked ethical debates, which have often ignored the findings of the empirical literature. In this context, an evaluation of the empirical evidence for SSRIs’ personality enhancing effects is needed. The present paper examines SSRIs’ effects on healthy personality, including the Five Factor Model traits Neuroticism (...)
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  12. Monica Diana Bercea Olteanu (forthcoming). Neuroethics and Responsibility in Conducting Neuromarketing Research. Neuroethics:1-12.
    Over the last decade, academics and companies have shown an increased interest in brain studies and human cerebral functions related to consumer’s reactions to different stimuli. Therefore neuroethics emerged as a way to draw attention to ethical issues concerning different aspects of brain research. This review explores the environment of neuromarketing research in both business and academic areas from an ethical point of view. The paper focuses on the ethical issues involving subjects participating in neuroimaging studies, consumers that experience the (...)
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  13. Mladen Pecujlija, Gordana Misic-Pavkov & Maja Popovic (forthcoming). Personality and Blood Types Revisited: Case of Morality. Neuroethics:1-6.
    Although a large body of research exists concerning connections between personality traits and blood types, no studies can be found within the literature on the links between morality and one’s blood type. We have conducted research examining whether blood type has any impact on the degree to which moral foundations, according to Haidt , are observable in an individual. Our study focused on 240 adult male and female subjects, with an average age of 43.47 years; each group was based on (...)
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  14. Shreeya Popat & William Winslade (forthcoming). While You Were Sleepwalking: Science and Neurobiology of Sleep Disorders & the Enigma of Legal Responsibility of Violence During Parasomnia. Neuroethics:1-12.
    In terms of medical science and legal responsibility, the sleep disorder category of parasomnias, chiefly REM sleep behavior disorder and somnambulism, pose an enigmatic dilemma. During an episode of parasomnia, individuals are neither awake nor aware, but their actions appear conscious. As these actions move beyond the innocuous, such as eating and blurting out embarrassing information, and enter the realm of rape and homicide, their degree of importance and relevance increases exponentially. Parasomnias that result in illegal activity, particularly violence, are (...)
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  15. Hanno Sauer (forthcoming). Can’T We All Disagree More Constructively? Moral Foundations, Moral Reasoning, and Political Disagreement. Neuroethics:1-17.
    Can’t we all disagree more constructively? Recent years have seen a dramatic increase in political partisanship: the 2013 shutdown of the US government as well as an ever more divided political landscape in Europe illustrate that citizens and representatives of developed nations fundamentally disagree over virtually every significant issue of public policy, from immigration to health care, from the regulation of financial markets to climate change, from drug policies to medical procedures . The emerging field of political psychology brings the (...)
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  16. Rowan P. Sommers, Roy Dings, Koen I. Neijenhuijs, Hannah Andringa, Sebastian Arts, Daphne van de Bult, Laura Klockenbusch, Emiel Wanningen, Leon C. De Bruin & Pim F. G. Haselager (forthcoming). A Young Scientists’ Perspective on DBS: A Plea for an International DBS Organization. Neuroethics:1-4.
    Our think tank tasked by the Dutch Health Council, consisting of Radboud University Nijmegen Honours Academy students with various backgrounds, investigated the implications of Deep Brain Stimulation for psychiatric patients. During this investigation, a number of methodological, ethical and societal difficulties were identified. We consider these difficulties to be a reflection of a still fragmented field of research that can be overcome with improved organization and communication. To this effect, we suggest that it would be useful to found a centralized (...)
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  17. Hazem Zohny (forthcoming). The Myth of Cognitive Enhancement Drugs. Neuroethics:1-13.
    There are a number of premises underlying much of the vigorous debate on pharmacological cognitive enhancement. Among these are claims in the enhancement literature that such drugs exist and are effective among the cognitively normal. These drugs are deemed to enhance cognition specifically, as opposed to other non-cognitive facets of our psychology, such as mood and motivation. The focus on these drugs as cognitive enhancers also suggests that they raise particular ethical questions, or perhaps more pressing ones, compared to those (...)
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