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  1. Olival Freire Jr (2014). The Everett Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics – Collected Works 1955–1980 with Commentary. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (2):263-264.
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  2. Robert Brandenberger (2014). Do We Have a Theory of Early Universe Cosmology? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):109-121.
    The inflationary scenario has become the paradigm of early universe cosmology, and – in conjunction with ideas from superstring theory—has led to speculations about an “inflationary multiverse”. From a point of view of phenomenology, the inflationary universe scenario has been very successful. However, the scenario suffers from some conceptual problems, and thus it does not have the status of a solid theory. There are alternative ideas for the evolution of the very early universe which do not involve inflation but which (...)
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  3. Jeremy Butterfield (2014). On Under-Determination in Cosmology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):57-69.
    I discuss how modern cosmology illustrates under-determination of theoretical hypotheses by data, in ways that are different from most philosophical discussions. I emphasise cosmology's concern with what data could in principle be collected by a single observer ; and I give a broadly sceptical discussion of cosmology's appeal to the cosmological principle as a way of breaking the under-determination .I confine most of the discussion to the history of the observable universe from about one second after the Big Bang, as (...)
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  4. George Ellis (2014). On the Philosophy of Cosmology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):5-23.
    This paper gives an overview of significant issues in the philosophy of cosmology, starting off by emphasizing the uniqueness of the universe and the way models are used in description and explanation. It then considers, basic limits on observations; the need to test alternatives; ways to test consistency; and implications of the uniqueness of the universe as regards distinguishing laws of physics from contingent conditions. It goes on to look at the idea of a multiverse as a scientific explanation of (...)
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  5. Brigitte Falkenburg (2014). On the Contributions of Astroparticle Physics to Cosmology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):97-108.
    Studying astroparticle physics sheds new light on scientific explanation and on the ways in which cosmology is empirically underdetermined or not. Astroparticle physics extends the empirical domain of cosmology from purely astronomical data to “multi-messenger astrophysics”, i.e., measurements of all kinds of cosmic rays including very high energetic gamma rays, neutrinos, and charged particles. My paper investigates the ways in which these measurements contribute to cosmology and compares them with philosophical views about scientific explanation, the relation between theory and data, (...)
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  6. Domenico Giulini (2014). Does Cosmological Expansion Affect Local Physics? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):24-37.
    In this contribution I wish to address the question whether, and how, the global cosmological expansion influences local physics, like particle orbits and black hole geometries. Regarding the former I argue that a pseudo Newtonian picture can be quite accurate if “expansion” is taken to be an attribute of the inertial structure rather than of “space” in some substantivalist sense. This contradicts the often-heard suggestion to imagine cosmological expansion as that of “space itself”. Regarding isolated objects in full General Relativity, (...)
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  7. J. Hamilton (2014). What Have We Learned From Observational Cosmology? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):70-85.
    We review the observational foundations of the ΛCDMΛCDM model, considered by most cosmologists as the standard model of cosmology. The Cosmological Principle, a key assumption of the model is shown to be verified with increasing accuracy. The fact that the Universe seems to have expanded from a hot and dense past is supported by many independent probes . The explosion of detailed observations in the last few decades has allowed for precise measurements of the cosmological parameters within Friedman–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker cosmologies leading (...)
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  8. Helge Kragh (2014). Testability and Epistemic Shifts in Modern Cosmology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):48-56.
    During the last decade new developments in theoretical and speculative cosmology have reopened the old discussion of cosmology's scientific status and the more general question of the demarcation between science and non-science. The multiverse hypothesis, in particular, is central to this discussion and controversial because it seems to disagree with methodological and epistemic standards traditionally accepted in the physical sciences. But what are these standards and how sacrosanct are they? Does anthropic multiverse cosmology rest on evaluation criteria that conflict with (...)
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  9. Marc Lachièze-rey (2014). In Search of Relativistic Time. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):38-47.
    This paper explores the status of some notions which are usually associated to time, like datations, chronology, durations, causality, cosmic time and time functions in the Einsteinian relativistic theories. It shows how, even if some of these notions do exist in the theory or for some particular solution of it, they appear usually in mutual conflict: they cannot be synthesized coherently, and this is interpreted as the impossibility to construct a common entity which could be called time. This contrasts with (...)
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  10. Martín López-Corredoira (2014). Non-Standard Models and the Sociology of Cosmology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):86-96.
    I review some theoretical ideas in cosmology different from the standard “Big Bang”: the quasi-steady state model, the plasma cosmology model, non-cosmological redshifts, alternatives to non-baryonic dark matter and/or dark energy, and others. Cosmologists do not usually work within the framework of alternative cosmologies because they feel that these are not at present as competitive as the standard model. Certainly, they are not so developed, and they are not so developed because cosmologists do not work on them. It is a (...)
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  11. Henrik Zinkernagel (2014). Philosophical Aspects of Modern Cosmology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 46 (1):1-4.
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  12. Alberto De Gregorio (2014). Bohr's Way to Defining Complementarity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 45 (1):72-82.
    We go through Bohr's talk about complementary features of quantum theory at the Volta Conference in September 1927, by collating a manuscript that Bohr wrote in Como with the unpublished stenographic report of his talk. We conclude – also with the help of some unpublished letters – that Bohr gave a very concise speech in September. The formulation of his ideas became fully developed only between the fifth Solvay Conference, in Brussels in October, and early 1928. The unpublished stenographic reports (...)
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  13. J. Allan Hobson (2014). Consciousness, Dreams, and Inference: The Cartesian Theatre Revisited. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 21 (1-2):6-32.
    This paper considers the Cartesian theatre as a metaphor for the virtual reality models that the brain uses to make inferences about the world. This treatment derives from our attempts to understand dreaming and waking consciousness in terms of free energy minimization. The idea here is that the Cartesian theatre is not observed by an internal audience but furnishes a theatre in which fictive narratives and fantasies can be rehearsed and tested against sensory evidence. We suppose the brain is driven (...)
     
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