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Forthcoming articles
  1.  4
    Marcoen J. T. F. Cabbolet (forthcoming). The Least Interesting Unit: A New Concept for Enhancing One’s Academic Career Opportunities. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-5.
    Motivated by a current development in the physics community, this paper introduces the notion of a least interesting unit in research as an investigation that is just interesting enough to pursue. A new general maxim for science is then that a researcher should pursue as many LIUs as possible. Although fulfilling this maxim enhances one’s perspective for a career in the present publish-or-perish academic world, in particular when simultaneously publishing one’s results in the form of as many least publishable units (...)
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  2.  14
    Shane Epting (forthcoming). The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-15.
    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary (...)
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  3.  6
    Shane Epting (forthcoming). An Applied Mereology of the City: Unifying Science and Philosophy for Urban Planning. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-14.
    Based on their research showing that growing cities follow basic principles, two theoretical physicists, Luis Bettencourt and Geoffrey West, call for researchers and professionals to contribute to a grand theory of urban sustainability. In their research, they develop a ‘science of the city’ to help urban planners address problems that arise from population increases. Although they provide valuable insights for understanding urban sustainability issues, they do not give planners a manageable way to approach such problems. I argue that developing an (...)
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  4.  1
    Shane Epting (forthcoming). A Different Trolley Problem: The Limits of Environmental Justice and the Promise of Complex Moral Assessments for Transportation Infrastructure. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-15.
    Transportation infrastructure tremendously affects the quality of life for urban residents, influences public and mental health, and shapes social relations. Historically, the topic is rich with social and political controversy and the resultant transit systems in the United States cause problems for minority residents and issues for the public. Environmental justice frameworks provide a means to identify and address harms that affect marginalized groups, but environmental justice has limits that cannot account for the mainstream population. To account for this (...)
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  5.  1
    Renan Moritz V. R. Almeida, Karina de Albuquerque Rocha, Fernanda Catelani, Aldo José Fontes-Pereira & Sonia M. R. Vasconcelos (forthcoming). Plagiarism Allegations Account for Most Retractions in Major Latin American/Caribbean Databases. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-10.
    This study focuses on retraction notices from two major Latin American/Caribbean indexing databases: SciELO and LILACS. SciELO includes open scientific journals published mostly in Latin America/the Caribbean, from which 10 % are also indexed by Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge Journal of Citation Reports. LILACS has a similar geographical coverage and includes dissertations and conference/symposia proceedings, but it is limited to publications in the health sciences. A search for retraction notices was performed in these two databases using the keywords “retracted”, (...)
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  6. Jan Peter Bergen (forthcoming). Reversible Experiments: Putting Geological Disposal to the Test. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  7.  4
    Barry Bozeman & Jan Youtie (forthcoming). Trouble in Paradise: Problems in Academic Research Co-Authoring. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-27.
    Scholars and policy-makers have expressed concerns about the crediting of coauthors in research publications. Most such problems fall into one of two categories, excluding deserving contributors or including undeserving ones. But our research shows that there is no consensus on “deserving” or on what type of contribution suffices for co-authorship award. Our study uses qualitative data, including interviews with 60 US academic science or engineering researchers in 14 disciplines in a set of geographically distributed research-intensive universities. We also employ (...)
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  8.  8
    Tatjana Crnjanski, Dusanka Krajnovic, Ivana Tadic, Svetlana Stojkov & Mirko Savic (forthcoming). An Ethical Issue Scale for Community Pharmacy Setting : Development and Validation. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-12.
    Many problems that arise when providing pharmacy services may contain some ethical components and the aims of this study were to develop and validate a scale that could assess difficulties of ethical issues, as well as the frequency of those occurrences in everyday practice of community pharmacists. Development and validation of the scale was conducted in three phases: generating items for the initial survey instrument after qualitative analysis; defining the design and format of the instrument; validation of the instrument. The (...)
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  9. Irja Marije de Jong, Frank Kupper, Marlous Arentshorst & Jacqueline Broerse (forthcoming). Responsible Reporting: Neuroimaging News in the Age of Responsible Research and Innovation. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  10.  1
    Marloes Dignum, Aad Correljé, Eefje Cuppen, Udo Pesch & Behnam Taebi (forthcoming). Contested Technologies and Design for Values: The Case of Shale Gas. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  11.  1
    James M. DuBois, John T. Chibnall & John Gibbs (forthcoming). Compliance Disengagement in Research: Development and Validation of a New Measure. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  12. T. C. Erren, D. M. Shaw & P. Morfeld (forthcoming). Analyzing the Publish-or-Perish Paradigm with Game Theory: The Prisoner’s Dilemma and a Possible Escape. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  13. Viviana Giannuzzi, Annagrazia Altavilla, Lucia Ruggieri & Adriana Ceci (forthcoming). Clinical Trial Application in Europe: What Will Change with the New Regulation? Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    The European framework surrounding clinical trials on medicinal products for human use is going to change as demonstrated by the large debate at European institutional level. One of the major challenges is to overcome the lack of harmonisation of clinical trial procedures among countries. This aspect is gaining more and more importance, considering the increasing number of multicentre and multinational studies. In this work, the actual European rules governing the Clinical Trial Application have been analysed throughout the different steps including (...)
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  14. David J. Hartmann, Thomas Van Valey & Wayne Fuqua (forthcoming). Coding Ethical Decision-Making in Research. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  15.  5
    David R. Johnson & Elaine Howard Ecklund (forthcoming). Ethical Ambiguity in Science. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  16.  1
    Tanuj Kanchan, Abhishek Tandon & Kewal Krishan (forthcoming). Honor Killing: Where Pride Defeats Reason. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-2.
    Honor killings are graceless and ferocious murders by chauvinists with an antediluvian mind. These are categorized separately because these killings are committed for the prime reason of satisfying the ego of the people whom the victim trusts and always looks up to for support and protection. It is for this sole reason that honor killings demand strict and stern punishment, not only for the person who committed the murder but also for any person who contributed or was party (...)
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  17.  4
    Catherine Elizabeth Kendig (forthcoming). What is Proof of Concept Research and How Does It Generate Epistemic and Ethical Categories for Future Scientific Practice? Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    “Proof of concept” is a phrase frequently used in descriptions of research sought in program announcements, in experimental studies, and in the marketing of new technologies. It is often coupled with either a short definition or none at all, its meaning assumed to be fully understood. This is problematic. As a phrase with potential implications for research and technology, its assumed meaning requires some analysis to avoid it becoming a descriptive category that refers to all things scientifically exciting. I provide (...)
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  18.  1
    Celine Kermisch (forthcoming). Specifying the Concept of Future Generations for Addressing Issues Related to High-Level Radioactive Waste. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-15.
    The nuclear community frequently refers to the concept of “future generations” when discussing the management of high-level radioactive waste. However, this notion is generally not defined. In this context, we have to assume a wide definition of the concept of future generations, conceived as people who will live after the contemporary people are dead. This definition embraces thus each generation following ours, without any restriction in time. The aim of this paper is to show that, in the debate about nuclear (...)
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  19. Ali Khaki Sedigh (forthcoming). Ethics: An Indispensable Dimension in the University Rankings. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  20.  1
    Leonidas G. Koniaris, Mary I. Coombs, Eric M. Meslin & Teresa A. Zimmers (forthcoming). Protecting Ideas: Ethical and Legal Considerations When a Grant’s Principal Investigator Changes. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  21.  5
    Peter Kroes (forthcoming). Experiments on Socio-Technical Systems: The Problem of Control. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-13.
    My aim is to question whether the introduction of new technologies in society may be considered to be genuine experiments. I will argue that they are not, at least not in the sense in which the notion of experiment is being used in the natural and social sciences. If the introduction of a new technology in society is interpreted as an experiment, then we are dealing with a notion of experiment that differs in an important respect from the notion of (...)
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  22. Richard Meissner (forthcoming). The Relevance of Social Theory in the Practice of Environmental Management. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  23.  1
    Helen Nissenbaum (forthcoming). Respecting Context to Protect Privacy: Why Meaning Matters. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  24.  3
    Morten P. Oksvold (forthcoming). Incidence of Data Duplications in a Randomly Selected Pool of Life Science Publications. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-10.
    Since the solution to many public health problems depends on research, it is critical for the progress and well-being for the patients that we can trust the scientific literature. Misconduct and poor laboratory practice in science threatens the scientific progress, leads to loss of productivity and increased healthcare costs, and endangers lives of patients. Data duplication may represent one of challenges related to these problems. In order to estimate the frequency of data duplication in life science literature, a systematic screen (...)
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  25.  2
    Pratap R. Patnaik (forthcoming). Scientific Misconduct in India: Causes and Perpetuation. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  26. Tarcisio Abreu Saurin (forthcoming). Ethics in Publishing: Complexity Science and Human Factors Offer Insights to Develop a Just Culture. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  27.  3
    Jan Cornelius Schmidt (forthcoming). Prospective Technology Assessment of Synthetic Biology: Fundamental and Propaedeutic Reflections in Order to Enable an Early Assessment. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  28. Maximilian Schochow, Dajana Schnell & Florian Steger (forthcoming). Implementation of Clinical Ethics Consultation in German Hospitals. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  29.  4
    Ibo van de Poel (forthcoming). An Ethical Framework for Evaluating Experimental Technology. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    How are we to appraise new technological developments that may bring revolutionary social changes? Currently this is often done by trying to predict or anticipate social consequences and to use these as a basis for moral and regulatory appraisal. Such an approach can, however, not deal with the uncertainties and unknowns that are inherent in social changes induced by technological development. An alternative approach is proposed that conceives of the introduction of new technologies into society as a social experiment. An (...)
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  30.  1
    Jia Zhu, Gabriel Fung, Wai Hung Wong, Zhixu Li & Chuanhua Xu (forthcoming). Evaluating the Pros and Cons of Different Peer Review Policies Via Simulation. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  31.  2
    Mehmet Aközer & Emel Aközer (forthcoming). Basing Science Ethics on Respect for Human Dignity. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-21.
    A “no ethics” principle has long been prevalent in science and has demotivated deliberation on scientific ethics. This paper argues the following: An understanding of a scientific “ethos” based on actual “value preferences” and “value repugnances” prevalent in the scientific community permits and demands critical accounts of the “no ethics” principle in science. The roots of this principle may be traced to a repugnance of human dignity, which was instilled at a historical breaking point in the interrelation between science and (...)
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  32.  9
    M. Peiffer Ann, E. Hugenschmidt Christina & J. Laurienti Paul (forthcoming). Ethics in 15 Min Per Week. Science and Engineering Ethics.
    The demand for science trainees to have appropriate responsible conduct of research instruction continues to increase the attention shown by federal agencies and graduate school programs to the development of effective ethics curriculums. However, it is important to consider that the main learning environment for science graduate students and post-doctoral research fellows is within a laboratory setting. Here we discuss an internal laboratory program of weekly 15-minute ethics discussions implemented and used over the last 3 years in addition to the (...)
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  33. Amin Asadi, Nader Rahbar, Meisam Asadi, Fahime Asadi & Kokab Khalili Paji (forthcoming). Online-Based Approaches to Identify Real Journals and Publishers From Hijacked Ones. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-4.
    The aim of the present paper was to introduce some online-based approaches to evaluate scientific journals and publishers and to differentiate them from the hijacked ones, regardless of their disciplines. With the advent of open-access journals, many hijacked journals and publishers have deceitfully assumed the mantle of authenticity in order to take advantage of researchers and students. Although these hijacked journals and publishers can be identified through checking their advertisement techniques and their websites, these ways do not always result in (...)
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  34.  8
    Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani (forthcoming). Recruitment Processes in Academia: Does the Emperor Have Any Clothes? Science and Engineering Ethics:1-4.
    The final outcome of promotion and recruitment processes in universities should be conventional and plausible by the members of the relevant scientific community, to affirm that the processes have been competitive and fair. The objective of this opinion letter is to make a plea for the importance of the post-auditing and quantitative assessment of the selection criteria. It is shown that for an example case the outcome of the post-audit does not look reasonable from an external point of view, at (...)
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  35. Behzad Ataie-Ashtiani (forthcoming). Declaration of Conflicts of Interest in Networking Era: Raising the Bar. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-3.
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  36.  2
    Gianmarco Baldini, Maarten Botterman, Ricardo Neisse & Mariachiara Tallacchini (forthcoming). Ethical Design in the Internet of Things. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-21.
    Even though public awareness about privacy risks in the Internet is increasing, in the evolution of the Internet to the Internet of Things these risks are likely to become more relevant due to the large amount of data collected and processed by the “Things”. The business drivers for exploring ways to monetize such data are one of the challenges identified in this paper for the protection of Privacy in the IoT. Beyond the protection of privacy, this paper highlights the need (...)
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  37.  2
    Roberta M. Berry, Aaron D. Levine, Robert Kirkman, Laura Palucki Blake & Matthew Drake (forthcoming). Navigating Bioethical Waters: Two Pilot Projects in Problem-Based Learning for Future Bioscience and Biotechnology Professionals. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    We believe that the professional responsibility of bioscience and biotechnology professionals includes a social responsibility to contribute to the resolution of ethically fraught policy problems generated by their work. It follows that educators have a professional responsibility to prepare future professionals to discharge this responsibility. This essay discusses two pilot projects in ethics pedagogy focused on particularly challenging policy problems, which we call “fractious problems”. The projects aimed to advance future professionals’ acquisition of “fractious problem navigational” skills, a set of (...)
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  38.  2
    Angela R. Bielefeldt & Nathan E. Canney (forthcoming). Changes in the Social Responsibility Attitudes of Engineering Students Over Time. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-17.
    This research explored how engineering student views of their responsibility toward helping individuals and society through their profession, so-called social responsibility, change over time. A survey instrument was administered to students initially primarily in their first year, senior year, or graduate studies majoring in mechanical, civil, or environmental engineering at five institutions in September 2012, April 2013, and March 2014. The majority of the students did not change significantly in their social responsibility attitudes, but 23 % decreased and 20 % (...)
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  39.  2
    Annibale Biggeri & Mariachiara Tallacchini (forthcoming). Information and Communication Technologies, Genes, and Peer-Production of Knowledge to Empower Citizens’ Health. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-15.
    The different and seemingly unrelated practices of Information and Communication Technologies used to collect and share personal and scientific data within networked communities, and the organized storage of human genetic samples and information—namely biobanking—have merged with another recent epistemic and social phenomenon, namely scientists and citizens collaborating as “peers” in creating knowledge. These different dimensions can be found in joint initiatives where scientists-and-citizens use genetic information and ICT as powerful ways to gain more control over their health and the environment. (...)
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  40.  5
    Sheila Bonde, Clyde Briant, Paul Firenze, Julianne Hanavan, Amy Huang, Min Li, N. C. Narayanan, D. Parthasarathy & Hongqin Zhao (forthcoming). Making Choices: Ethical Decisions in a Global Context. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-24.
    The changing milieu of research—increasingly global, interdisciplinary and collaborative—prompts greater emphasis on cultural context and upon partnership with international scholars and diverse community groups. Ethics training, however, tends to ignore the cross-cultural challenges of making ethical choices. This paper confronts those challenges by presenting a new curricular model developed by an international team. It examines ethics across a very broad range of situations, using case studies and employing the perspectives of social science, humanities and the sciences. The course has been (...)
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  41.  1
    Alejandra Boni, José Javier Sastre & Carola Calabuig (forthcoming). Educating Engineers for the Public Good Through International Internships: Evidence From a Case Study at Universitat Politècnica de València. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-17.
    At Universitat Politècnica de València, Meridies, an internship programme that places engineering students in countries of Latin America, is one of the few opportunities the students have to explore the implications of being a professional in society in a different cultural and social context. This programme was analyzed using the capabilities approach as a frame of reference for examining the effects of the programme on eight student participants. The eight pro-public-good capabilities proposed by Melanie Walker were investigated through semi-structured interviews. (...)
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  42. Helmar Bornemann-Cimenti, Istvan S. Szilagyi & Andreas Sandner-Kiesling (forthcoming). Perpetuation of Retracted Publications Using the Example of the Scott S. Reuben Case: Incidences, Reasons and Possible Improvements. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-10.
    In 2009, Scott S. Reuben was convicted of fabricating data, which lead to 25 of his publications being retracted. Although it is clear that the perpetuation of retracted articles negatively effects the appraisal of evidence, the extent to which retracted literature is cited had not previously been investigated. In this study, to better understand the perpetuation of discredited research, we examine the number of citations of Reuben’s articles within 5 years of their retraction. Citations of Reuben’s retracted articles were assessed (...)
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  43. Philip Boucher (forthcoming). ‘‘You Wouldn’T Have Your Granny Using Them’: Drawing Boundaries Between Acceptable and Unacceptable Applications of Civil Drones. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-28.
    Some industry and policy actors are concerned about public opposition to civil drones, in particular because of their association with military drones. However, very little is understood about public reactions to the technology. Strategies to ‘manage public acceptance’ have so far relied upon several untested assumptions. We conducted public engagement activities to explore citizens’ visions of civil drones. Several insights counteracted the prevailing assumptions. Rejecting the notion of blanket support for or opposition to civil drones, we found that citizens make (...)
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  44.  3
    Dennis Bray & Hans von Storch (forthcoming). The Normative Orientations of Climate Scientists. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-17.
    In 1942 Robert K. Merton tried to demonstrate the structure of the normative system of science by specifying the norms that characterized it. The norms were assigned the abbreviation CUDOs: Communism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, and Organized skepticism. Using the results of an on-line survey of climate scientists concerning the norms of science, this paper explores the climate scientists’ subscription to these norms. The data suggests that while Merton’s CUDOs remain the overall guiding moral principles, they are not fully endorsed or present (...)
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  45.  8
    Katherine Austin Byron Newberry, Greta Gorsuch William Lawson & Thomas Darwin (forthcoming). Acclimating International Graduate Students to Professional Engineering Ethics. Science and Engineering Ethics.
    This article describes the education portion of an ongoing grant-sponsored education and research project designed to help graduate students in all engineering disciplines learn about the basic ethical principles, rules, and obligations associated with engineering practice in the United States. While the curriculum developed for this project is used for both domestic and international students, the educational materials were designed to be sensitive to the specific needs of international graduate students. In recent years, engineering programs in the United States have (...)
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  46.  1
    Alan Cottey (forthcoming). Reducing Ethical Hazards in Knowledge Production. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-23.
    This article discusses the ethics of knowledge production from a cultural point of view, in contrast with the more usual emphasis on the ethical issues facing individuals involved in KP. Here, the emphasis is on the cultural environment within which individuals, groups and institutions perform KP. A principal purpose is to suggest ways in which reliable scientific knowledge could be produced more efficiently. The distinction between ethical hazard and ethical behaviour is noted. Ethical hazards cannot be eliminated but they can (...)
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  47.  1
    Howard J. Curzer, Gad Perry, Mark C. Wallace & Dan Perry (forthcoming). The Three Rs of Animal Research: What They Mean for the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee and Why. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-17.
    The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee is entrusted with assessing the ethics of proposed projects prior to approval of animal research. The role of the IACUC is detailed in legislation and binding rules, which are in turn inspired by the Three Rs: the principles of Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement. However, these principles are poorly defined. Although this provides the IACUC leeway in assessing a proposed project, it also affords little guidance. Our goal is to provide procedural and philosophical clarity (...)
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  48.  2
    Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva & Judit Dobránszki (forthcoming). Multiple Authorship in Scientific Manuscripts: Ethical Challenges, Ghost and Guest/Gift Authorship, and the Cultural/Disciplinary Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    Multiple authorship is the universal solution to multi-tasking in the sciences. Without a team, each with their own set of expertise, and each involved mostly in complementary ways, a research project will likely not advance quickly, or effectively. Consequently, there is a risk that research goals will not be met within a desired timeframe. Research teams that strictly scrutinize their modus operandi select and include a set of authors that have participated substantially in the physical undertaking of the research, in (...)
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  49.  1
    Filippo Santoni de Sio & Aimee van Wynsberghe (forthcoming). When Should We Use Care Robots? The Nature-of-Activities Approach. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    When should we use care robots? In this paper we endorse the shift from a simple normative approach to care robots ethics to a complex one: we think that one main task of a care robot ethics is that of analysing the different ways in which different care robots may affect the different values at stake in different care practices. We start filling a gap in the literature by showing how the philosophical analysis of the nature of healthcare activities can (...)
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  50.  5
    Neelke Doorn (forthcoming). Governance Experiments in Water Management: From Interests to Building Blocks. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    The management of water is a topic of great concern. Inadequate management may lead to water scarcity and ecological destruction, but also to an increase of catastrophic floods. With climate change, both water scarcity and the risk of flooding are likely to increase even further in the coming decades. This makes water management currently a highly dynamic field, in which experiments are made with new forms of policy making. In the current paper, a case study is presented in which different (...)
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  51. Neelke Doorn, Shannon Spruit & Zoë Robaey (forthcoming). Editors’ Overview: Experiments, Ethics, and New Technologies. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-5.
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  52. Vilius Dranseika, Jan Piasecki & Marcin Waligora (forthcoming). Relevant Information and Informed Consent in Research: In Defense of the Subjective Standard of Disclosure. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-11.
    In this article, we seek to contribute to the debate on the requirement of disclosure in the context of informed consent for research. We defend the subjective standard of disclosure and describe ways to implement this standard in research practice. We claim that the researcher should make an effort to find out what kinds of information are likely to be relevant for those consenting to research. This invites researchers to take empirical survey information seriously, attempt to understand the cultural context, (...)
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  53.  12
    James M. DuBois, John T. Chibnall, Raymond C. Tait, Jillon S. Vander Wal, Kari A. Baldwin, Alison L. Antes & Michael D. Mumford (forthcoming). Professional Decision-Making in Research : The Validity of a New Measure. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-26.
    In this paper, we report on the development and validity of the Professional Decision-Making in Research measure, a vignette-based test that examines decision-making strategies used by investigators when confronted with challenging situations in the context of empirical research. The PDR was administered online with a battery of validity measures to a group of NIH-funded researchers and research trainees who were diverse in terms of age, years of experience, types of research, and race. The PDR demonstrated adequate reliability and parallel form (...)
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  54. Elaine Howard Ecklund & Di Di (forthcoming). A Gendered Approach to Science Ethics for US and UK Physicists. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    Some research indicates that women professionals—when compared to men—may be more ethical in the workplace. Existing literature that discusses gender and ethics is confined to the for-profit business sector and primarily to a US context. In particular, there is little attention paid to gender and ethics in science professions in a global context. This represents a significant gap, as science is a rapidly growing and global professional sector, as well as one with ethically ambiguous areas. Adopting an international comparative perspective, (...)
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  55. Ayman El-Menyar, Mohammad Asim, Rifat Latifi & Hassan Al-Thani (forthcoming). Research in Emergency and Critical Care Settings: Debates, Obstacles and Solutions. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-22.
    Research is an integral part of evidence-based practice in the emergency department and critical care unit that improves patient management. It is important to understand the need and major obstacles for conducting research in emergency settings. Herein, we review the literature for the obligations, ethics and major implications of emergency research and the associated limiting factors influencing research activities in critical care and emergency settings. We reviewed research engines such as PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE for the last two decades using (...)
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  56.  48
    W. Schienke Erich, D. Baum Seth, Kenneth Nancy Tuana & Klaus Keller J. Davis (forthcoming). Intrinsic Ethics Regarding Integrated Assessment Models for Climate Management. Science and Engineering Ethics.
    In this essay we develop and argue for the adoption of a more comprehensive model of research ethics than is included within current conceptions of responsible conduct of research (RCR). We argue that our model, which we label the ethical dimensions of scientific research (EDSR), is a more comprehensive approach to encouraging ethically responsible scientific research compared to the currently typically adopted approach in RCR training. This essay focuses on developing a pedagogical approach that enables scientists to better understand and (...)
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  57. Andrei Famenka (forthcoming). Research Ethics in the Context of Transition: Gaps in Policies and Programs on the Protection of Research Participants in the Selected Countries of Central and Eastern Europe. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.
    This paper examines the ability of countries in Central and Eastern Europe to ensure appropriate protection of research participants in the field of increasingly globalizing biomedical research. By applying an analytical framework for identifying gaps in policies and programs for human subjects protection to four countries of CEE—Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, substantial gaps in the scope and content of relevant policies and major impediments to program performance have been revealed. In these countries, public policies on the protection of research (...)
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  58.  5
    Luciano Floridi (forthcoming). Tolerant Paternalism: Pro-Ethical Design as a Resolution of the Dilemma of Toleration. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    Toleration is one of the fundamental principles that inform the design of a democratic and liberal society. Unfortunately, its adoption seems inconsistent with the adoption of paternalistically benevolent policies, which represent a valuable mechanism to improve individuals’ well-being. In this paper, I refer to this tension as the dilemma of toleration. The dilemma is not new. It arises when an agent A would like to be tolerant and respectful towards another agent B’s choices but, at the same time, A is (...)
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  59.  1
    Scott D. Gelfand (forthcoming). Using Insights From Applied Moral Psychology to Promote Ethical Behavior Among Engineering Students and Professional Engineers. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-22.
    In this essay I discuss a novel engineering ethics class that has the potential to significantly decrease the likelihood that students will inadvertently or unintentionally act unethically in the future. This class is different from standard engineering ethics classes in that it focuses on the issue of why people act unethically and how students can avoid a variety of hurdles to ethical behavior. I do not deny that it is important for students to develop cogent moral reasoning and ethical decision-making (...)
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  60.  6
    Gonzalo Génova & M. Rosario González (forthcoming). Teaching Ethics to Engineers: A Socratic Experience. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-14.
    In this paper we present the authors’ experience of teaching a course in Ethics for Engineers, which has been delivered four times in three different universities in Spain and Chile. We begin by presenting the material context of the course , and especially the intellectual background of the participating students, in terms of their previous understanding of philosophy in general, and of ethics in particular. Next we set out the objectives of the course and the main topics addressed, as well (...)
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  61.  2
    Ksenia Gerasimova (forthcoming). Debates on Genetically Modified Crops in the Context of Sustainable Development. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-23.
    The paper discusses conflicts in perceptions of GM crops illustrating the complexities of GM debates and applications of the concept of sustainable development. The concept consists of three discourses that both opponents and supporters of GM crops refer to in their analyses: environmentalism, social and economic development and the two sub-issues of sustainable development—biodiversity loss and food security. This creates a unique situation when both proponents and opponents of GM food use the same framework of sustainable development to support their (...)
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  62.  1
    Mansour Ghanian, Omid M. Ghoochani, Miranda Kitterlin, Sheida Jahangiry, Kiumars Zarafshani, Steven Van Passel & Hossein Azadi (forthcoming). Attitudes of Agricultural Experts Toward Genetically Modified Crops: A Case Study in Southwest Iran. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    The production of genetically modified crops is growing around the world, and with it possible opportunities to combat food insecurity and hunger, as well as solutions to current problems facing conventional agriculture. In this regard the use of GMOs in food and agricultural applications has increased greatly over the past decade. However, the development of GM crops has been a matter of considerable interest and worldwide public controversy. This, in addition to skepticism, has stifled the use of this practice on (...)
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  63.  2
    Sven Ove Hansson (forthcoming). Experiments: Why and How? Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    An experiment, in the standard scientific sense of the term, is a procedure in which some object of study is subjected to interventions that aim at obtaining a predictable outcome or at least predictable aspects of the outcome. The distinction between an experiment and a non-experimental observation is important since they are tailored to different epistemic needs. Experimentation has its origin in pre-scientific technological experiments that were undertaken in order to find the best technological means to achieve chosen ends. Important (...)
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  64.  7
    Ronnie Hawkins (forthcoming). Facing Up to Complexity: Implications for Our Social Experiments. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-40.
    Biological systems are highly complex, and for this reason there is a considerable degree of uncertainty as to the consequences of making significant interventions into their workings. Since a number of new technologies are already impinging on living systems, including our bodies, many of us have become participants in large-scale “social experiments”. I will discuss biological complexity and its relevance to the technologies that brought us BSE/vCJD and the controversy over GM foods. Then I will consider some of the complexities (...)
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  65. Amber M. Henslee, Susan L. Murray, Gayla R. Olbricht, Douglas K. Ludlow, Malcolm E. Hays & Hannah M. Nelson (forthcoming). Assessing Freshman Engineering Students’ Understanding of Ethical Behavior. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.
    Academic dishonesty, including cheating and plagiarism, is on the rise in colleges, particularly among engineering students. While students decide to engage in these behaviors for many different reasons, academic integrity training can help improve their understanding of ethical decision making. The two studies outlined in this paper assess the effectiveness of an online module in increasing academic integrity among first semester engineering students. Study 1 tested the effectiveness of an academic honesty tutorial by using a between groups design with a (...)
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  66. Martina Horvat, Ana Mlinaric, Jelena Omazic & Vesna Supak-Smolcic (forthcoming). An Analysis of Medical Laboratory Technology Journals’ Instructions for Authors. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-12.
    Instructions for authors need to be informative and regularly updated. We hypothesized that journals with a higher impact factor have more comprehensive IFA. The aim of the study was to examine whether IFA of journals indexed in the Journal Citation Reports 2013, “Medical Laboratory Technology” category, are written in accordance with the latest recommendations and whether the quality of instructions correlates with the journals’ IF. 6 out of 31 journals indexed in “Medical Laboratory Technology” category were excluded. The remaining 25 (...)
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  67. Frauke Hoss & Alex John London (forthcoming). Assessing the Moral Coherence and Moral Robustness of Social Systems: Proof of Concept for a Graphical Models Approach. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    This paper presents a proof of concept for a graphical models approach to assessing the moral coherence and moral robustness of systems of social interactions. “Moral coherence” refers to the degree to which the rights and duties of agents within a system are effectively respected when agents in the system comply with the rights and duties that are recognized as in force for the relevant context of interaction. “Moral robustness” refers to the degree to which a system of social interaction (...)
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  68.  3
    Noor Munirah Isa (forthcoming). Darurah and Its Application in Islamic Ethical Assessment of Medical Applications: A Review on Malaysian Fatwa. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-14.
    The discovery and invention of new medical applications may be considered blessings to humankind. However, some applications which might be the only remedy for certain diseases may contain ingredients or involve methods that are not in harmony with certain cultural and religious perspectives. These situations have raised important questions in medical ethics; are these applications completely prohibited according to these perspectives, and is there any room for mitigation? This paper explores the concept of darurah and its deliberation in the formulation (...)
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  69.  2
    N. Jordan Jameson, Xin Song & Michael Pecht (forthcoming). Conflict Minerals in Electronic Systems: An Overview and Critique of Legal Initiatives. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-15.
    The Democratic Republic of Congo has vast natural resources, many of which are regularly exploited by the electronics industry. Unfortunately, in addition to these resources, there are widespread human rights abuses committed by armed groups entrenched in the eastern part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. These armed groups are using profits from these minerals as a source of funding. Their human rights abuses have led to a growing humanitarian interest in the region and prompted the international community to action. (...)
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  70.  1
    Meg Leta Jones & Lucas Regner (forthcoming). Users or Students? Privacy in University MOOCS. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-24.
    Two terms, student privacy and Massive Open Online Courses, have received a significant amount of attention recently. Both represent interesting sites of change in entrenched structures, one educational and one legal. MOOCs represent something college courses have never been able to provide: universal access. Universities not wanting to miss the MOOC wave have started to build MOOC courses and integrate them into the university system in various ways. However, the design and scale of university MOOCs create tension for privacy laws (...)
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  71. Tanuj Kanchan, Alok Atreya & Kewal Krishan (forthcoming). Aruna Shanbaug: Is Her Demise the End of the Road for Legislation on Euthanasia in India? Science and Engineering Ethics:1-3.
    Aruna Ramachandra Shanbaug breathed her last after 42 years of being in a persistent vegetative state. Euthanasia in any form is not permitted in India and it was only in the year 2011 that a petition was filed in the court that urged the cessation of her force feeding with a nasogastric tube and the request for her peaceful death. What followed was a string of arguments and counter arguments relating to Euthanasia. The sad demise of Aruna Shanbaug is not (...)
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  72. Tanuj Kanchan & Kewal Krishan (forthcoming). Politics of Science: Unwarranted Encounters. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-3.
    This communication highlights a very pertinent and recent case of an erroneous representation of the Indian borders in an article ‘India by the numbers’ by Richard Van Noorden in Nature where a considerable part of the Jammu and Kashmir State of India is missing in the map incorporated in the article. The article received a series of comments showing disappointment on the issue and a need for the correction to the depicted Indian borders. The editor instead of making corrections to (...)
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  73. Graham Kendall, Angelina Yee & Barry McCollum (forthcoming). Is There a Role for Publication Consultants and How Should Their Contribution Be Recognized? Science and Engineering Ethics:1-8.
    When a scientific paper, dissertation or thesis is published the author have a duty to report who has contributed to the work. This recognition can take several forms such as authorship, relevant acknowledgments and by citing previous work. There is a growing industry where publication consultants will work with authors, research groups or even institutions to help get their work published, or help submit their dissertation/thesis. This help can range from proof reading, data collection, analysis, helping with the literature review (...)
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  74. Janet K. Kern, David A. Geier, Richard C. Deth, Lisa K. Sykes, Brian S. Hooker, James M. Love, Geir Bjørklund, Carmen G. Chaigneau, Boyd E. Haley & Mark R. Geier (forthcoming). Systematic Assessment of Research on Autism Spectrum Disorder and Mercury Reveals Conflicts of Interest and the Need for Transparency in Autism Research. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-30.
    Historically, entities with a vested interest in a product that critics have suggested is harmful have consistently used research to back their claims that the product is safe. Prominent examples are: tobacco, lead, bisphenol A, and atrazine. Research literature indicates that about 80–90 % of studies with industry affiliation found no harm from the product, while only about 10–20 % of studies without industry affiliation found no harm. In parallel to other historical debates, recent studies examining a possible relationship between (...)
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  75. Eran Klein (forthcoming). Informed Consent in Implantable BCI Research: Identifying Risks and Exploring Meaning. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    Implantable brain–computer interface technology is an expanding area of engineering research now moving into clinical application. Ensuring meaningful informed consent in implantable BCI research is an ethical imperative. The emerging and rapidly evolving nature of implantable BCI research makes identification of risks, a critical component of informed consent, a challenge. In this paper, 6 core risk domains relevant to implantable BCI research are identified—short and long term safety, cognitive and communicative impairment, inappropriate expectations, involuntariness, affective impairment, and privacy and security. (...)
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  76. Lynn T. Kozlowski (forthcoming). Coping with the Conflict-of-Interest Pandemic by Listening to and Doubting Everyone, Including Yourself. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-6.
    In light of the widespread existence of financial and non-financial issues that contribute to the appearance or fact of conflict of interest, it is proposed that conflict of interest should generally be assumed, no matter the source of financial support or the expressed declarations of conflicts and even with respect to one’s own work. No new model is advanced for modification of peer-review processes or for elaboration of author declarations of interest. Researchers should be assessing the quality of published work (...)
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  77.  1
    Lotte Krabbenborg (forthcoming). Creating Inquiry Between Technology Developers and Civil Society Actors: Learning From Experiences Around Nanotechnology. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-16.
    Engaging civil society actors as knowledgeable dialogue partners in the development and governance of emerging technologies is a new challenge. The starting point of this paper is the observation that the design and orchestration of current organized interaction events shows limitations, particularly in the articulation of issues and in learning how to address the indeterminacies that go with emerging technologies. This paper uses Dewey’s notion of ‘publics’ and ‘reflective inquiry’ to outline ways of doing better and to develop requirements for (...)
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  78.  9
    Kewal Krishan, Tanuj Kanchan & Bahadur Singh (forthcoming). Human Genome Editing and Ethical Considerations. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-3.
    Editing human germline genes may act as boon in some genetic and other disorders. Recent editing of the genome of the human embryo with the CRISPR/Cas9 editing tool generated a debate amongst top scientists of the world for the ethical considerations regarding its effect on the future generations. It needs to be seen as to what transformation human gene editing brings to humankind in the times to come.
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  79.  4
    Wei-Tau Lee, James A. Blumenthal & Kenneth H. Funk Ii (forthcoming). A Buddhist Perspective on Industrial Engineering and the Design of Work. Science and Engineering Ethics.
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  80.  1
    Yotam Lurie & Shlomo Mark (forthcoming). Professional Ethics of Software Engineers: An Ethical Framework. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.
    The purpose of this article is to propose an ethical framework for software engineers that connects software developers’ ethical responsibilities directly to their professional standards. The implementation of such an ethical framework can overcome the traditional dichotomy between professional skills and ethical skills, which plagues the engineering professions, by proposing an approach to the fundamental tasks of the practitioner, i.e., software development, in which the professional standards are intrinsically connected to the ethical responsibilities. In so doing, the ethical framework improves (...)
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  81.  2
    Marzieh Maghrouni, Omid Mahian & Somchai Wongwises (forthcoming). Some Review Journals Do Not Allow Students to Author Reviews: Is This Ethical? Science and Engineering Ethics:1-1.
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  82.  1
    Omid Mahian & Somchai Wongwises (forthcoming). Sympathy and Emotions in Academic Research Society. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-2.
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  83.  1
    Josef Maroušek, Simona Hašková, Robert Zeman, Jaroslav Žák, Radka Vaníčková, Anna Maroušková, Jan Váchal & Kateřina Myšková (forthcoming). Polemics on Ethical Aspects in the Compost Business. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-10.
    This paper focuses on compost use in overpasses and underpasses for wild animals over roads and other similar linear structures. In this context, good quality of compost may result in faster and more resistant vegetation cover during the year. Inter alia, this can be interpreted also as reduction of damage and saving lives. There are millions of tones of plant residue produced every day worldwide. These represent prospective business for manufacturers of compost additives called “accelerators”. The opinions of the sale (...)
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  84. Ritesh G. Menezes, Magdy A. Kharoshah, Mohammed Madadin, Vijaya Marakala, Savita Lasrado & Dalal M. Al Tamimi (forthcoming). Authorship: Few Myths and Misconceptions. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-5.
    This article seeks to address and dispel some of the popular myths and misconceptions surrounding authorship of a scientific publication as this is often misconstrued by beginners in academia especially those in the developing world. While ethical issues in publishing related to authorship have been increasingly discussed, not much has been written about the myths and misconceptions of who might be an author. Dispelling these myths and misconceptions would go a long way in shaping the thoughts and plans of students, (...)
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  85. Rafael Miñano, Ángel Uruburu, Ana Moreno-Romero & Diego Pérez-López (forthcoming). Strategies for Teaching Professional Ethics to IT Engineering Degree Students and Evaluating the Result. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-24.
    This paper presents an experience in developing professional ethics by an approach that integrates knowledge, teaching methodologies and assessment coherently. It has been implemented for students in both the Software Engineering and Computer Engineering degree programs of the Technical University of Madrid, in which professional ethics is studied as a part of a required course. Our contribution of this paper is a model for formative assessment that clarifies the learning goals, enhances the results, simplifies the scoring and can be replicated (...)
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  86.  13
    Brent Daniel Mittelstadt & Luciano Floridi (forthcoming). The Ethics of Big Data: Current and Foreseeable Issues in Biomedical Contexts. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-39.
    The capacity to collect and analyse data is growing exponentially. Referred to as ‘Big Data’, this scientific, social and technological trend has helped create destabilising amounts of information, which can challenge accepted social and ethical norms. Big Data remains a fuzzy idea, emerging across social, scientific, and business contexts sometimes seemingly related only by the gigantic size of the datasets being considered. As is often the case with the cutting edge of scientific and technological progress, understanding of the ethical implications (...)
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  87.  12
    Milos N. Mladenovic & Tristram McPherson (forthcoming). Engineering Social Justice Into Traffic Control for Self-Driving Vehicles? Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    The convergence of computing, sensing, and communication technology will soon permit large-scale deployment of self-driving vehicles. This will in turn permit a radical transformation of traffic control technology. This paper makes a case for the importance of addressing questions of social justice in this transformation, and sketches a preliminary framework for doing so. We explain how new forms of traffic control technology have potential implications for several dimensions of social justice, including safety, sustainability, privacy, efficiency, and equal access. Our central (...)
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  88.  2
    Khaled Moustafa (forthcoming). Food and Sustainability Challenges Under Climate Changes. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-6.
    Plants are permanently impacted by their environments, and their abilities to tolerate multiple fluctuating environmental conditions vary as a function of several genetic and natural factors. Over the past decades, scientific innovations and applications of the knowledge derived from biotechnological investigations to agriculture caused a substantial increase of the yields of many crops. However, due to exacerbating effects of climate change and a growing human population, a crisis of malnutrition may arise in the upcoming decades in some places in the (...)
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  89.  3
    Erica L. Neely (forthcoming). The Risks of Revolution: Ethical Dilemmas in 3D Printing From a US Perspective. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-13.
    Additive manufacturing has spread widely over the past decade, especially with the availability of home 3D printers. In the future, many items may be manufactured at home, which raises two ethical issues. First, there are questions of safety. Our current safety regulations depend on centralized manufacturing assumptions; they will be difficult to enforce on this new model of manufacturing. Using current US law as an example, I argue that consumers are not capable of fully assessing all relevant risks and thus (...)
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  90. Ann Nichols-Casebolt & Francis L. Macrina (forthcoming). Current Perspectives Regarding Institutional Conflict of Interest. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-7.
    Policies and processes dealing with institutional conflict of interest lag well behind those dealing with individual COI. To remediate this, academic institutions must develop strategies for addressing some of the unique challenges in iCOI, including: clarifying the definition of iCOI that addresses the range of individuals potentially involved; implementing a well-designed electronic database for reporting and managing iCOI across multiple leadership constituencies; and providing ongoing education to appropriate institutional officials that communicates the importance of managing iCOI.
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  91.  4
    Petteri Niemi (forthcoming). Six Challenges for Ethical Conduct in Science. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    The realities of human agency and decision making pose serious challenges for research ethics. This article explores six major challenges that require more attention in the ethics education of students and scientists and in the research on ethical conduct in science. The first of them is the routinization of action, which makes the detection of ethical issues difficult. The social governance of action creates ethical problems related to power. The heuristic nature of human decision making implies the risk of ethical (...)
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  92.  2
    Olugbenga Timo Oladinrin & Christabel Man-Fong Ho (forthcoming). Enabling Ethical Code Embeddedness in Construction Organizations: A Review of Process Assessment Approach. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics:1-23.
    Several researchers have identified codes of ethics as tools that stimulate positive ethical behavior by shaping the organisational decision-making process, but few have considered the information needed for code implementation. Beyond being a legal and moral responsibility, ethical behavior needs to become an organisational priority, which requires an alignment process that integrates employee behavior with the organisation’s ethical standards. This paper discusses processes for the responsible implementation of CoEs based on an extensive review of the literature. The internationally recognized European (...)
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  93.  2
    Robert T. Pennock & Michael O’Rourke (forthcoming). Developing a Scientific Virtue-Based Approach to Science Ethics Training. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    Responsible conduct of research training typically includes only a subset of the issues that ought to be included in science ethics and sometimes makes ethics appear to be a set of externally imposed rules rather than something intrinsic to scientific practice. A new approach to science ethics training based upon Pennock’s notion of the scientific virtues may help avoid such problems. This paper motivates and describes three implementations—theory-centered, exemplar-centered, and concept-centered—that we have developed in courses and workshops to introduce students (...)
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  94.  3
    Wolter Pieters, Dina Hadžiosmanović & Francien Dechesne (forthcoming). Security-by-Experiment: Lessons From Responsible Deployment in Cyberspace. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-20.
    Conceiving new technologies as social experiments is a means to discuss responsible deployment of technologies that may have unknown and potentially harmful side-effects. Thus far, the uncertain outcomes addressed in the paradigm of new technologies as social experiments have been mostly safety-related, meaning that potential harm is caused by the design plus accidental events in the environment. In some domains, such as cyberspace, adversarial agents may be at least as important when it comes to undesirable effects of deployed technologies. In (...)
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  95. Sophie Poirot-Delpech & Laurence Raineau (forthcoming). Nuclear Waste Facing the Test of Time: The Case of the French Deep Geological Repository Project. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.
    The purpose of this article is to consider the socio-anthropological issues raised by the deep geological repository project for high-level, long-lived nuclear waste. It is based on fieldwork at a candidate site for a deep storage project in eastern France, where an underground laboratory has been studying the feasibility of the project since 1999. A project of this nature, based on the possibility of very long containment, involves a singular form of time. By linking project performance to geology’s very long (...)
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  96.  1
    Barbara K. Redman (forthcoming). Commentary: Legacy of the Commission on Research Integrity. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-9.
    20 years ago, the Report of the Commission on Research Integrity was submitted to the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services and to House and Senate Committees. As directed in enabling legislation, the Commission had provided recommendations on a new definition of research misconduct, oversight of scientific practices, and development of a regulation to protect whistleblowers. Reflecting the ethos of the time, the Commission recommended that institutions receiving Public Health Service research funding should provide oversight of all (...)
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  97. J. Scott Remer (forthcoming). Bribery and Its Ethical Implications for Aid Workers in the Developing World. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-15.
    Bribery is a complicated, multi-dimensional issue. Upon first glance, most westerners would immediately condemn it as an underhanded, unfair means of gaining an advantage in a competitive or legal situation, and so it is in virtually every case in the westernized world. However, the issue becomes much more complicated in the international context, particularly in developing nations, where giving and accepting bribes is often normal and expected. This paper serves to inform ethical decision-making in situations where the “right choice” is (...)
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  98.  2
    David B. Resnik (forthcoming). Institutional Conflicts of Interest in Academic Research. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-9.
    Financial relationships in academic research can create institutional conflicts of interest because the financial interests of the institution or institutional officials may inappropriately influence decision-making. Strategies for dealing with institutional COIs include establishing institutional COI committees that involve the board of trustees in conflict review and management, developing policies that shield institutional decisions from inappropriate influences, and establishing private foundations that are independent of the institution to own stock and intellectual property and to provide capital to start-up companies.
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  99. Zoë Robaey (forthcoming). Gone with the Wind: Conceiving of Moral Responsibility in the Case of GMO Contamination. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.
    Genetically modified organisms are a technology now used with increasing frequency in agriculture. Genetically modified seeds have the special characteristic of being living artefacts that can reproduce and spread; thus it is difficult to control where they end up. In addition, genetically modified seeds may also bring about uncertainties for environmental and human health. Where they will go and what effect they will have is therefore very hard to predict: this creates a puzzle for regulators. In this paper, I use (...)
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  100.  3
    Priya Satalkar, Bernice Simone Elger & David M. Shaw (forthcoming). Defining Nano, Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine: Why Should It Matter? Science and Engineering Ethics:1-22.
    Nanotechnology, which involves manipulation of matter on a ‘nano’ scale, is considered to be a key enabling technology. Medical applications of nanotechnology are expected to significantly improve disease diagnostic and therapeutic modalities and subsequently reduce health care costs. However, there is no consensus on the definition of nanotechnology or nanomedicine, and this stems from the underlying debate on defining ‘nano’. This paper aims to present the diversity in the definition of nanomedicine and its impact on the translation of basic science (...)
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  101.  3
    Viola Schiaffonati (forthcoming). Stretching the Traditional Notion of Experiment in Computing: Explorative Experiments. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    Experimentation represents today a ‘hot’ topic in computing. If experiments made with the support of computers, such as computer simulations, have received increasing attention from philosophers of science and technology, questions such as “what does it mean to do experiments in computer science and engineering and what are their benefits?” emerged only recently as central in the debate over the disciplinary status of the discipline. In this work we aim at showing, also by means of paradigmatic examples, how the traditional (...)
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  102.  4
    Eugene Schlossberger (forthcoming). Engineering Codes of Ethics and the Duty to Set a Moral Precedent. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-12.
    Each of the major engineering societies has its own code of ethics. Seven “common core” clauses and several code-specific clauses can be identified. The paper articulates objections to and rationales for two clauses that raise controversy: do engineers have a duty to provide pro bono services and/or speak out on major issues, and to associate only with reputable individuals and organizations? This latter “association clause” can be justified by the “proclamative principle,” an alternative to Kant’s universalizability requirement. At the heart (...)
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  103.  2
    Jantine Schröder (forthcoming). Geological Disposal of Radioactive Waste: A Long-Term Socio-Technical Experiment. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    In this article we investigate whether long-term radioactive waste management by means of geological disposal can be understood as a social experiment. Geological disposal is a rather particular technology in the way it deals with the analytical and ethical complexities implied by the idea of technological innovation as social experimentation, because it is presented as a technology that ultimately functions without human involvement. We argue that, even when the long term function of the ‘social’ is foreseen to be restricted to (...)
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  104.  4
    Mathana Amaris Fiona Sivaraman & Siti Nurani Mohd Noor (forthcoming). Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research: Ethical Views of Buddhist, Hindu and Catholic Leaders in Malaysia. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    Embryonic Stem Cell Research raises ethical issues. In the process of research, embryos may be destroyed and, to some, such an act entails the ‘killing of human life’. Past studies have sought the views of scientists and the general public on the ethics of ESCR. This study, however, explores multi-faith ethical viewpoints, in particular, those of Buddhists, Hindus and Catholics in Malaysia, on ESCR. Responses were gathered via semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Three main ethical quandaries emerged from the data: sanctity of (...)
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  105. Shannon L. Spruit, Gordon D. Hoople & David A. Rolfe (forthcoming). Just a Cog in the Machine? The Individual Responsibility of Researchers in Nanotechnology is a Duty to Collectivize. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-17.
    Responsible Research and Innovation provides a framework for judging the ethical qualities of innovation processes, however guidance for researchers on how to implement such practices is limited. Exploring RRI in the context of nanotechnology, this paper examines how the dispersed and interdisciplinary nature of the nanotechnology field somewhat hampers the abilities of individual researchers to control the innovation process. The ad-hoc nature of the field of nanotechnology, with its fluid boundaries and elusive membership, has thus far failed to establish a (...)
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  106. Logan M. Steele, James F. Johnson, Logan L. Watts, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Michael D. Mumford, Shane Connelly & T. H. Lee Williams (forthcoming). A Comparison of the Effects of Ethics Training on International and US Students. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-28.
    As scientific and engineering efforts become increasingly global in nature, the need to understand differences in perceptions of research ethics issues across countries and cultures is imperative. However, investigations into the connection between nationality and ethical decision-making in the sciences have largely generated mixed results. In Study 1 of this paper, a measure of biases and compensatory strategies that could influence ethical decisions was administered. Results from this study indicated that graduate students from the United States and international graduate students (...)
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  107.  9
    Jack Stilgoe (forthcoming). Geoengineering as Collective Experimentation. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.
    Geoengineering is defined as the ‘deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming’. The technological proposals for doing this are highly speculative. Research is at an early stage, but there is a strong consensus that technologies would, if realisable, have profound and surprising ramifications. Geoengineering would seem to be an archetype of technology as social experiment, blurring lines that separate research from deployment and scientific knowledge from technological artefacts. Looking into the experimental (...)
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  108.  2
    Nikolas Stroth (forthcoming). The Central Importance of Laboratories for Reducing Waste in Biomedical Research. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-10.
    The global biomedical research enterprise is driving substantial advances in medicine and healthcare. Yet it appears that the enterprise is rather wasteful, falling short of its true innovative potential. Suggested reasons are manifold and involve various stakeholders, such that there is no single remedy. In the present paper, I will argue that laboratories are the basic working units of the biomedical research enterprise and an important site of action for corrective intervention. Keeping laboratories relatively small will enable better training and (...)
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  109.  3
    Mariarosaria Taddeo & Luciano Floridi (forthcoming). The Debate on the Moral Responsibilities of Online Service Providers. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-29.
    Online service providers —such as AOL, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, and Twitter—significantly shape the informational environment and influence users’ experiences and interactions within it. There is a general agreement on the centrality of OSPs in information societies, but little consensus about what principles should shape their moral responsibilities and practices. In this article, we analyse the main contributions to the debate on the moral responsibilities of OSPs. By endorsing the method of the levels of abstract, we first analyse the moral (...)
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  110.  5
    Tjerk Timan & Anders Albrechtslund (forthcoming). Surveillance, Self and Smartphones: Tracking Practices in the Nightlife. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-18.
    This paper is the result of the EMERGING ICT FOR CITIZEN VEILLANCE-workshop organized by the JRC, Ispra, Italy, March 2014. The aim of this paper is to explore how the subject participates in surveillance situations with a particular focus on how users experience everyday tracking technologies and practices. Its theoretical points of departure stem from Surveillance Studies in general and notions of participatory surveillance and empowering exhibitionism :199–215, 2004) in particular. We apply these theoretical notions on smartphones and its users (...)
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  111.  2
    Jeffrey M. Warrender (forthcoming). A Simple Framework for Evaluating Authorial Contributions for Scientific Publications. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-12.
    A simple tool is provided to assist researchers in assessing contributions to a scientific publication, for ease in evaluating which contributors qualify for authorship, and in what order the authors should be listed. The tool identifies four phases of activity leading to a publication—Conception and Design, Data Acquisition, Analysis and Interpretation, and Manuscript Preparation. By comparing a project participant’s contribution in a given phase to several specified thresholds, a score of up to five points can be assigned; the contributor’s scores (...)
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  112.  2
    Somsri Wiwanitkit & Viroj Wiwanitkit (forthcoming). Responses of Authors Accused of Plagiarism by Journal Editors. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-3.
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  113.  4
    Yang Zhang & Hong Gao (forthcoming). Human Flesh Search Engine and Online Privacy. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-4.
    Human flesh search engine can be a double-edged sword, bringing convenience on the one hand and leading to infringement of personal privacy on the other hand. This paper discusses the ethical problems brought about by the human flesh search engine, as well as possible solutions.
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  114.  4
    Yue Liang Zheng (forthcoming). Some Ethical Concerns About Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-8.
    Human induced pluripotent stem cells can be obtained from somatic cells, and their derivation does not require destruction of embryos, thus avoiding ethical problems arising from the destruction of human embryos. This type of stem cell may provide an important tool for stem cell therapy, but it also results in some ethical concerns. It is likely that abnormal reprogramming occurs in the induction of human induced pluripotent stem cells, and that the stem cells generate tumors in the process of stem (...)
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  115.  1
    Fengliang Zhu & Soaring Hawk (forthcoming). Rethinking the Relationship Between Academia and Industry: Qualitative Case Studies of MIT and Stanford. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-15.
    As knowledge has become more closely tied to economic development, the interrelationship between academia and industry has become stronger. The result has been the emergence of what Slaughter and Leslie call academic capitalism. Inevitably, tensions between academia and industry arise; however, universities such as MIT and Stanford with long traditions of industry interaction have been able to achieve a balance between academic and market values. This paper describes the strategies adopted by MIT and Stanford to achieve this balance. The results (...)
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