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Forthcoming articles
  1. Monica Bucciarelli & Margherita Daniele (forthcoming). Reasoning in Moral Conflicts. Thinking and Reasoning:1-30.
    Following the assumptions of the mental model theory and its account of moral judgements, we argue for a main role of reasoning in moral judgements, especially in dealing with moral conflicts. In four experiments, we invited adult participants to evaluate scenarios describing moral or immoral actions. Our results confirm the predictions deriving from our assumptions: Given a moral or immoral scenario, the manipulation of the propositions which refer to norms and values results in a scenario eliciting a moral conflict ; (...)
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  2. Bruce D. Burns (forthcoming). Probabilistic Reasoning in the Two-Envelope Problem. Thinking and Reasoning:1-22.
    In the two-envelope problem, a reasoner is offered two envelopes, one containing exactly twice the money in the other. After observing the amount in one envelope, it can be traded for the unseen contents of the other. It appears that it should not matter whether the envelope is traded, but recent mathematical analyses have shown that gains could be made if trading was a probabilistic function of amount observed. As a problem with a purely probabilistic solution, it provides a potentially (...)
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  3. Caren A. Frosch, Suzanne M. Egan & Emily N. Hancock (forthcoming). The Effect of Controllability and Causality on Counterfactual Thinking. Thinking and Reasoning:1-24.
    Previous research on counterfactual thoughts about prevention suggests that people tend to focus on enabling rather than causing events and controllable rather than uncontrollable events. Two experiments explore whether counterfactual thinking about enablers is distinct from counterfactual thinking about controllable events. We presented participants with scenarios in which a cause and an enabler contributed to a negative outcome. We systematically manipulated the controllability of the cause and the enabler and asked participants to generate counterfactuals. The results indicate that when only (...)
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  4. Amelia Gangemi, Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde & Francesco Mancini (forthcoming). Feelings of Error in Reasoning—in Search of a Phenomenon. Thinking and Reasoning:1-14.
    Recent research shows that in reasoning tasks, subjects usually produce an initial intuitive answer, accompanied by a metacognitive experience, which has been called feeling of rightness. This paper is aimed at exploring the complimentary experience of feeling of error , that is, the spontaneous, subtle sensation of cognitive uneasiness arising from conflict detection during thinking. We investigate FOE in two studies with the “bat-and-ball” reasoning task, in its standard and isomorphic control versions. Study 1 is a generation study, in which (...)
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  5. Katherine A. Livins & Leonidas A. A. Doumas (forthcoming). Recognising Relations: What Can Be Learned From Considering Complexity. Thinking and Reasoning:1-14.
    Analogy is an important cognitive process that has been researched extensively. Functional accounts of it typically involve at least four stages of processing ; however, these accounts take the way in which the base analogue is understood, along with its relational structure, for granted. The goal of this paper is to open up a discussion about how this process may occur. To this end, this paper describes two experiments that vary the level of relational complexity across exemplars. It was found (...)
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  6. Hugo Mercier, Emmanuel Trouche, Hiroshi Yama, Christophe Heintz & Vittorio Girotto (forthcoming). Experts and Laymen Grossly Underestimate the Benefits of Argumentation for Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning:1-15.
    Many fields of study have shown that group discussion generally improves reasoning performance for a wide range of tasks. This article shows that most of the population, including specialists, does not expect group discussion to be as beneficial as it is. Six studies asked participants to solve a standard reasoning problem—the Wason selection task—and to estimate the performance of individuals working alone and in groups. We tested samples of U.S., Indian, and Japanese participants, European managers, and psychologists of reasoning. Every (...)
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  7. J. F. Bonnefon & D. J. Hilton (forthcoming). The Suppression of Modus Ponens as a Case of Pragmatic Preconditional Reasoning. Accepted Subject to Revision. Thinking and Reasoning.
     
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  8. Erika Branchini, Roberto Burro, Ivana Bianchi & Ugo Savardi (forthcoming). Contraries as an Effective Strategy in Geometrical Problem Solving. Thinking and Reasoning:1-34.
    A focused review of the literature on reasoning suggests that mechanisms based upon contraries are of fundamental importance in various abilities. At the same time, the importance of contraries in the human perceptual experience of space has been recently demonstrated in experimental studies. Solving geometry problems represents an interesting case as both reasoning abilities and the manipulation of perceptual–figural aspects are involved.In this study we focus on perceptual changes in geometrical problem solving processes in order to understand whether a mental (...)
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  9. M. Eliades, W. Mansell, A. Stewart & I. Blanchette (forthcoming). Modulation of Reasoning by Emotion: Findings From the Belief-Bias Paradigm. Thinking and Reasoning.
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  10. Samuel Greiff, Andreas Fischer, Matthias Stadler & Sascha Wüstenberg (forthcoming). Assessing Complex Problem-Solving Skills with Multiple Complex Systems. Thinking and Reasoning:1-27.
    In this paper we propose the multiple complex systems approach for assessing domain-general complex problem-solving skills and its processes knowledge acquisition and knowledge application. After defining the construct and the formal frameworks for describing complex problems, we emphasise some of the measurement issues inherent in assessing CPS skills with single tasks . With examples of the MicroDYN test and the MicroFIN test , we show how to adequately score problem-solving skills by using multiple tasks. We discuss implications for problem-solving research (...)
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  11. Keith J. Holyoak & Patricia W. Cheng (forthcoming). Contextual Factors in Deontic Reasoning. Thinking and Reasoning.
     
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  12. Keith J. Holyoak & Patricia W. Cheng (forthcoming). The Taming of Content: Some Thoughts About Domains and Modules. Thinking and Reasoning.
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  13. H. Mercier, M. Deguchi, J.-B. Van der Henst & H. Yama (forthcoming). The Benefits of Argumentation Are Cross-Culturally Robust: The Case of Japan. Thinking and Reasoning:1-15.
    Thanks to the exchange of arguments, groups outperform individuals on some tasks, such as solving logical problems. However, these results stem from experiments conducted among Westerners and they could be due to cultural particularities such as tolerance of contradiction and approval of public debate. Other cultures, collectivistic cultures in particular, are said to frown on argumentation. Moreover, some influential intellectual movements, such as Confucianism, disapprove of argumentation. In two experiments, the hypothesis that Easterners might not share the benefits of argumentation (...)
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