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  1. Anna H. Chodos & Sei J. Lee (2015). Journalists, District Attorneys and Researchers: Why IRBs Should Get in the Middle. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):19.
    Federal regulations in the United States have shaped Institutional Review Boards to focus on protecting individual human subjects. Health services research studies focusing on healthcare institutions such as hospitals or clinics do not have individual human subjects. Since U.S. federal regulations are silent on what type of review, if any, these studies require, different IRBs may approach similar studies differently, resulting in undesirable variation in the review of studies focusing on healthcare institutions. Further, although these studies do not focus on (...)
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  2. Rachel Davies, Jonathan Ives & Michael Dunn (2015). A Systematic Review of Empirical Bioethics Methodologies. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):15.
    Despite the increased prevalence of bioethics research that seeks to use empirical data to answer normative research questions, there is no consensus as to what an appropriate methodology for this would be. This review aims to search the literature, present and critically discuss published Empirical Bioethics methodologies.
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  3. Uría Guevara-López, Myriam M. Altamirano-Bustamante & Carlos Viesca-Treviño (2015). New Frontiers in the Future of Palliative Care: Real-World Bioethical Dilemmas and Axiology of Clinical Practice. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):11.
    In our time there is growing interest in developing a systematic approach to oncologic patients and end-of-life care. An important goal within this domain is to identify the values and ethical norms that guide physicians’ decisions and their recourse to technological aids to preserve life. Though crucial, this objective is not easy to achieve.
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  4. Irma M. Hein, Pieter W. Troost, Alice Broersma, Martine C. De Vries, Joost G. Daams & Ramón J. L. Lindauer (2015). Why is It Hard to Make Progress in Assessing Children’s Decision-Making Competence? BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):1.
    For decades, the discussion on children’s competence to consent to medical issues has concentrated around normative concerns, with little progress in clinical practices. Decision-making competence is an important condition in the informed consent model. In pediatrics, clinicians need to strike a proper balance in order to both protect children’s interests when they are not fully able to do so themselves and to respect their autonomy when they are. Children’s competence to consent, however, is currently not assessed in a standardized way. (...)
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  5. Carly Hohm & Jeremy Snyder (2015). It Was the Best Decision of My Life”: A Thematic Content Analysis of Former Medical Tourists’ Patient Testimonials. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):8.
    Medical tourism is international travel with the intention of receiving medical care. Medical tourists travel for many reasons, including cost savings, limited domestic access to specific treatments, and interest in accessing unproven interventions. Medical tourism poses new health and safety risks to patients, including dangers associated with travel following surgery, difficulty assessing the quality of care abroad, and complications in continuity of care. Online resources are important to the decision-making of potential medical tourists and the websites of medical tourism facilitation (...)
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  6. Sara Rizvi Jafree, Rubeena Zakar, Florian Fischer & Muhammad Zakria Zakar (2015). Ethical Violations in the Clinical Setting: The Hidden Curriculum Learning Experience of Pakistani Nurses. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):16.
    The importance of the hidden curriculum is recognised as a practical training ground for the absorption of medical ethics by healthcare professionals. Pakistan’s healthcare sector is hampered by the exclusion of ethics from medical and nursing education curricula and the absence of monitoring of ethical violations in the clinical setting. Nurses have significant knowledge of the hidden curriculum taught during clinical practice, due to long working hours in the clinic and front-line interaction with patients and other practitioners.
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  7. Tapani Keränen, Arja Halkoaho, Emmi Itkonen & Anna-Maija Pietilä (2015). Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials: How Trial Documents Justify the Use of Randomisation and Placebo. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):2.
    Randomised clinical trials involve procedures such as randomisation, blinding, and placebo use, which are not part of standard medical care. Patients asked to participate in RCTs often experience difficulties in understanding the meaning of these and their justification.
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  8. Pauline S. C. Kouwenhoven, Natasja J. H. Raijmakers, Johannes J. M. van Delden, Judith A. C. Rietjens, Donald G. Van Tol, Suzanne van de Vathorst, Nienke de Graeff, Heleen A. M. Weyers, Agnes van der Heide & Ghislaine J. M. W. van Thiel (2015). Opinions About Euthanasia and Advanced Dementia: A Qualitative Study Among Dutch Physicians and Members of the General Public. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):7.
    The Dutch law states that a physician may perform euthanasia according to a written advance euthanasia directive when a patient is incompetent as long as all legal criteria of due care are met. This may also hold for patients with advanced dementia. We investigated the differing opinions of physicians and members of the general public on the acceptability of euthanasia in patients with advanced dementia.
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  9. Mireille Lavoie, Gaston Godin, Lydi-Anne Vézina-Im, Danielle Blondeau, Isabelle Martineau & Louis Roy (2015). Psychosocial Determinants of Physicians’ Intention to Practice Euthanasia in Palliative Care. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):6.
    Euthanasia remains controversial in Canada and an issue of debate among physicians. Most studies have explored the opinion of health professionals regarding its legalization, but have not investigated their intentions when faced with performing euthanasia. These studies are also considered atheoretical. The purposes of the present study were to fill this gap in the literature by identifying the psychosocial determinants of physicians’ intention to practice euthanasia in palliative care and verifying whether respecting the patient’s autonomy is important for physicians.
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  10. Lillian Lillemoen & Reidar Pedersen (2015). Ethics Reflection Groups in Community Health Services: An Evaluation Study. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):25.
    Systematic ethics support in community health services in Norway is in the initial phase. There are few evaluation studies about the significance of ethics reflection on care. The aim of this study was to evaluate systematic ethics reflection in groups in community health , - from the perspectives of employees participating in the groups, the group facilitators and the service managers. The reflection groups were implemented as part of a research and development project.
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  11. Neil McHugh, Rachel M. Baker, Helen Mason, Laura Williamson, Job van Exel, Rohan Deogaonkar, Marissa Collins & Cam Donaldson (2015). Extending Life for People with a Terminal Illness: A Moral Right and an Expensive Death? Exploring Societal Perspectives. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):14.
    Many publicly-funded health systems apply cost-benefit frameworks in response to the moral dilemma of how best to allocate scarce healthcare resources. However, implementation of recommendations based on costs and benefit calculations and subsequent challenges have led to ‘special cases’ with certain types of health benefits considered more valuable than others. Recent debate and research has focused on the relative value of life extensions for people with terminal illnesses. This research investigates societal perspectives in relation to this issue, in the UK.
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  12. Bert Molewijk, Marit Helene Hem & Reidar Pedersen (2015). Dealing with Ethical Challenges: A Focus Group Study with Professionals in Mental Health Care. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):4.
    Little is known about how health care professionals deal with ethical challenges in mental health care, especially when not making use of a formal ethics support service. Understanding this is important in order to be able to support the professionals, to improve the quality of care, and to know in which way future ethics support services might be helpful.
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  13. Petteri Nieminen, Saara Lappalainen, Pauliina Ristimäki, Markku Myllykangas & Anne-Mari Mustonen (2015). Opinions on Conscientious Objection to Induced Abortion Among Finnish Medical and Nursing Students and Professionals. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):17.
    Conscientious objection to participating in induced abortion is not present in the Finnish health care system or legislation unlike in many other European countries.
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  14. Anke J. M. Oerlemans, Nelleke van Sluisveld, Eric S. J. van Leeuwen, Hub Wollersheim, Wim J. M. Dekkers & Marieke Zegers (2015). Ethical Problems in Intensive Care Unit Admission and Discharge Decisions: A Qualitative Study Among Physicians and Nurses in the Netherlands. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):9.
    There have been few empirical studies into what non-medical factors influence physicians and nurses when deciding about admission and discharge of ICU patients. Information about the attitudes of healthcare professionals about this process can be used to improve decision-making about resource allocation in intensive care. To provide insight into ethical problems that influence the ICU admission and discharge process, we aimed to identify and explore ethical dilemmas healthcare professionals are faced with.
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  15. Clare Partridge (2015). BMC Medical Ethics Reviewer Acknowledgement 2014. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):5.
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  16. Corinna Porteri & Carlo Petrini (2015). Research Involving Subjects with Alzheimer’s Disease in Italy: The Possible Role of Family Members. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):12.
    Alzheimer’s disease is a very common, progressive and still incurable disease. Future possibilities for its cure lie in the promotion of research that will increase our knowledge of the disorder’s causes and lead to the discovery of effective remedies. Such research will necessarily involve individuals suffering from Alzheimer’s disease. This raises the controversial issue of whether patients with Alzheimer’s disease are competent to give their consent for research participation.
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  17. Stuart Rennie, Mark Siedner, Joseph D. Tucker & Keymanthri Moodley (2015). The Ethics of Talking About ‘HIV Cure. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):18.
    In 2008, researchers reported that Timothy Brown , a man with HIV infection and leukemia, received a stem-cell transplant that removed HIV from his body as far as can be detected. In 2013, an infant born with HIV infection received anti-retroviral treatment shortly after birth, but was then lost to the health care system for the next six months. When tested for HIV upon return, the child had no detectable viral load despite cessation of treatment. These remarkable clinical developments have (...)
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  18. Sabine Salloch, Sebastian Wäscher, Jochen Vollmann & Jan Schildmann (2015). The Normative Background of Empirical-Ethical Research: First Steps Towards a Transparent and Reasoned Approach in the Selection of an Ethical Theory. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):20.
    Empirical-ethical research constitutes a relatively new field which integrates socio-empirical research and normative analysis. As direct inferences from descriptive data to normative conclusions are problematic, an ethical framework is needed to determine the relevance of the empirical data for normative argument. While issues of normative-empirical collaboration and questions of empirical methodology have been widely discussed in the literature, the normative methodology of empirical-ethical research has seldom been addressed. Based on our own research experience, we discuss one aspect of this normative (...)
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  19. Doris Schopper, Angus Dawson, Ross Upshur, Aasim Ahmad, Amar Jesani, Raffaella Ravinetto, Michael J. Segelid, Sunita Sheel & Jerome Singh (2015). Innovations in Research Ethics Governance in Humanitarian Settings. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):10.
    Médecins Sans Frontières is one of the world’s leading humanitarian medical organizations. The increased emphasis in MSF on research led to the creation of an ethics review board in 2001. The ERB has encouraged innovation in the review of proposals and the interaction between the ERB and the organization. This has led to some of the advances in ethics governance described in this paper.
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  20. Ciara Staunton (2015). Informed Consent for HIV Cure Research in South Africa: Issues to Consider. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):3.
    South Africa has made great progress in the development of HIV/AIDS testing, treatment and prevention campaigns. Yet, it is clear that prevention and treatment campaigns alone are not enough to bring this epidemic under control.
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  21. Kate M. Tan, Felicity S. Flack, Natasha L. Bear & Judy A. Allen (2015). An Evaluation of a Data Linkage Training Workshop for Research Ethics Committees. BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):13.
    In Australia research projects proposing the use of linked data require approval by a Human Research Ethics Committee . A sound evaluation of the ethical issues involved requires understanding of the basic mechanics of data linkage, the associated benefits and risks, and the legal context in which it occurs. The rapidly increasing number of research projects utilising linked data in Australia has led to an urgent need for enhanced capacity of HRECs to review research applications involving this emerging research methodology. (...)
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  22. Paulina Tindana, Jantina de Vries, Megan Campbell, Katherine Littler, Janet Seeley, Patricia Marshall, Jennifer Troyer, Morisola Ogundipe, Vincent Pius Alibu, Aminu Yakubu & Michael Parker (2015). Community Engagement Strategies for Genomic Studies in Africa: A Review of the Literature. [REVIEW] BMC Medical Ethics 16 (1):24.
    Community engagement has been recognised as an important aspect of the ethical conduct of biomedical research, especially when research is focused on ethnically or culturally distinct populations. While this is a generally accepted tenet of biomedical research, it is unclear what components are necessary for effective community engagement, particularly in the context of genomic research in Africa.
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