Year:

  1. P. Baron (2016). A Cybernetic Approach to Contextual Teaching and Learning. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):91-100.
    Context: Public universities in South Africa are currently facing the challenge of decolonising knowledge. This change requires a review of curriculums, as well as teaching and learning with the goal of embracing the epistemology of the learners, addressing issues such as social justice and transformation. Problem: Human communication is subject to several perceptual errors in both listening and seeing, which challenges the success of the communication in the education system. The ability of the teacher and the learners to effectively communicate (...)
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  2. P. Baron (2016). Author’s Response: Changes in Institutionalised Education: Is It Time to Rebel and Yell? Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):115-122.
    Upshot: Time constraints, locked curriculums, strict management, and possible anarchy in the classroom are some of the themes that originated from the commentaries. I argue that these challenges should be viewed holistically in the broader picture. I also question the educator’s role in mitigating these obstacles. My advice: Do it anyway.
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  3. M. Bartesaghi (2016). On Communication. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):42-44.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Constructivism as a Key Towards Further Understanding of Communication, Culture and Society” by Raivo Palmaru. Upshot: In my response to Palmaru, I press for a reflexive, accountable and, most of all, practical construction of radical constructivism as participatory communication.
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  4.  2
    L. Bich (2016). Circularities, Organizations, and Constraints in Biology and Systems Theory. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):14-16.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Circularity and the Micro-Macro-Difference” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: The target article defends the fundamental role of circularity for systems sciences and the necessity to develop a conceptual and methodological approach to it. The concept of circularity, however, is multifarious, and two of the main challenges in this respect are to provide distinctions between different forms of circularities and explore in detail the roles they play in organizations. This commentary provides some suggestions in this direction (...)
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  5.  1
    P. Borg (2016). The University Lecture Room and the School Classroom: Does the Stage Affect the Acting? Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):107-108.
    Open peer commentary on the article “A Cybernetic Approach to Contextual Teaching and Learning” by Philip Baron. Upshot: I establish similarities between the author’s teaching approach and my perspective toward teaching and learning. I also highlight some important differences between the didactic situation of a university lecturer and that of a schoolteacher that may be pertinent to the principal issues we discuss in our articles.
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  6.  1
    P. Borg, D. Hewitt & I. Jones (2016). Negotiating Between Learner and Mathematics: A Conceptual Framework to Analyze Teacher Sensitivity Toward Constructivism in a Mathematics Classroom. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):59-69.
    Context: Constructivist teachers who find themselves working within an educational system that adopts a realist epistemology, may find themselves at odds with their own beliefs when they catch themselves paying closer attention to the knowledge authorities intend them to teach rather than the knowledge being constructed by their learners. Method: In the preliminary analysis of the mathematical learning of six low-performing Year 7 boys in a Maltese secondary school, whom one of us taught during the scholastic year 2014-15, we constructed (...)
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  7. P. Borg, D. Hewitt & I. Jones (2016). Authors’ Response: The M-N-L Framework: Bringing Radical Constructivist Theories to Daily Teaching Practices. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):83-90.
    Upshot: We seek to address several questions and statements made in the commentaries by elaborating on the four main aspects of the M-N-L framework. Before doing so, we discuss the issue of constructivist teaching in the context of schools. We conclude by hypothesizing on what would be lost in the M-N-L framework by taking constructivism out of the picture.
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  8. H. Cadenas (2016). Return to Sender? Or Why Messages Never Reach Their Destination. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):45-46.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Constructivism as a Key Towards Further Understanding of Communication, Culture and Society” by Raivo Palmaru. Upshot: I discuss the solution proposed in the target article to the classic sociological problem of “intersubjectivity,” which is based on the conceptual triad of culture, socialisation and communication. From a constructivist perspective, I argue that Palmaru’s proposal does not advance on this matter.
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  9. G. de Zeeuw (2016). To Expect the Unexpected. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):101-102.
    Open peer commentary on the article “A Cybernetic Approach to Contextual Teaching and Learning” by Philip Baron. Upshot: Philip Baron is challenged to clarify the link between his admirable efforts at teaching and research. To allow for a counterchallenge a method to transfer his experiences is summarised that is equivalent to the scientific method.
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  10. J. M. Durán (2016). Observation and Objectivity: Two Conflicting Notions at the Basis of the Circularity Argument. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):20-21.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Circularity and the Micro-Macro-Difference” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: I reconstruct two core notions, “observation” and “objectivity,” in order to raise some questions regarding their interpretation and relevancy for the target article’s main thesis. The main concern with “observation” is that its scope and applicability are not clear, while the notion of “objectivity” could be in conflict with other concepts and assumptions accepted by the author.
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  11.  1
    B. Edmonds (2016). A Model of Causation Is Not Causation. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):12-14.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Circularity and the Micro-Macro-Difference” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: The target article is criticised because it conflates models of causation with causation itself. The arguments used in the target article to avoid a straightforward distinction between fine-grained measurements and the abstractions used to model them are discussed. The value of using the word “causation” to refer to atemporal models is questioned.
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  12.  4
    M. Füllsack (2016). Circularity and the Micro-Macro-Difference. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):1-10.
    Context: Referring to a recent proposition by Kauffman about the “fundamental nature of circularity in cybernetics and in scientific work in general,” I try to advance this insight with the help of system scientific concepts and a computational model. Problem: Often circularity seems to be taken as a metaphor that does not provide a firm epistemological base that fosters analysis. Method: The methodology builds on mathematics, computer-based modeling, and reasoning. Results: By building on conceptual suggestions for grasping the micro-macro difference (...)
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  13. M. Füllsack (2016). Author’s Response: Recursivity, Anticipation, Mutual Referentiality, and the End of Human Analytics? Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):25-29.
    Upshot: Circularity is multifarious indeed. Some aspects, however, seem related to current developments and therefore may deserve more attention than others.
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  14. H. Gash (2016). Facilitating Constructivist Principles in Using Apps: Moving From Class Video to Community. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):72-73.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Negotiating Between Learner and Mathematics: A Conceptual Framework to Analyze Teacher Sensitivity Toward Constructivism in a Mathematics Classroom” by Philip Borg, Dave Hewitt & Ian Jones. Upshot: The target article offers a method for teachers to reflect on their constructivist approach in classrooms. This commentary suggests ways to augment the approach for use with groups of teachers.
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  15. D. Gasparyan (2016). What Came First, the Chicken or the Egg? The Model of Circularity as a Model of Mutual Referentiality. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):21-23.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Circularity and the Micro-Macro-Difference” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: I offer two additional illustrations from language and social theory in which Füllsack’s model perfectly works and present my own interpretation of his model, which I prefer to call a “model of mutual referentiality.”.
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  16. O. L. Georgeon & P. Boltuc (2016). Circular Constitution of Observation in the Absence of Ontological Data. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):17-19.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Circularity and the Micro-Macro-Difference” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: We join Füllsack in his effort to untangle the concepts of circular causation, macro states, and observation by reanalyzing one of our own simulations in the light of these concepts. This simulation presents an example agent that keeps track of its own macro states. We examine how human observers can consider such an agent as an observing agent on its own.
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  17. D. Griffiths (2016). Constraints on the Use of a Conversational Strategy to Restructure the Classroom. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):113-115.
    Open peer commentary on the article “A Cybernetic Approach to Contextual Teaching and Learning” by Philip Baron. Upshot: The introduction of conversational methods into the traditional classroom is a laudable undertaking. The ability of these methods to transform education is constrained by the educational management systems that determine many aspects of educational conversations.
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  18. V. Havelange (2016). Individual Action and Social Structures: Towards an Articulation. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):41-42.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Constructivism as a Key Towards Further Understanding of Communication, Culture and Society” by Raivo Palmaru. Upshot: Palmaru invites us to distinguish a “bottom-up” perspective of constructivism that emphasizes human action and a “top-down” one of social constructionism that brings social structures to the foreground. It is argued here that rather than opposing these two dimensions, it is necessary to thematize their mutual relationship.
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  19.  1
    L. Hengwei & D. Da (2016). Russellian Monism: The Heritage of Russell’s Construction of Matter From Experience – Review of Consciousness in the Physical World: Perspectives on Russellian Monism. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):126-129.
    Upshot: The central issue of Consciousness in the Physical World is Russellian monism, which claims that consciousness could be ontologically reduced to intrinsic properties of physical objects. In contemporary discussions, Russellian monism is more broadly defined than Russell’s original version of neutral monism, and it even becomes a family of views. In this review, based on two major distinctions between Russellian monism and Russell’s neutral monism, we point out that these current re-interpretations not only extend Russell’s theory; some may also (...)
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  20. A. Hjorth (2016). From Circular Reasoning to Micro-Macro Reasoning in the Classroom? Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):11-12.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Circularity and the Micro-Macro-Difference” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: Füllsack provides a convincing argument for viewing circularity through a systems sciences perspective and for seeing micro-level emergence as an explanatory lens for phenomena that are circular at the macro-level. However, as an educator focusing on reasoning about circular macro-level phenomena through explanations at the micro-level, I see a series of issues relating designing appropriate learning experiences and fundamentally defining what this kind of thinking looks like.
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  21. B. Jaworski (2016). What Do We Lose If We Abandon Constructivism? Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):73-75.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Negotiating Between Learner and Mathematics: A Conceptual Framework to Analyze Teacher Sensitivity Toward Constructivism in a Mathematics Classroom” by Philip Borg, Dave Hewitt & Ian Jones. Upshot: While I appreciate sensitive teaching approaches to students’ learning mathematics using Grid Algebra software, I am unconvinced that the approaches described are constructivist in nature. To make further progress along the lines described by the authors a clearer articulation of its constructivist foundations is needed.
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  22.  2
    L. H. Kauffman (2016). Many Forms of Circularity. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):24-25.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Circularity and the Micro-Macro-Difference” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: Circularity occurs as emergent from either process or context or a combination of process and context.
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  23. A. Kravchenko (2016). Constructivism and the Epistemological Trap of Language. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):39-41.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Constructivism as a Key Towards Further Understanding of Communication, Culture and Society” by Raivo Palmaru. Upshot: Arguments are given against cognitive autonomy and individual consciousness as the premises in understanding social processes. The notion of the epistemological trap of language is introduced, and its constraint on how we construct the world is highlighted.
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  24. P. Lazanas (2016). In-Sight Quotient : Developing a Strategy to Empower Students to Ensure Their Own Quality of Learning. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):103-104.
    Open peer commentary on the article “A Cybernetic Approach to Contextual Teaching and Learning” by Philip Baron. Upshot: I present a new concept, the “In-sight Quotient,” which encourages learners to go deeper into the subconscious structure of learning. This enables them to manage the quality of their own individual learning experience. The lecturer becomes no longer a teacher but a “neuro-programmer.”.
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  25.  2
    M. Lenartowicz (2016). Linking Social Communication to Individual Cognition: Communication Science Between Social Constructionism and Radical Constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):48-50.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Constructivism as a Key Towards Further Understanding of Communication, Culture and Society” by Raivo Palmaru. Upshot: The potential impact of Palmaru’s attempt may bring about a breakthrough across all fields of social science. However, in order for the attempted integrated theory to arrive at a full conceptual operationalisation of the interplay between the two kinds of autopoietic systems, i.e., human consciousness and social systems, a much clearer differentiation is needed of the respective embodiments, cognitive (...)
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  26. M. Lenartowicz (2016). The Scent of Wiener’s Cigar – Review of The Cybernetics Moment: Or Why We Call Our Age the Information Age. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):123-125.
    Upshot: Kline focuses on the aspects of American cybernetics that gave rise to the narrative of the information age and the development of its leading technologies. He primarily follows the first-order perspective, which may be disappointing for constructivists. However, the book manages to beautifully capture the vibrant, magnetic moments of early cybernetics at a time when what would become a great divide among theorists was still only a little crack. The narrative tracks the following boundary work, contributed from all sides, (...)
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  27. J. Lochhead (2016). A Response to Responsibilities. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):104-105.
    Open peer commentary on the article “A Cybernetic Approach to Contextual Teaching and Learning” by Philip Baron. Upshot: The target article does an excellent job of describing the theoretical basis of a cybernetic approach to teaching at the university level. In addition, it also describes changes that must occur in the teacher’s perspective and attitude. Yet I am left wondering how any of this can actually happen.
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  28.  1
    T. Marks-Tarlow (2016). Neither Time nor Causality Is of the Essence. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):16-17.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Circularity and the Micro-Macro-Difference” by Manfred Füllsack. Upshot: Circularity is a foundational concept, able to bridge multiple levels of observation across the sciences and humanities. Yet, it is unnecessary to invoke the concept of causality or temporal stamps to understand circular dynamics. Because of the paradoxical coexistence of mathematical, fractal, and other complex phenomena inside as well as outside of time, it is more useful to conceptualize circularity through acausal lenses.
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  29. R. J. Martin (2016). How Change Happens with Difficulty. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):109-110.
    Open peer commentary on the article “A Cybernetic Approach to Contextual Teaching and Learning” by Philip Baron. Upshot: I consider implications of Baron’s article on change in university education. In particular, I address the problem of why change happens with difficulty and how the principles and practices of second-order cybernetics that Baron discusses are applicable beyond South Africa to a wide range of situations.
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  30. T. McCloughlin (2016). When Is a Constructivist Not a Constructivist? Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):79-80.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Negotiating Between Learner and Mathematics: A Conceptual Framework to Analyze Teacher Sensitivity Toward Constructivism in a Mathematics Classroom” by Philip Borg, Dave Hewitt & Ian Jones. Upshot: I review the arguments put forward by Borg et al. as to why a teacher cannot be constructivist in their methodologies and ask why they have not considered constructivist methodologies that emphasise negotiation.
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  31. R. Palmaru (2016). Constructivism as a Key Towards Further Understanding of Communication, Culture and Society. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):30-38.
    Context: The interest of communication scholars in constructivism is fuelled by the need to radically rethink the theoretical assumptions that have governed most media and communication research for the past three or four decades. Problem: On at least two points, constructivism poses difficulties that need to be overcome by scholars of communication. These are the attitudes of many radical constructivists towards “reality” and the constructivist position with regard to “society.” The article seeks to clarify the constructivist position with regard to (...)
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  32.  1
    R. Palmaru (2016). Author’s Response: Cognitive Autonomy and Communication. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):50-58.
    Upshot: I revisit the basic assumptions of constructivism on which the solutions presented in the target article rest, and argue that communication is difficult to understand until the cognitive autonomy of individuals resulting from operational closure is adopted as the point of departure.
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  33.  1
    J. Proulx (2016). Mathematical Observers Observing Mathematics. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):80-82.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Negotiating Between Learner and Mathematics: A Conceptual Framework to Analyze Teacher Sensitivity Toward Constructivism in a Mathematics Classroom” by Philip Borg, Dave Hewitt & Ian Jones. Upshot: Suggestions are made for ways of taking advantage of Borg et al.’s reference to the notion of observer for data analysis in mathematics education research.
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  34. J. Richards (2016). Negotiating the Classroom. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):78-78.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Negotiating Between Learner and Mathematics: A Conceptual Framework to Analyze Teacher Sensitivity Toward Constructivism in a Mathematics Classroom” by Philip Borg, Dave Hewitt & Ian Jones. Upshot: Borg et al. argue that there is a Mathematics-Negotiation-Learner structure that can be used as a conceptual framework in order to evaluate the application of radical constructivism in teaching. This structure assumes a coherent consensual domain that is the mathematics being negotiated. However, there are at least four (...)
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  35.  1
    L. D. Richards (2016). Personalized Education: What’s the Holdup? Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):110-112.
    Open peer commentary on the article “A Cybernetic Approach to Contextual Teaching and Learning” by Philip Baron. Upshot: The idea of personal, customized education has been around for a while, and few disagree that it would be superior to what we have now in most public education systems worldwide. So, the questions are: Why has it not been more broadly implemented? And what would it take to make it the dominant approach to education?
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  36. A. Scholl (2016). The Micro-Macro-Problem in Constructivism. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):47-48.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Constructivism as a Key Towards Further Understanding of Communication, Culture and Society” by Raivo Palmaru. Upshot: Palmaru addresses several problems with respect to radical constructivism, in particular the relationship between the micro-level and macro-level of social phenomena, i.e., communication, culture, and society. Related to this, I dispute three of Palmaru’s key claims: the relationship between micro-social and macro-social phenomena is a specific problem of radical constructivism; radical constructivism does not solve the problem of the (...)
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  37. B. Scott (2016). Learning Conversations for Cybernetic Enlightenment. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):106-107.
    Open peer commentary on the article “A Cybernetic Approach to Contextual Teaching and Learning” by Philip Baron. Upshot: I expand on Philip Baron’s discussion of conversation theory and its applications. I go on to address the question of how to help learners, as a collective, become more sophisticated in their understandings of ethics and epistemology.
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  38. Z. Simpson (2016). Comparing the Cybernetic Approach with Multimodal Approaches to Communication and Representation. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):112-113.
    Open peer commentary on the article “A Cybernetic Approach to Contextual Teaching and Learning” by Philip Baron. Upshot: Universities in South Africa and elsewhere are being challenged to prepare graduates for the world of work and to recognize the multitude of resources that students bring with them to the higher-education experience. A multimodal approach to pedagogy may assist in both of these regards.
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  39.  2
    L. P. Steffe (2016). Toward a Model of Constructivist Mathematics Teaching. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):75-77.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Negotiating Between Learner and Mathematics: A Conceptual Framework to Analyze Teacher Sensitivity Toward Constructivism in a Mathematics Classroom” by Philip Borg, Dave Hewitt & Ian Jones. Upshot: My commentary has two general goals. First, I investigate how basic principles of radical constructivism might be used in constructing models of mathematics teaching. Toward that end, I found that I was not in complete intersubjective agreement with Borg et al.’s use of some basic terms. Second, I (...)
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  40. E. S. Tillema (2016). Investigating Teaching From a Constructivist Stance: A Model of Communication. Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):70-72.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Negotiating Between Learner and Mathematics: A Conceptual Framework to Analyze Teacher Sensitivity Toward Constructivism in a Mathematics Classroom” by Philip Borg, Dave Hewitt & Ian Jones. Upshot: Borg et al. provide a framework that contributes to a growing body of research on how radical constructivism can help teachers and researchers to understand the complexity of classroom interactions. The bulk of my commentary is written to clarify theoretical points that I think are important to the (...)
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  41. R. Vanderstraeten (2016). Who Communicates? Constructivist Foundations 12 (1):44-45.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Constructivism as a Key Towards Further Understanding of Communication, Culture and Society” by Raivo Palmaru. Upshot: Palmaru claims that communication and social processes cannot be understood unless models describing them are based on the individual and his or her consciousness. Based on a brief discussion of recent sociocultural evolutions, I ask for the social conditions allowing radical constructivism to locate communication in the individual and his or her consciousness.
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  42.  3
    M. Arnold-Cathalifaud & D. Thumala-Dockendorff (2016). To What Extent Can Second-Order Cybernetics Be a Foundation for Psychology? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):520-521.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: Scott’s proposal is well-founded and opens interesting possibilities. We selected some critical aspects of his argumentation and discuss them in the context of the constructivist perspective. We highlight as Scott’s “blind spot” his statement - presented without further argument - of the need for a conceptual and theoretical unification of psychology from the perspective of second-order cybernetics. We find this especially worrisome as it is based on (...)
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  43.  6
    Y. Ataria (2016). On the Too Often Overlooked Complexity of the Tension Between Subject and Object. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):550-552.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Consciousness as Self-Description in Differences” by Diana Gasparyan. Upshot: Gasparyan’s article ignores the inherent tension of being a human who is both a subject and an object at the same time. Any theory of consciousness must include both of these dimensions.
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  44.  2
    P. Baron (2016). Obstacles to Cybernetics Becoming a Conceptual Framework and Metanarrative in the Psychologies. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):524-527.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: Scott’s ideas of a unifying conceptual framework and metanarrative for the seemingly divergent psychology fields may be met with challenges. Four obstacles are presented, which can be addressed in order to mitigate resistance to Scott achieving his goal of cybernetics fulfilling these dual roles in the psychologies.
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  45.  4
    G. Becerra (2016). Connecting Second-Order Cybernetics’ Revolution with Genetic Epistemology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):468-470.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Connecting Umpleby’s article with Piaget and García’s genetic epistemology, I will argue that the revolution the former discerns is more comprehensive. Additionally, since the latter differ from cybernetic and radical traditions in their philosophical assumptions about society and its conditioning on knowledge, I will suggest that these assumptions must be considered to explain each constructivist program’s achievements and challenges.
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  46.  2
    E. Buchinger (2016). The Social and the Psychological: Conceptual Cybernetic Unification Vs Disciplinary Analysis? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):527-528.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: Psychology and sociology are distinct academic disciplines but nevertheless closely interrelated. What are the benefits of conceptual integration using a cybernetic approach and what are the strengths of progressing within the disciplinary paths?
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  47.  1
    P. A. Cariani (2016). Beware False Dichotomies. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):472-475.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: While I agree with most of the thrust of second-order cybernetics, I find the dichotomy of first- vs. second-order cybernetics conceptually and historically problematic because it implicitly conflates the cybernetics of nonhuman systems with realist conceptions of observer-free science. The dichotomy may be divisive and unhealthy for cybernetics by driving natural scientists and engineers out of the movement, thereby undermining the universality (...)
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  48.  2
    L. F. Christy Jr (2016). Opening the Black Box of Minds: Theatre as a Laboratory of System Unknowns. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):616-618.
    Open peer commentary on the article ““Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance” by Tom Scholte. Upshot: What von Foerster accomplished in raising the specter of second-order cybernetics now requires experimental design and the heavy lifting of theory to complete his quest for new ways of thinking. Scholte’s “black box theatre” points to research into non-trivial systems as a formal means of grasping living systems.
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  49.  1
    B. Clarke & D. Chansky (2016). Audience and Autopoiesis. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):610-612.
    Open peer commentary on the article ““Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance” by Tom Scholte. Upshot: Scholte’s approach to theater as a black box to be probed indicates that the vocabulary of second-order cybernetics provides an analytical repertoire adequate to the complexity of theatrical phenomena, from the construction of the play in rehearsal to the delivery of the play in performance. While it was hard to discern the precise details in some of Scholte’s experimental protocols, (...)
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  50.  4
    A. M. Collings (2016). Eigenforms, Coherence, and the Imaginal. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):501-502.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetics, Reflexivity and Second-Order Science” by Louis H. Kauffman. Upshot: This commentary reflects broadly on the concept of eigenform and reflexive domains, focusing on the idea that second-order science is neither the same as nor completely distinct from ordinary living.
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  51.  1
    M. de Sousa van Stralen (2016). Digital Design Research and Second-Order Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):586-587.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: I claim that the parallels between design research, second-order cybernetics and second-order science, as discussed by Sweeting in the target article, are more explicit in digital design. The discussion of SOC and SOS can point towards the creation of an epistemological foundation to digital design, where self-reflexivity and the inclusion of the observer are central questions.
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  52.  3
    J. dos Santos Cabral Filho (2016). Cybernetics Is the Answer, but What Was the Conversation About? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):587-589.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: It is suggested that the main arguments of the target article could be constructed in an easier way and would become even more compelling if a radical consideration of the systemic nature of design were taken into account.
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  53.  3
    T. R. Flanagan (2016). Second-Order Cybernetics Needs a Unifying Methodology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):475-478.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Theory without a strong methodology is stranded in philosophy. Principles devolved from theory can be applied to situations in the arena of practice in many ways; however, a continually improving science must refine its theories with feedback from data drawn from the use of continually improving sets of codified methodologies. Second-order cybernetics is contingent upon sense-making within sapient systems. A perspective on (...)
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  54.  2
    K. Forsythe (2016). Conserving the Disposition for Wonder. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):503-505.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetics, Reflexivity and Second-Order Science” by Louis H. Kauffman. Upshot: I demonstrate how Kauffman’s cogently argued article requires an act of imagination. I distinguish the act of perception, and its transformation as conception, as imagining. It is how we distinguish both the creation and exploration of our experience in context since, when we make a distinction, we also define the context, and this cannot be accomplished without circularity.
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  55.  2
    D. Gasparyan (2016). Consciousness as Self-Description in Differences. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):539-549.
    Context: Contemporary philosophy of consciousness has not yet come up with an acceptable theory of consciousness. Philosophers are still not able to reach agreement, and have come to a deadlock, since all possible approaches seem to have been exhausted and all the arguments repeatedly discussed. Problem: It may be assumed that the crisis has been caused by factors rooted in initial, wrong attitudes to knowledge or, more specifically, in epistemology focused on first-order cybernetics. The situation might be altered if philosophy (...)
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  56.  4
    D. Gasparyan (2016). Author’s Response: Phenomenology of the System: Intentionality, Differences, Understanding, and the Unity of Consciousness. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):564-571.
    Upshot: I focus on the group of ideas concerning the nature of consciousness as a phenomenological system, i.e., intentionality, differences, understanding, and the unity of consciousness. Also, I try to link this phenomenological system with second-order cybernetics and to clarify the scientific status of the self-descriptive theory of consciousness.
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  57.  1
    T. G. Gill (2016). Viva the Fundamental Revolution! Confessions of a Case Writer. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):478-481.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: The process of writing a discussion case study requires that a researcher become embedded in the domain being studied; it entails constructing a reality as it is perceived by the participants; it demands a high level of humility, since complex environments have a tendency to thwart rational reasoning processes. Unfortunately, these very characteristics lead conventional researchers to disparage case writing, even questioning (...)
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  58.  5
    D. Griffiths (2016). Understanding Design From a Second-Order Cybernetics Perspective: Is There a Place for Material Agency? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):581-583.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: This commentary supports Sweeting’s case for the relationship between the design tradition, second-order cybernetics and second-order science. It argues, however, that the extension of this argument to other intellectual traditions and areas of practice is complicated by differing views of material agency.
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  59.  2
    C. M. Herr (2016). What Can Cybernetics Learn From Design? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):583-585.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: Based on Sweeting’s central question of what design can bring to cybernetics, this commentary extends and adds further depth to the target article. Aspects discussed include the nature of practice in relation to design, the introduction of designerly ways of acting and thinking through acting to cybernetics, and the re-introduction of material experimentation typical of early cybernetics.
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  60.  3
    M. Hohl (2016). Rigor in Research, Honesty and Values. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):585-586.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: I reflect on the theme of honesty in research and discuss the adjoining requirements of rigor from an academic perspective. Central to my discussion is Glanville’s assertion that what researchers - from either science or design - presented was not what they actually thought and did.
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  61.  3
    A. Jelić (2016). Design Research in the Age of Neuroscience: The Value of the Second-Order Cybernetic Practice Perspective. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):589-590.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: This commentary highlights the relevance of understanding design research as a variety of second-order cybernetic practice. It does so by illustrating possible contributions of this view to several concrete issues surrounding the introduction of neuroscientific framework to architectural design. Based on the implications of Sweeting’s article, I suggest that the specific case of an interdisciplinary dialogue between architecture and cognitive science can (...)
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  62.  10
    L. H. Kauffman (2016). Cybernetics, Reflexivity and Second-Order Science. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):489-497.
    Context: Second-order cybernetics and its implications have been understood within the cybernetics community for some time. These implications are important for understanding the structure of scientific endeavor, and for researchers in other fields to see the reflexive nature of scientific research. This article is about the role of context in the creation and exploration of our experience. Problem: The purpose of this article is to point out the fundamental nature of the circularity in cybernetics and in scientific work in general. (...)
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  63.  2
    L. H. Kauffman (2016). Author’s Response: Distinction, Eigenform and the Epistemology of the Imagination. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):505-508.
    Upshot: Eigenform is a precondition for distinction and distinction is a precondition for eigenform. While my target article discussed eigenform and reflexivity, it could just as well have discussed distinctions and the emergence of distinctions. This theme was implicit in many of the comments. We make this circularity explicit for the sake of a deeper understanding.
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  64.  1
    V. Kenny (2016). Wielding the Cybernetic Scythe in the Blunting Undergrowth of Psychological Confusion. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):517-519.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: Given the fragmental state of what is known as “psychology,” I think it would be an error to attempt to “unify” such chaos and that efforts would be better spent dissolving the illusion that “psychology” exists and instead redesigning a genuinely psychological psychology that has relevance to daily living.
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  65.  5
    U. Kordeš (2016). Where Is Consciousness? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):552-554.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Consciousness as Self-Description in Differences” by Diana Gasparyan. Upshot: I join Gasparyan’s discussion on a possibility of having a theory of consciousness without ignoring the intrinsic self-referentiality of such an endeavour. My questions are: If we acknowledge the primacy of consciousness, is a theory of consciousness even possible? If so, what purpose would it serve? Explaining consciousness “from the inside” leads to some epistemological and methodological dilemmas, one of which is the encounter of phenomenal (...)
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  66.  3
    E. Landgraf (2016). Naturalism in Improvisation and Embodiment. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):613-615.
    Open peer commentary on the article ““Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance” by Tom Scholte. Upshot: This commentary adds historical perspective to the use of improvisation and conversation as models for the promotion of naturalism in acting. It wants to denaturalize naturalism and the concept of embodiment in support of Scholte’s reconceptualization of the naturalist theatre, and concludes with a reflection on the societal function of art and theatre today.
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  67.  3
    A. Leonard (2016). Obstacles and Opportunities in the Future of Second-Order Cybernetics and Other Compatible Methods. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):466-467.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: This commentary looks at the parallel developments in contiguous fields that include and encourage multiple viewpoints and the validity of multiple positions. I contend that necessity will overcome the resistance to disturbing the status quo of power structures when the stakes become high enough.
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  68.  4
    S. Levin (2016). Consciousness as Self-Description and the Inescapability of Reduction. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):561-562.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Consciousness as Self-Description in Differences” by Diana Gasparyan. Upshot: I argue that a philosophy of consciousness refocused on second-order cybernetics in the way proposed by Gasparyan could not replace the reductionist program because the question of reduction would arise again within the framework of such an approach.
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  69.  3
    M. R. Lissack (2016). Shed the Name to Find Second-Order Success: Renaming Second-Order Cybernetics to Rescue its Essence. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):470-472.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science” by Stuart A. Umpleby. Upshot: Buried in the jargon of constructivism and cybernetics lies the essence of what second-order cybernetics can do for its practitioners. The labels and names get in the way; to move forward we must refocus on that essence - which is to ask always how context matters.
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  70.  2
    M. R. Lissack (2016). Finally Understanding Eigenforms. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):499-500.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetics, Reflexivity and Second-Order Science” by Louis H. Kauffman. Upshot: One of cybernetics most confusing and least understood concepts is that of the eigenform. With this article Kauffman has enabled a clear understanding of the concept as “the coherence of a situation that allows a distinction to be made.”.
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  71.  1
    R. J. Martin (2016). The Importance - and the Difficulty - of Moving Beyond Linear Causality. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):521-524.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: This commentary considers linear causality as an underlying model in science and in psychology and the difficulty of changing paradigms to include circularity and other concepts.
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  72.  2
    A. Müller (2016). Does Second-Order Cybernetics Provide a Framework for Theatre Studies? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):618-619.
    Open peer commentary on the article ““Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance” by Tom Scholte. Upshot: Scholte’s attempt to link theatre studies with cybernetics faces at least two problems: historically, there could not have been any direct influence between these two fields; and conceptually, do we need second-order cybernetics, and the concept of the black box in particular, to account for the Stanislavski system?
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  73.  2
    K. H. Müller & A. Riegler (2016). Mapping the Varieties of Second-Order Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):443-454.
    Context: Although second-order cybernetics was proposed as a new way of cybernetic investigations around 1970, its general status and its modus operandi are still far from obvious. Problem: We want to provide a new perspective on the scope and the currently available potential of second-order cybernetics within today’s science landscapes. Method: We invited a group of scholars who have produced foundational work on second-order cybernetics in recent years, and organized an open call for new approaches to second-order cybernetics. The accepted (...)
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  74.  2
    K. Pavlov-Pinus (2016). Theorizing Agents: Their Games, Hermeneutical Tools and Epistemic Resources. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):554-557.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Consciousness as Self-Description in Differences” by Diana Gasparyan. Upshot: The aim of my commentary is to support some of Gasparyan’s ideas and to reformulate them in a more constructive way in terms of both formalized hermeneutical procedures and networks and in the light of game-theory approaches.
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  75.  3
    J. Pickering (2016). Self-Description Alone Will Not Account for Qualia. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):559-561.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Consciousness as Self-Description in Differences” by Diana Gasparyan. Upshot: The first part of Gasparyan’s article usefully shows how problems must arise if consciousness is approached as if it were a phenomenon separate from the observer. The second part suggests a change of approach from first- to second-order cybernetics will solve these problems. While this, too, is helpful, it is, in essence, an epistemological device that requires something else in order to engage with the fundamental (...)
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  76.  2
    B. Pierce (2016). How Can Meaning Be Grounded Within a Closed Self-Referential System? Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):557-559.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Consciousness as Self-Description in Differences” by Diana Gasparyan. Upshot: The account, in the target article, of consciousness as a self-contained, self-referential autopoietic system faces a potential problem when we seek to ground meaning and norms. I will discuss three ways in which meaning can be grounded, the last of which requires reasons for action to be grounded from a subjective point of view, with the qualitative character of affective valence performing a regress-stopping role. I (...)
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  77.  1
    B. Porr (2016). “Truthful” Acting Emerges Through Forward Model Development. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):612-613.
    Open peer commentary on the article ““Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance” by Tom Scholte. Upshot: My aim is to show that “truthful” acting that emerges through improvisation is equivalent to the development of mutual forward models in the actors. If these models match those of the audience members, this is perceived as “truthful.”.
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  78.  2
    L. D. Richards (2016). The Many Varieties of Experimentation in Second-Order Cybernetics: Art, Science, Craft. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):621-622.
    Open peer commentary on the article ““Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance” by Tom Scholte. Upshot: Scholte proposes using the theatre as a laboratory for experimenting with ideas in second-order cybernetics, adding to the repertoire of approaches for advancing this way of thinking. Second-order cybernetics, as art, science and craft, raises questions about the forms of experimentation most useful in such a laboratory. Theatre provides an opportunity to “play” with the dynamics of human interactions and (...)
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  79.  3
    A. Schetz (2016). The Non-Relationality of Consciousness. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):562-564.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Consciousness as Self-Description in Differences” by Diana Gasparyan. Upshot: I focus on Gasparyan’s claim that consciousness should be understood analogously to the performative speech acts. I am inclined to agree with her position, but shall, at the same time, try to show that there is no need to maintain a relational character of consciousness, where the relation would be taking place between an act of consciousness and its content. A non-relational character of consciousness could (...)
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  80.  1
    T. Scholte (2016). Design Cycles: Conversing with Lawrence Halprin. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):579-581.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice” by Ben Sweeting. Upshot: This commentary adds environmental architect Lawrence Halprin to Sweeting’s list of examples of design research as second-order cybernetic practice.
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  81.  3
    T. Scholte (2016). “Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):598-610.
    Context: The thoroughly second-order cybernetic underpinnings of naturalist theatre have gone almost entirely unremarked in the literature of both theatre studies and cybernetics itself. As a result, rich opportunities for the two fields to draw mutual benefit and break new ground through both theoretical and empirical investigations of these underpinnings have, thus far, gone untapped. Problem: The field of cybernetics continues to remain academically marginalized for, among other things, its alleged lack of experimental rigor. At the same time, the field (...)
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  82.  1
    T. Scholte (2016). Author’s Response: “Playing With Dynamics”: Procedures and Possibilities for a Theatre of Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):623-629.
    Upshot: Operational concepts underpinning a proposed cybersemiotic theatrical laboratory are further refined while questions regarding its experimental orientation remain.
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  83.  2
    T. Schönwälder-Kuntze (2016). Remarks From a Continental Philosophy Point of View. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):497-499.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetics, Reflexivity and Second-Order Science” by Louis H. Kauffman. Upshot: The commentary focuses on some similarities between Kauffman’s remarks on reflective, self-referential science, Kant’s “Copernican turn” and the historicization of knowledge within “continental philosophy.”.
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  84.  1
    B. Scott (2016). Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):509-517.
    Context: The field of psychology consists of many specialist domains of activity, which lack shared foundations. This means that the field as a whole lacks conceptual coherence. Problem: The aim of the article is to show how second-order cybernetics can provide both foundations and a unifying conceptual framework for psychology. Method: The field of psychology is overviewed. There is then a demonstration of how cybernetics can provide both foundations and a unifying conceptual framework. This entails defining some key cybernetics concepts (...)
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  85.  2
    B. Scott (2016). Author’s Response: On Becoming and Being a Cybernetician. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):532-538.
    Upshot: I discuss further why my proposals may not be taken up by all and say more about their usefulness, my understanding of what it is to be a cybernetician and the underlying coherent form that I see amongst different “versions” of cybernetics. I also elaborate on what is social about psychosocial unities and elaborate their relevance for studies of social systems.
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  86.  1
    T. Stingl de Vasconcelos Guedes (2016). Second Thoughts on Cybernetic Unifications. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):528-530.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: While Scott’s perspective is an inspiring attempt to unify psychology, much more impact from second-order cybernetics would be needed to build an appropriate and comprehensive cybernetic framework to unify an actor-based field such as psychology. In particular, I identify three aspects that need to be addressed: the problem of levels, the problem of multiple-level dynamics, and the problem of being sufficiently different.
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  87.  2
    L. Šugman Bohinc (2016). Cybernetics and Synergetics as Foundations for Complex Approach Towards Complexities of Life. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):530-532.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Cybernetic Foundations for Psychology” by Bernard Scott. Upshot: Based on my personal and professional experiences as a university teacher of social work, systemic psychotherapy, and education, I suggest the concepts of third-order cybernetics and synergetics as a support to creating a more unified and integrated framework of psychology to better understand and deal with complex, self-organizing systems.
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  88.  2
    B. Sweeting (2016). Design Research as a Variety of Second-Order Cybernetic Practice. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):572-579.
    Context: The relationship between design and science has shifted over recent decades. One bridge between the two is cybernetics, which offers perspectives on both in terms of their practice. From around 1980 onwards, drawing on ideas from cybernetics, Glanville has suggested that rather than apply science to design, it makes more sense to understand science as a form of design activity, reversing the more usual hierarchy between the two. I return to review this argument here, in the context of recent (...)
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  89.  1
    B. Sweeting (2016). Author’s Response: Beyond Application. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):591-597.
    Upshot: I reinforce the idea of broad connections between cybernetics, design and science that become apparent when the messy processes implicit in each are reflected on more explicitly. In so doing, I treat design not as a field in which cybernetic ideas are to be applied, but one in which they are reflected on and pursued.
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  90.  1
    B. Sweeting (2016). A Theatre for Exploring the Cybernetic. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):619-620.
    Open peer commentary on the article ““Black Box” Theatre: Second-Order Cybernetics and Naturalism in Rehearsal and Performance” by Tom Scholte. Upshot: The parallels that Scholte has drawn between cybernetics and theatre open up a new avenue for exploring cybernetic ideas. This complements the way that cybernetics has invoked design as a way of questioning the relationship between cybernetics and action.
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  91.  9
    S. A. Umpleby (2016). Second-Order Cybernetics as a Fundamental Revolution in Science. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):455-465.
    Context: The term “second-order cybernetics” was introduced by von Foerster in 1974 as the “cybernetics of observing systems,” both the act of observing systems and systems that observe. Since then, the term has been used by many authors in articles and books and has been the subject of many conference panels and symposia. Problem: The term is still not widely known outside the fields of cybernetics and systems science and the importance and implications of the work associated with second-order cybernetics (...)
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  92.  3
    S. A. Umpleby (2016). Author’s Response: Struggling to Define an Identity for Second-Order Cybernetics. Constructivist Foundations 11 (3):481-488.
    Upshot: Second-order cybernetics is an important field for the scientific enterprise but it has difficulty explaining itself to those outside the field and defining itself to those inside the field.
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  93.  7
    N. F. Barrett (2016). What Is at Stake in the Disagreement Between Interactivity and Enaction? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):249-251.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Interactivity and Enaction in Human Cognition” by Matthew Isaac Harvey, Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen & Sune Vork Steffensen. Upshot: To sort out their differences with enactive theory, interactivity theorists would do better to focus on operational closure only insofar as it constitutes a condition of intrinsic normativity or self-regulated coupling.
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  94.  24
    M. Beaton (2016). Sensorimotor Direct Realism: How We Enact Our World. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):265-276.
    Context: Direct realism is a non-reductive, anti-representationalist theory of perception lying at the heart of mainstream analytic philosophy, where it is currently generating a lot of interest. For all that, it is widely held to be both controversial and anti-scientific. On the other hand, the sensorimotor theory of perception initially generated a lot of interest within enactive philosophy of cognitive science, but has arguably not yet delivered on its initial promise. Problem: I aim to show that the sensorimotor theory and (...)
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  95.  12
    M. Beaton (2016). Author’s Response: The Personal Level in Sensorimotor Theory. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):289-297.
    Upshot: I offer responses to the commentaries on my target article in five short sections. The first section, about the plurality of lived worlds, concerns issues of quite general interest to readers of this journal. The second section presents some reasons for rejecting “enabling” as well as “constitutive” representational approaches to understanding the mind. In the remaining three sections, I clarify aspects of sensorimotor direct realism relating to the self, qualia, counterfactuals, and the notion of “mastery.”.
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  96.  9
    M. Beaton (2016). Crossing the Explanatory Gap by Legwork, Not by Fiat. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):364-366.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Never Mind the Gap: Neurophenomenology, Radical Enactivism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness” by Michael D. Kirchhoff & Daniel D. Hutto. Upshot: I strongly agree with Kirchhoff and Hutto that consciousness and embodied action are one and the same, but I disagree when they say this identity cannot be fully explained and must simply be posited. Here I attempt to sketch the outlines of just such an explanation.
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  97.  5
    J. M. Bishop (2016). Phenomenal Promiscuity. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):284-285.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Sensorimotor Direct Realism: How We Enact Our World” by Michael Beaton. Upshot: Sensorimotor direct realism is too promiscuous in its account of sensation.
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  98.  14
    M. Bitbol & E. Antonova (2016). On the Too Often Overlooked Radicality of Neurophenomenology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):354-356.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Never Mind the Gap: Neurophenomenology, Radical Enactivism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness” by Michael D. Kirchhoff & Daniel D. Hutto. Upshot: We point out that the significance of the neurophenomenological approach to the “hard problem” of consciousness is underrated and misunderstood by the authors of the target article. In its original version, neurophenomenology implies nothing less than a change in our own being to dispel the mere sense that there is a problem to (...)
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  99.  6
    P. A. Cariani (2016). Learning of New Percept-Action Mappings Is a Constructive Process of Goal-Directed Self-Modification. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):322-324.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: In my view, the clash between ecological psychology, enactivism, and constructivism in general has more to do with irreconcilable metaphysical and theoretical incommensurabilities than disagreements about specific mechanisms or processes of perception. Even with mutual enabling of action and perception, some internal process of self-modification is still needed if novel behavior is to be adequately explained.
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  100.  4
    F. Cummins (2016). Enaction, and Its Relation to Science in an Objective Key. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):245-246.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Interactivity and Enaction in Human Cognition” by Matthew Isaac Harvey, Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen & Sune Vork Steffensen. Upshot: Enaction, as a paradigm, is still negotiating its position with respect to science done in an objective key. Some of the problems identified by the authors arise by treating enactive descriptions as if they were realist accounts. Negotiating a resolution here will demand progress all round.
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  101.  9
    T. J. Davis & M. T. Turvey (2016). One World, Multiple Organisms: Specificity /Autocatakinetics Versus Enactivism/Autopoiesis. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):330-332.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: We extend the authors’ arguments on direct perception, specificity, and foundational principles to concerns for theories of joint action. We argue for the usefulness of the affordance concept in an ecological theory of social interaction; highlighting linkages between theories of affordance-based behavior and fundamental, physical principles.
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  102.  12
    H. De Jaegher (2016). Intersubjectivity in the Study of Experience. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):393-395.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Going Beyond Theory: Constructivism and Empirical Phenomenology” by Urban Kordeš. Upshot: I propose that getting the empirical study of subjective experience off to a good start requires an intersubjective approach, in both theory and method, where intersubjectivity is understood not in the standard science way of verification by others, but rather as participation in the investigation of how experience transforms when examining it together. I argue that this will greatly help do justice to and (...)
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  103.  4
    P. De Jesus (2016). Sweeping Anthropomorphism Under the MAT. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):216-218.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn” by Mario Villalobos & Dave Ward. Upshot: Villalobos and Ward reappraise enactivism’s “Jonasian turn” and discover an untenable anthropomorphism at its core. As a corrective to this, the authors propose a Maturanian-inspired account of experience that could accommodate central enactive insights while avoiding anthropomorphism. In this commentary, I will delve a bit deeper into Villalobos and Ward’s treatment of anthropomorphism. In so doing, I will show (...)
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  104.  5
    M. de Pinedo (2016). The Ontology of Perception: Agency, Evolution and Representationalism. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):332-334.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: The aim of my commentary is to complement some of the main points defended in the target article. In particular, I want to explore further the central role of agent-level explanations and of evolution for our understanding of a meaningful environment. I finish by wondering whether an excessive focus on ontological questions could be problematic for a proper defence of (...)
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  105.  9
    E. A. Di Paolo (2016). Across the Uncanny Valley: The Ecological, the Enactive, and the Strangely Familiar. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):327-329.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: I contrast enactivist and ecological perspectives on some of the themes raised by the authors. I discuss some of their worries about the notion of sense-making and other epistemological aspects of enactivism.
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  106.  5
    D. Dotov (2016). Perception-Action Mutuality Does Not Obviate Emergence or the Animal’s Active Role in the Perceptual Act. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):308-309.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: The main goal of this commentary is to make more discriminative the comparison between enactive and ecological theories of perception. Emergence at the level of the animal-environment system might be playing the role attributed to mental construction in basic perceptual processes. If correct, this would render some forms of enactivism compatible with the theoretical tenets of the target article.
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  107.  5
    R. D. Ellis (2016). Enactive Consciousness and Gendlin’s Dream Analysis. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):425-427.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Exploring the Depth of Dream Experience: The Enactive Framework and Methods for Neurophenomenological Research” by Elizaveta Solomonova & Xin Wei Sha. Upshot: A neurophenomenological approach to the enactive account of consciousness in general is supported by an account of how the brain functions in creating imagery of non-present objects and situations. Three types of non-sensory imagery are needed to ground our consciousness of sensory imagery: proprioceptive imagery, motor imagery, and what Eugene Gendlin calls the (...)
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  108.  4
    T. Froese (2016). Interactivity Should Aim to Extend, Not Reject, the Conceptual Foundations of Enaction. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):247-249.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Interactivity and Enaction in Human Cognition” by Matthew Isaac Harvey, Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen & Sune Vork Steffensen. Upshot: Enaction is a diverse research program and some of its texts can be interpreted in terms of a critical contrast to interactivity. Yet much of the former has already started to move in a direction favored by the latter: toward systematic studies of how human activity is shaped by social, cultural, and technological influences. Interactivity could therefore help (...)
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  109.  4
    M. F. Fultot (2016). What Kind of Epistemic Activity is Expert Introspection? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):397-398.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Going Beyond Theory: Constructivism and Empirical Phenomenology” by Urban Kordeš. Upshot: A constructivist epistemology might help us better understand what kind of knowledge expert introspection cannot deliver. Indeed, there are well-known trade-offs with regard to the insights that can be gained through introspection. If trivialization is to be avoided, then it should be assumed that, contrary to standard science, introspection just is not a declarative kind of knowledge.
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  110.  6
    M. F. Fultot, L. Nie & C. Carello (2016). Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):298-307.
    Context: The dominant approach to the study of perception is representational/computational, with an emphasis on the achievements of the brain and the nervous system, which are taken to construct internal models of the world. Alternatives include ecological, embedded, embodied, and enactivist approaches, all of which emphasize the centrality of action in understanding perception. Problem: Despite sharing many theoretical commitments that lead to a rejection of the classical approach, the alternatives are characterized by important contrasts and points of divergence. Here we (...)
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  111.  6
    M. F. Fultot, L. Nie & C. Carello (2016). Authors’ Response: Complementarity of Symmetry and Asymmetry. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):335-345.
    Upshot: Gibsonian and enactivist thinkers appear to diverge primarily with respect to the emphasis placed on the contributions of the organism to perception-action. Enactivists claim that a fundamental asymmetry in the organism-environment relationship should be credited for the existence of meaning in the world. Gibsonians counter that theory must reckon with both the asymmetry and symmetry between organism and environment as well as with the role of specificational information in underwriting their coordination.
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  112.  4
    R. Gahrn-Andersen & M. I. Harvey (2016). Phenomenological Teleology and Human Interactivity. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):224-226.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn” by Mario Villalobos & Dave Ward. Upshot: We argue that Villalobos and Ward’s criticism misses two crucial aspects of Varelian enactivism. These are, first, that enactivism attempts to offer a rigorous scientific justification for its teleological claims, and second, that enactivism in fact pays too little attention to the nature of human phenomenology and intentionality, rather than anthropomorphically over-valuing it.
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  113.  4
    P. Gaitsch (2016). Modern Anthropomorphism and Phenomenological Method. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):220-221.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn” by Mario Villalobos & Dave Ward. Upshot: As a reply to the criticism that anthropomorphism and modern science are incompatible, targeting Jonasian phenomenology and Varelian enactivism, I suggest considering the concept of modern anthropomorphism, which seems prima facie compatible with the pluralistic situation of today’s life sciences. My further claim is that the phenomenological method is intrinsically linked with this sort of anthropomorphism.
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  114.  10
    S. Gallagher (2016). Identity or Dynamic Structure? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):363-364.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Never Mind the Gap: Neurophenomenology, Radical Enactivism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness” by Michael D. Kirchhoff & Daniel D. Hutto. Upshot: It is not clear what Kirchhoff and Hutto mean by identity when they claim that there is no gap between the phenomenal and the physical. Understanding the relation between causation and diachronic constitution, I suggest that phenomenal-physical existence is better characterized as a dynamically articulated form, structure, or gestalt.
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  115.  3
    H. Gash (2016). The Epistemological Dance: Difference, Experience and Representation. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):280-282.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Sensorimotor Direct Realism: How We Enact Our World” by Michael Beaton. Upshot: Accepting the biological origins and limits of what we know is a foundation stone of radical constructivist research. A corollary is that RC considers realism as allowing an impossible comparison between knowledge and reality. Recent works such as that presented in the target article have a more nuanced position in relation to “reality.” Points of similarity and difference between RC and direct realism (...)
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  116.  6
    D. Gasparyan (2016). Not to Avoid But Legitimize: Why the Gap Could Be Natural For the Enactive World. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):356-358.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Never Mind the Gap: Neurophenomenology, Radical Enactivism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness” by Michael D. Kirchhoff & Daniel D. Hutto. Upshot: I show that the gap problem is of no threat to the enactivist approach; moreover, if the enactivism model is thoroughly thought over through extending ontology, it may turn out that the gap should be naturally built in the wholeness of the world at the level of its self-cognition.
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  117.  4
    J. C. González (2016). Blurring the Differences Between the Dream, Perceptual and Hallucinatory Experiences Is Not the Answer. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):417-419.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Exploring the Depth of Dream Experience: The Enactive Framework and Methods for Neurophenomenological Research” by Elizaveta Solomonova & Xin Wei Sha. Upshot: Enaction and neurophenomenology are indeed appropriate and productive theoretical and methodological tools for studying perception. But moving from the perceptual domain to the hallucinatory and dreaming domain with these tools requires a prior careful examination of the similarities and differences across these domains. The authors point in the right direction for studying dream (...)
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  118.  4
    X. A. González-Grandón (2016). The Gap Or Not The Gap: Is That The Neurophenomenological Question? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):359-361.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Never Mind the Gap: Neurophenomenology, Radical Enactivism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness” by Michael D. Kirchhoff & Daniel D. Hutto. Upshot: Kirchhoff and Hutto argue that the metaphysical commitments of neurophenomenology, as formulated by Varela in 1996, endorse a form of non-reductionism, which assumes and does not resolve the hard problem of consciousness. Although I share Kirchhoff and Hutto’s conceptual concern, I disagree that denying the gap between the phenomenal and the physical, opting (...)
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  119.  4
    D. G. Gozli (2016). Phenomenology as Critique, Discovery, and Justification. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):389-391.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Going Beyond Theory: Constructivism and Empirical Phenomenology” by Urban Kordeš. Upshot: Consistent with constructivism, phenomenology attempts to ground knowledge in an understanding of subjectivity. Although the phenomenological method can serve as a source of new insights and important critique of the conventional modes of understanding, the method’s effectiveness in the context of justification remains problematic.
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  120.  5
    M. I. Harvey, R. Gahrn-Andersen & S. V. Steffensen (2016). Interactivity and Enaction in Human Cognition. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):234-245.
    Context: Distributed language and interactivity are central members of a set of concepts that are rapidly developing into rigorous, exciting additions to 4E cognitive science. Because they share certain assumptions and methodological commitments with enactivism, the two have sometimes been confused; additionally, while enactivism is a well-developed paradigm, interactivity has relied more on methodological development and on a set of focal examples. Problem: The goal of this article is to clarify the core conceptual commitments of both interactivity-based and enactive approaches (...)
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  121.  3
    M. I. Harvey, R. Gahrn-Andersen & S. V. Steffensen (2016). Authors’ Response: Explanatory Pluralism and Precise Conceptual Development. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):254-264.
    Upshot: We agree with commenters that enactivism incorporates a broad variety of methodologies, metaphysical stances, concepts, and investigative approaches, and that this is a good thing. However, we remain concerned that autonomy and sense-making are problematic concepts for post-Varelian enactivism, and that they form the foundations of a conceptual framework that may hamper the development of effective explanations for cognitive activity, as well as the paradigmatic aspirations of this particular enactivist approach.
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  122.  5
    V. Havelange (2016). Constitution: Epistemological and Ontological. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):398-399.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Going Beyond Theory: Constructivism and Empirical Phenomenology” by Urban Kordeš. Upshot: Kordeš’s target article proposes to link constructivism and phenomenology, to their mutual benefit. In order to further this endeavour, this commentary suggests that it is important to distinguish two levels of constitution: the epistemological and the ontological. This may serve to clarify difficulties about achieving intersubjective validation.
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  123.  4
    M. Heras-Escribano (2016). Embracing the Environment: Ecological Answers for Enactive Problems. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):309-312.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: This commentary highlights some controversial aspects of enactivism and ecological psychology, specifically the notions of subjectivity and ecological information. I argue that, instead of choosing between them, both theories could complement each other at different levels of analysis in a single research framework for explaining cognition from a situated perspective.
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  124.  4
    M. D. Kirchhoff (2016). Dreaming: Ontological and Methodological Considerations. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):420-423.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Exploring the Depth of Dream Experience: The Enactive Framework and Methods for Neurophenomenological Research” by Elizaveta Solomonova & Xin Wei Sha. Upshot: This commentary focuses on an ontological claim made by the authors of this target article: that perceiving, imagining and dreaming are inseparable. It explores how best to understand this “inseparability condition.” It is shown that the evidence needed to justify a strict reading of the inseparability condition is lacking, while there is room (...)
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  125.  15
    M. D. Kirchhoff & D. D. Hutto (2016). Never Mind the Gap: Neurophenomenology, Radical Enactivism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):346-353.
    Context: Neurophenomenology, as formulated by Varela, offers an approach to the science of consciousness that seeks to get beyond the hard problem of consciousness. There is much to admire in the practical approach to the science of consciousness that neurophenomenology advocates. Problem: Even so, this article argues, the metaphysical commitments of the enterprise require a firmer foundation. The root problem is that neurophenomenology, as classically formulated by Varela, endorses a form of non-reductionism that, despite its ambitions, assumes rather than dissolves (...)
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  126.  7
    M. D. Kirchhoff & D. D. Hutto (2016). Authors’ Response: Mind Never The Gap, Redux. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):370-374.
    Upshot: We respond to three main challenges that the commentaries have raised. First, we argue that to deal successfully with the hard problem of consciousness, it is not enough to posit a remedy by which to move beyond the hard problem. Second, we argue that it makes no sense to explain identity. Yet this does not commit us to definitions by fiat. The strategy we pursue here, and in the target article, is not to explain identity but to explain away (...)
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  127.  5
    U. Kordeš (2016). Going Beyond Theory: Constructivism and Empirical Phenomenology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):375-385.
    Context: Epistemologically, constructivism has reached its goals, particularly by emphasizing the idea of participatory observation, circularity, and the fact that construction is based on experience. However, rather than research, the main occupation of constructivists and second-order cyberneticians seems to lie in making the case for their epistemological idea, which has been exhausted in many aspects. Purpose: To counteract this exhaustion and an increasingly apparent lack of energy, it is argued that constructivism requires a dedicated field of research, a field where (...)
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  128.  5
    U. Kordeš (2016). Author’s Response: Persevering with the Non-Trivial. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):400-406.
    Upshot: The response starts with a clarification of certain points that commentators found insufficiently articulated and then goes on to discuss some of the suggested solutions, all of which are seen as welcome improvements to the original proposal. The need for establishing a research environment acknowledging and nurturing the non-trivial character of experience is emphasised.
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  129.  5
    U. Kordeš (2016). Dreams: An Experimental Laboratory of Phenomenology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):423-425.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Exploring the Depth of Dream Experience: The Enactive Framework and Methods for Neurophenomenological Research” by Elizaveta Solomonova & Xin Wei Sha. Upshot: Solomonova and Sha propose a research programme for the study of dreaming based on the theoretical framework of enactivism. This commentary intends to demonstrate several unclear points connected to the theoretical framework applied and the proposed methodological solutions. By considering the potential reach of various phenomenological approaches in the research of dreams, I (...)
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  130.  5
    D. Lloyd (2016). Not-Quite-So Radical Enactivism. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):361-363.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Never Mind the Gap: Neurophenomenology, Radical Enactivism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness” by Michael D. Kirchhoff & Daniel D. Hutto. Upshot: Enactivism is a welcome development in cognitive science, but its “radical” rejection of representation poses problems for capturing phenomenality. The totality of our interactions exceeds our awareness, so circumscribing the activity that constitutes consciousness seems to require representational guidance.
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  131.  3
    R. Lowe (2016). The Role of Allostasis in Sense-Making: A Better Fit for Interactivity Than Cybernetic-Enactivism? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):251-254.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Interactivity and Enaction in Human Cognition” by Matthew Isaac Harvey, Rasmus Gahrn-Andersen & Sune Vork Steffensen. Upshot: In contrasting an interactivity account alternative to variants on the enactive approach, the authors discuss the role of sense-making. They claim that their interactivity perspective, unlike enactive approaches, accounts for a dependency on “non-local” resources characteristic of many organisms. I draw attention to the cybernetic-enactivist perspective on homeostatic sense-making, which may fundamentally fail to explain the operationally open (...)
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  132.  3
    O. Lukitsch & C. Schreiber (2016). Down the “Preferred Path”: Dispositional Flexibility Constitutes Phenomenal Character. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):367-368.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Never Mind the Gap: Neurophenomenology, Radical Enactivism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness” by Michael D. Kirchhoff & Daniel D. Hutto. Upshot: We agree with Kirchhoff and Hutto that phenomeno-physical identities have to be motivated to approach the hard problem of consciousness. We propose that REC will do a better job in motivating these identities if intentionality and phenomenality are considered inseparable. We suggest that the notion of dispositional flexibility motivates these phenomeno-intentional identities and (...)
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  133.  3
    O. Markič (2016). In Search of a Remedy. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):385-387.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Going Beyond Theory: Constructivism and Empirical Phenomenology” by Urban Kordeš. Upshot: The naturalistic paradigm, which relies on the third-person perspective and the exclusion of the observer, cannot accommodate human experience in its scientific enterprise. I present a critical overview of Kordeš’s proposal to merge the constructivist epistemological framework and empirical phenomenology. I doubt whether constructivism actually requires empirical grounding, but I do see constructivism with instrumentalism as a possible framework in which researchers will be (...)
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  134.  7
    H. R. Maturana (2016). Confusion of Reflective Domains? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):213-214.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn” by Mario Villalobos & Dave Ward. Upshot: I shall not address directly the article on which I am supposed to comment, and that I find very interesting, but I shall make four commentaries on the general subject of the confusion of domains in our reflection on biological and cultural phenomena.
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  135.  6
    M. McGann (2016). Enactivism and Ecological Psychology: Divided by Common Ground. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):312-315.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: Fultot, Nie, and Carello are correct that enactive researchers should be more aware of the research literature on ecological psychology, but their charge of mental construction is off-target. Enactivism and ecological psychology are compatible frameworks with different, complementary, emphases.
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  136.  4
    Katsunori Miyahara (2016). Missing Out On the Radicalism of Neurophenomenology? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):368-370.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Never Mind the Gap: Neurophenomenology, Radical Enactivism, and the Hard Problem of Consciousness” by Michael D. Kirchhoff & Daniel D. Hutto. Upshot: An exegetical worry about Kirchhoff and Hutto’s exposition of neurophenomenology is pointed out. Combining this exegetical critique with an examination of the “strict identity” in the strict identity thesis, I argue that there is more affinity between neurophenomenology and REC than they think.
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  137.  8
    M. Mossio (2016). How Far Can Sensorimotor Direct Realism Go? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):287-289.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Sensorimotor Direct Realism: How We Enact Our World” by Michael Beaton. Upshot: The target article convincingly argues in favor of the idea that the sensorimotor account of perception provides a positive scientific context for direct realism. In some cases, however, perception and experience do not seem to fit easily with sensorimotor direct realism. This raises a question of scope that requires further elaboration.
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  138.  4
    J. -L. Petit (2016). Is Intentionality Banned From Sciences of the Living Being? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):218-219.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn” by Mario Villalobos & Dave Ward. Upshot: This commentary questions an assumption in the target article to the effect that science prohibits projecting any intentional properties or entities outside of human experience.
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  139.  5
    J. Pickering (2016). Who is “We”? Some Observations on Sensorimotor Direct Realism. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):279-280.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Sensorimotor Direct Realism: How We Enact Our World” by Michael Beaton. Upshot: Sensorimotor direct realism may describe how animals engage with their surroundings. But human beings are not typical animals. Their engagement can be metaphorical as well as direct, in which case the theory has less plausibility.
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  140.  5
    B. Pierce (2016). The Role of External Objects in Perceptual Experience. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):285-287.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Sensorimotor Direct Realism: How We Enact Our World” by Michael Beaton. Upshot: This commentary is broadly sympathetic to the claims made in the target article. I start by questioning whether we can have direct access to an external reality in such a way that our experience is not intrinsically private. I then suggest that the argument for direct realism presented here is inconclusive with regard to whether external objects play a causal or a constitutive (...)
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  141.  4
    J. Proulx (2016). Living Different Enactivist Worlds: A Mathematics Education Researcher’s Point of View on Enactivism. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):226-227.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn” by Mario Villalobos & Dave Ward. Upshot: Villalobos and Ward’s distinctions between Varelian theories and Maturanian ones about anthropomorphism give rise to questions about what is or is not enactivism. This leads to recognition of an enactivist theoretical multiverse, and to embracing it as a way to advance theorizing along, and beyond, post-positivist lines.
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  142.  5
    E. B. Roesch (2016). In Search of a New Looking Glass: Cognitive Science Is Not Dead, It Is Just Asleep. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):419-420.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Exploring the Depth of Dream Experience: The Enactive Framework and Methods for Neurophenomenological Research” by Elizaveta Solomonova & Xin Wei Sha. Upshot: Solomonova and Sha draw inspiration from the work programme that sparked the enactive extension to cognitive science, and propose a framework for dream scientists. This case study for a renewed cognitive science highlights key points that are worth developing, in light of current practices in neuroscience.
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  143.  5
    A. Rosales-Lagarde (2016). Neurophenomenology’s Epistemological Locus and the Need to Consider Its Primitive Sources: Internal Processing and Development. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):427-429.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Exploring the Depth of Dream Experience: The Enactive Framework and Methods for Neurophenomenological Research” by Elizaveta Solomonova & Xin Wei Sha. Upshot: Neurophenomenology requires a first-person report at the sub-personal level. Thus, the neurophenomenology of dreaming and sleep can be figuratively located in a model of perspectives and levels of analysis. Even when Solomonova and Sha do admit creativity to explain bizarreness and emphasize dreams’ enaction and, especially, dreams’ perception-dependence, an innate and developmental framework (...)
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  144.  7
    A. Schiavio (2016). Enactive Affordances and the Interplay of Biological and Phenomenological Subjectivity. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):315-317.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: Enactive approaches highlight the deep interdependency of brains, action, agency, and environment in shaping the world we inhabit. This perspective goes beyond input-output models of cognition, postulating instead closed loops of action and perception framed by the agent-environment complementarity. As a unique, dynamical, system, no representational recovery is required for cognitive-behavioral experience to take place.
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  145.  23
    D. Silverman (2016). Representationalism and the Sensorimotor Theory. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):282-284.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Sensorimotor Direct Realism: How We Enact Our World” by Michael Beaton. Upshot: In light of the construal of sensorimotor theory offered by the target article, this commentary examines the role the theory should admit for internal representation.
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  146.  9
    E. Solomonova & X. W. Sha (2016). Exploring the Depth of Dream Experience: The Enactive Framework and Methods for Neurophenomenological Research. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):407-416.
    Context: Phenomenology and the enactive approach pose a unique challenge to dream research: during sleep one seems to be relatively disconnected from both world and body. Movement and perception, prerequisites for sensorimotor subjectivity, are restricted; the dreamer’s experience is turned inwards. In cognitive neurosciences, on the other hand, the generally accepted approach holds that dream formation is a direct result of neural activations in the absence of perception, and dreaming is often equated with “delusions.” Problem: Can enactivism and phenomenology account (...)
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  147.  4
    E. Solomonova & X. W. Sha (2016). Authors’ Response: Towards a Neurophenomenology of Embodied, Skillful Dreaming. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):432-442.
    Upshot: A successful program for an enactive view of dreaming would have to clarify phenomenal and neurophysiological similarities and differences between waking perception, imagination, and dreaming. An embodied and skillful view of the dream process would require careful investigation of somatic sources of dream content, including sensory incorporation, and global, indirect ways in which dream content reacts metaphorically to changes in bodily states. Neurophenomenology of dreams would benefit from developing dreaming-specific approaches to training researchers and participants in phenomenological methods.
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  148.  11
    Mog Stapleton (2016). Enactivism Embraces Ecological Psychology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):325-327.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: The authors of the target article seem on the one hand to want to reprimand enactivists for not embracing ecological psychology, and on the other, to criticise them for taking on board some - but not all - of the principles of ecological psychology. In this commentary, I argue that the claim that enactivists have not embraced ecological psychology is (...)
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  149.  3
    P. Steiner (2016). The Many Faces of Experience. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):395-397.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Going Beyond Theory: Constructivism and Empirical Phenomenology” by Urban Kordeš. Upshot: The priority Kordeš gives to empirical phenomenology in the empirical assessment and grounding of constructivism stems from a restrictive conception of experience that has been questioned by other proponents of what he calls the “phenomenological attitude.”.
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  150.  3
    J. Stewart (2016). Realities in the Plural. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):277-278.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Sensorimotor Direct Realism: How We Enact Our World” by Michael Beaton. Upshot: Direct realism can be better distinguished from objectivism and naïve realism, by recognizing the radical plurality of the incommensurable realities that can be enacted by living organisms in coupling with their environment.
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  151.  3
    T. Strle (2016). On the Necessity of Foundations, Intersubjectivity and Cognitive Science. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):387-389.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Going Beyond Theory: Constructivism and Empirical Phenomenology” by Urban Kordeš. Upshot: I discuss three of the target article’s topics that I find either problematic or important. First, I discuss a potentially dangerous consequence of claiming that empirical phenomenology necessarily calls for a constructivist foundation. Second, I consider the threat to intersubjective validation and the related problem that the author does not specify what technique one should use for training and collecting data in research on (...)
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  152.  4
    S. Taguchi (2016). Can the Lived Experience of Living Beings Be Approached Through Inference? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):215-216.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn” by Mario Villalobos & Dave Ward. Upshot: Villalobos and Ward seem to disclose a fundamental problem without solving it - a problem to which neither the Jonasian nor the Maturanian inference can offer a solution. It should be addressed by a phenomenological analysis of our basic experience of aliveness.
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  153.  3
    S. Torrance (2016). Varela’s Sixth Step: Teleology and the Re-Visioning of Science. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):221-224.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn” by Mario Villalobos & Dave Ward. Upshot: Jonas was not defending an unrestrained anthropomorphism but, rather, a “zoomorphism,” which offered a rigorous, considered view of the deep phylogenetic origins of purpose and mind. Jonas did not reject science per se, but an alienated, rigid conception of the latter. His work helped pave the way to a richer science of mind.
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  154.  3
    P. Vermersch (2016). Notes on the Coupling Between the Observer and the Observed in Psycho-Phenomenology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):391-393.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Going Beyond Theory: Constructivism and Empirical Phenomenology” by Urban Kordeš. Upshot: This commentary supports the view of the target article concerning the interest of taking into account the coupling between the observing scientist and the subject, and applying it in particular to the study of subjective experience. I propose to identify three aspects of coupling: the technical conditions of coupling between the observer and the subject being observed in order to guide introspection; the requirements (...)
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  155.  11
    M. Villalobos & D. Ward (2016). Lived Experience and Cognitive Science Reappraising Enactivism’s Jonasian Turn. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):204-212.
    Context: The majority of contemporary enactivist work is influenced by the philosophical biology of Hans Jonas. Jonas credits all living organisms with experience that involves particular “existential” structures: nascent forms of concern for self-preservation and desire for objects and outcomes that promote well-being. We argue that Jonas’s attitude towards living systems involves a problematic anthropomorphism that threatens to place enactivism at odds with cognitive science, and undermine its legitimate aims to become a new paradigm for scientific investigation and understanding of (...)
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  156.  10
    S. Vörös, T. Froese & A. Riegler (2016). Epistemological Odyssey: Introduction to Special Issue on the Diversity of Enactivism and Neurophenomenology. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):189-204.
    Context: In the past two decades, the so-called 4E approaches to the mind and cognition have been rapidly gaining in recognition and have become an integral part of various disciplines. Problem: Recently, however, questions have been raised as to whether, and to what degree, these different approaches actually cohere with one another. Specifically, it seems that many of them endorse mutually incompatible, perhaps even contradictory, epistemological and metaphysical presuppositions. Method: By retracing the roots of an alternative conception of mind and (...)
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  157.  4
    D. Ward & M. Villalobos (2016). Authors’ Response: Enactivism, Cognitive Science, and the Jonasian Inference. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):228-233.
    Upshot: In our target article we claimed that, at least since Weber and Varela, enactivism has incorporated a theoretical commitment to one important aspect of Jonas’s philosophical biology, namely its anthropomorphism, which is at odds with the methodological commitments of modern science. In this general reply we want to clarify what we mean by anthropomorphism, and explain why we think it is incompatible with science. We do this by spelling out what we call the “Jonasian inference,” i.e., the idea that (...)
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  158.  3
    K. Werner (2016). Presentation of the World: Gibson and Husserl on the Interplay Between the Objective and the Subjective. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):317-319.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: In this commentary, I focus on several issues concerning the notion of presentation. I argue that Fultot, Nie and Carello do not pay sufficient attention to these problems, despite the fact that Gibson, compared here with Husserl, may be regarded as one of those thinkers who made an important contribution to this.
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  159.  7
    J. M. Windt (2016). We Need to Go Deeper! Conceptual and Methodological Considerations on the Depth of Dream Experience. Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):429-432.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Exploring the Depth of Dream Experience: The Enactive Framework and Methods for Neurophenomenological Research” by Elizaveta Solomonova & Xin Wei Sha. Upshot: This commentary aims to sharpen the conceptual distinction between the breadth and the depth of dream experience. I discuss several possible readings and argue that the best one construes breadth and depth as distinct but complimentary research strategies distinguished not just by the kinds of evidence they rely on, but also by the (...)
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  160.  5
    K. Zahidi & J. V. Eemeren (2016). Radical Enactivism and Ecological Psychology: Friends or Foes? Constructivist Foundations 11 (2):320-322.
    Open peer commentary on the article “Perception-Action Mutuality Obviates Mental Construction” by Martin Flament Fultot, Lin Nie & Claudia Carello. Upshot: We examine whether there are any irreducible contradictions between ecological psychology and radical enactivism. We concentrate on two points of contention between the two approaches: the relevance of neural structures in understanding perception and the use of semantically loaded concepts in theorizing about perception.
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