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  1. Oscar Sheynin (2007). Markov: Integrity Is Just As Important As Scientific Merits. [REVIEW] NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (4):289-294.
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  2. Renate Tobies (2007). Zur Position von Mathematik Und Mathematiker/Innen in der Industrieforschung Vor 1945. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (4):241-270.
    The paper considers the status of mathematics and mathematicians in German industrial labs from the 1920s. As an example, we take the use of statistical methods in the electrical engineering company Osram in Berlin. In the United States, the former employee and member of a special mathematical research department of the Bell Telephone Laboratories, Walter Andrew Shewhart (1891–1967), is regarded as the father of statistical quality control. Although the first textbook on applications of mathematical statistics to problems of mass production (...)
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  3. Volker Wunderlich (2007). „Zur Selbstreproduktion Befähigte Substanzen“ Als Zelluläre Angriffsorte Chemischer Cancerogene. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (4):271-283.
    „Substances capable of self-reproduction“ as cellular targets of chemical carcinogens.In the course of studies on chemical carcinogenesis, which included animal experiments with a carcinogenic azo dye and a mathematical analysis of the observed effects, Hermann Druckrey and Karl Küpfmüller showed in 1948 that carcinogens induce heritable changes by targeting cellular „substances capable of self-reproduction“. The authors did not discuss the chemical nature of these substances which remained unclear for a long time thereafter. It was not until 1964 that deoxyribonucleic acid (...)
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  4. Hans Wußing (2007). Externalismus – Internalismus. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (4):284-288.
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  5. Caris-Petra Heidel (2007). „...In Erster Linie Nur Um Das Wohl Und Wehe der Zahnärzte“ – „Reichszahnärzteführer“ Ernst Stuck (1893–1974). NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (3):198-219.
    From the very beginning German dentists and their scientific and professional organizations were involved in the disastrous developments following the Nazi assumption of power of 1933. After purging and both organisational and ideological streamlining which had been comparatively rapidly accomplished in 1933/34 a development started which was characterized by extreme professional confrontation and lust for power in close entanglement with Nazi health policy objectives and deformation of scientific dentistry. A decisive role was assigned to the Reichszahnärzteführer Ernst Stuck (1893-1974) who (...)
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  6. Olivier Perru (2007). Réseaux Et Genèse de la Forme: Perspectives Épistémologiques. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (3):161-178.
    Our paper focuses on Stuart Kauffman’s theory from 1993 to 2004. Kauffman is looking for an explanation of the genesis of living beings by genetic networks. From interactions to cell types, Kauffman’s viewpoint is concerned with differentiation and self-organization as network’s properties. His approach of morphogenetic processes is interesting but it is insufficient. According to Sole, Fernandez and Kauffman [2003], networks would give an explanation of the diversity in patterns and cell types. Some other authors [as Perkins et al., 2004] (...)
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  7. Peter Schneck (2007). Die Editionsgeschichte der Wochenschrift Die Medicinische Reform (1848/49) Und der Briefwechsel Rudolf Virchows MIT Seinem Verleger Georg Reimer. [REVIEW] NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (3):179-197.
    The medical journal Medicinische Reform. Eine Wochenschrift edited by Rudolf Virchow and Rudolf Leubuscher in Berlin from July 1848 to June 1849 was in spite of its short life-time one of the most important and influential periodicals during the time of German revolution and medical reforms in the middle of the 19th century. The paper gives a view of the history of edition of this ephemeral but outstanding journal as an essential source for our knowledge of the development of social (...)
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  8. Klaus Barner (2007). Negative Größen Bei Diophant? Teil II. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (2):98-117.
    In this second part of “Negative Größen bei Diophant?” we start, as announced, by giving 33 places where Diophantus uses negative quantities as intermediate results; they appear as differences a − b of positive rational numbers, the subtrahend b being bigger than the minuend a; they each represent the (negative) basis $(\pi\lambda\varepsilon\upsilon\rho\acute{\alpha})$ of a square number $(\tau\varepsilon\tau\rho\acute{\alpha}\gamma\omega\nu o \zeta)$ , which is afterwards computed by the formula (a - b)2 = a 2 + b 2 - 2ab. Finally, we report (...)
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  9. Uwe Dathe (2007). „Philosophie Als Eigene Antwort Auf Die Frage Welt“. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (2):137-147.
    The important and influential mathematician Felix Hausdorff was also the author of several remarkable philosophical books and essays. About his unusual biography between philosophy and topology we have only little knowledge. We know only few personal documents and letters. Among Hausdorff’s letters that have been preserved (about 130), the letters and postcards to the librarian, translator and artist Franz Meyer in Jena (10) give an important insight into Hausdorff’s biography and his philosophical development. They also inform about his way from (...)
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  10. Jochen Richter & Axel Schmetzke (2007). Hugo Rheinhold's Philosophizing Monkey – a Modern Owl of Minerva. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (2):81-97.
    Originally created in 1892, Hugo Rheinhold’s sculpture “Monkey contemplating a human skull“ continues to attract a global audience. It is particularly appreciated by science ethicists, physical anthropologists and evolutionary biologists.This article explores the iconography of the sculpture, analyzes its iconology and discusses its message: an appeal to scientists – rendered through a witty, multilayered symbolism – to consider the ethical implications of their research. Biographical background information on the life of the German-Jewish artist and philosopher sheds further light on the (...)
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  11. Jürgen Schönbeck (2007). Samuel Reyher Und Sein In Teutscher Sprache Vorgestellter Euclides. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (2):118-136.
    In 1665 in the city of Kiel there was founded a new university called Christiana Albertina or Alma mater Chiloniensis. It was the only one in the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. One of the leading scientists of this academy was the mathematician Samuel Reyher (1635–1714) who didn’t teach mathematics only but also physics, and astronomy, and engineering, and jurisprudence. He was the author of a comprehensive Historia iurium universalis (1711) and of an extraordinary work Mathesis Mosaica (1679). But he (...)
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  12. Klaus Barner (2007). Negative Größen Bei Diophant? Teil I. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (1):18-49.
    In this paper which consists of two parts (Teil I and Teil II) we champion Diophantus of Alexandria and Isabella Bašmakova against Norbert Schappacher. In two publications ([Schappacher 1998a] and [Schappacher 1998b]) he puts forward inter alia two propositions: Questioning Diophantus’ originality he considers affirmatively the possibility that the Arithmetica are the joint work of a team of authors like Bourbaki. And he calls Bašmakova’s claim (in [Bašmakova 1972]) that Diophantus uses negative numbers, a nonsense , reproaching her for her (...)
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  13. Ingrid Kästner (2007). Johann von Oppolzer (1808–1871) Als Direktor der Medizinischen Klinik an der Universität Leipzig. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (1):50-61.
    Johann von Oppolzer (1808–1871) is known as one of the most influential representatives of the Vienna School of Medicine . However, little is known about Oppolzer’s short but significant work at the Leipzig Medical School (from October, 1848 to March, 1850). Being not only an excellent physician and an outstanding teacher in the field of internal medicine, he was very open-minded with respect to new developments in medicine. This is shown by documents found in the archives of the university of (...)
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  14. Gert Schubring (2007). Der Aufbruch Zum „Funktionalen Denken“: Geschichte des Mathematikunterrichts Im Kaiserreich. NTM International Journal of History and Ethics of Natural Sciences, Technology and Medicine 15 (1):1-17.
    By the end of the 19th century, mathematics teaching underwent a crisis of similar proportion in several European countries. Constrained by the values of classical Antiquity, which dominated in secondary education, mathematics was taught as a formal discipline enhancing elementary geometry and intended as some gymnastics of the mind. Moreover, a specific feature in Germany was that the country was split up into numerous independent states each having a separated educational system of its own. Many of these conferred an only (...)
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